but I had a particular loss in this defeat, that 1|| Three days after this mournful victory the never saw the King of Sweden after; for though || Saxons recovered the town of Leipsic by stratahis majesty sent a trumpet to reclaim us as pri- || gem. The Duke of Saxony's forces lay at Tor|| soners the very next day, yet I was not delivered, || gow, and perceiving the confusion the Imperial| zone scruple happening about exchanging till || ists were in at the news of the overthrow of their

arter the battle of Lutzen, where that gallant army, they resolved to attempt the recovery of prince lost his life. (Note 10.)

the town. The Imperial army arose from their camp about | They sent about twenty scattering troopers, eight or ten days after the king had removed, and who, preteoding to be Imperialists fled from the I was carried prisoner in the army till they sat | battle, were let in one by one; and still as they down to the siege of Coburg Castle, and then was came in they staid at the court of guard in the left with other prisoners of war, in the custody of port, entertaining the soldiers with discourse Colonel Spezuter, in a small castle near the camp about the fight, and how they escaped, and the called Neustadt.

I like, till the whole number being got in, at a Here we continued indifferently well treated, || watchword they fell on the guard, and cut them but could learn nothing of what action the armies all in pieces; and immediately opening the gate were upon, till the Duke of Friedland, having to three troops of Saxon horse, the town was been beaten off from the Castle of Coburg, || taken in a moment, marched into Saxony, and the prisoners were It was a welcome surprise to me, for I was sent for into the camp, as was said, in order to then at liberty of course, and the war being now be exchanged.

on another footing, as I thought, and the king no I came into the Imperial leaguer at the siege more, I resolved to quit the service. 1) of Leipsic, and within three days after the city. I had sent my man, as I have already noted,

was surrendered, and I got liberty to lodge at || into England, in order to bring over the troops my old quarters in the town upon my parole. my father had raised for the King of Sweden. || The King of Sweden was at the heels of the || He executed his commission so well, that he

Imperialists, for, finding Wallenstein resolved to landed with five troops at Embden in a very ruin the Elector of Saxony, the king had col good condition, and orders were sent them by lected as much of his divided army as he could, the king to join the Duke of Lunenburg's army, and came upon him just as he was going to be which they did at the siege of Boxthude, in the siege Torgaw.

Lower Saxony. Here, by long and very sharp As it is not my design to write a history of any service, they were most of them cut off; and more of these wars than I was actually concerned though they were several times recruited, yet I in, I shall only note, that, upon the king's ap understood there were not three full troops left. proach, Wallenstein halted, and likewise called The Duke of Saxe-Weimar, a gentleman of | all his troops together, for he apprehended the great courage, had the command of the army king wculd fall on him ; and we that were pri- | after the death of the king, and managed it with soners fancied the Imperial soldiers went un. || so much prudence, that all things were in as willingly out, for the very name of the King of || much order as could be expected after so great a Sweden was become terrible to them.. loss, for the Imperialists were everywhere beaten,

In short, they drew all the soldiers of the gar- || and Wallenstein never made any advantage of rison they could spare out of Leipsic, and sent the king's death. for Papenheim again, who was gone but three I waited on the duke at Hailbron, whither he days before with six thousand men on a private | was gone to meet the great Chancellor of Sweden, expedition.

where I paid him my respects, and desired he On the 10th of November the armies met on would bestow the remainder of my regiment on the plains of Lutzen-a long and bloody battle my friend Captain Fielding, which he did with was fought; the Imperialists were entirely routed | all the civility and readiness imaginable. I then and beaten, twelve thousand slain upon the spot, I took leave of my friend, and prepared to come their cannon, baggage, and two thousand prison into England. ers taken ; but the King of Sweden lost his life, | I shall only note, that at this diet the Protesbeing killed at the head of his troops in the be- || tant princes of the empire renewed their league ginning of the fight.

with one another, and with the crown of Sweden, It is impossible to describe the consternation and came to several regulations and conclusions the deatb of this conquering king struck into all for carrying on the war, which they afterwards the princes of Germany--the grief for him ex. prosecuted under the direction of the said Chanceeded all manner of human sorrow,

cellor of Sweden, All people looked upon themselves as ruined But it was not the work of a small difficulty, and swallowed up; the inhabitants of two thirds nor of a short time. Having been persuaded to of all Germany put themselves into mourning for |continue almost two years afterwards at Frankhim. When the ministers mentioned him in their fort, Hailbron, and thereabout, by the particular sermons or pravers, whole congregations would || friendship of that noble, wise man, and extraorburst out into tears. The Elector of Saxony ! dinary statesman, Axell Oxenstern, Chancellor was utterly inconsolable, and would for several of Sweden, I had an opportunity to be concerned days walk about his palace like a distracted man, | in, and present at, several treaties of extraordi. crying, “ The saviour of Germany was lost; the nary consequence, sufficient for a history, if that refuge of abused princes was gone; the soul ot || were my design. war was dead;" and from that hour was so hope

Particularly, I had the happiness to be present less of outliving the war, that he sought to make at, and have some concern in, the treaty for the peace with the emperor.

restoring the posterity of the truly noble Pals.

grave, King of Bohemia. King James of England // this particular respect to be the effect of the more had, indeed, too much neglected the whole family; || than ordinary regard the great King of Sweden and I might say with authority enough, from my I always showed me, rather than any merit of my own knowledge of affairs, had nothing been done I own; and the veneration they all had for his for them but what was from England, that family Il memory made them continue to show me all the had remained desolate and forsaken to this day. | marks of a suitable.esteem.

But that glorious king, Gustavus, whom I can || But to return to the council of war--the great, never mention without some remark of his extra- || and indeed the only question before us, was, ordinary merit, had left particular instructions || Shall we give battle to the Imperialists or not? with his chancellor to rescue the Palatinate to its | Gustavus Horne was against it, and gave, as I rightful lord, as a proof of his design to restore | thought, the most invincible arguments against a the liberty of Germany, and reinstate the op battle that reason could dictate. pressed princes who were subjected to the First. They were weaker than the enemy by tyranny of the house of Austria.

above five thousand men. Pursuant to this resolution, the chancellor pro Secondly. The cardinal Infant of Spain, who ceeded very much like a man of honour ; and was in the Imperial army with eight thousand though the King of Bohemia died a little before, I men, was but there as a passenger, being going yet he carefully managed the treaty, answered || from Italy to Flanders to take upon him the go. the objections of several princes who, in the ge- Il vernment of the Low Countries; and if de saw neral ruin of the family, had reaped private ad. || no prospect of immediate action, would be gone vantages, settled the capitulations for the quota || in a few days. of contributions very much for their advantage, ll Thirdly. They had two reinforcements, one of and fully reinstalled Prince Charles in the pos- | five thousand men under the command of Colonel session of all his dominions in the Lower Palati- || Cratz, and one of seven thousand men under the nate, which afterwards was confirmed to him and | Rhinegrave, who were at hand, the last within his posterity by the peace of Westphalia, where || three days' march of them. all those bloody wars were finished in a peace, | Lastly. They had already saved their honour, which has since been the foundation of the Pro- | as they had put six hundred foot into the town testants’ liberty, and the best security of the of Norlingen in the face of the enemy's army, whole empire.

and consequently the town might hold out some I spent two years rather in wandering up and || days longer. down than travelling; for though I had no mind Fate, rather than reason, certainly guided the to serve, yet I could not find in my heart to leave | rest of the generals against such arguments as Germany; and I had obtained some so very close these. Duke Bernard and almost all the generals intimacies with the general officers, that I was were for fighting, alleging the affront it would be often in the army, and sometimes they did me to the Swedish reputation to see their friends 10 the honour to bring me into their councils of the town lost before their faces. war.

Gustavus Horne stood stiff to his cautious ad. Particularly, at that eminent council before || vice, and was against it; and I thought Baron the battle of Norlingen, I was invited to the coun- || d'Offkirk treated him a little indecently, for, be. cil of war both by Duke Bernard of Weimar anding very warm in the matter, he told them, that by Gustavus Hörne. They were generals of if Gustavus Adolphus had been governed by sueh equal worth, and their courage and experience | cowardly counsel, he had never been conqueror had been so well and so often tried, that more of half Germany in two years. than ordinary regard was always paid to what || “No," replied old General Horne very smartly: they said. Duke Bernard was indeed the younger || " but had he been now alive to have testified for man, and Horne, too, had served longer under me that I was never taken by him for a coward, our great master the king; but it was hard to and yet the king was never for a victory with a judge which was the better general, since they hazard when he could have it without." had experience enough, and shown undeniable || I was asked my opinion, which I would have proofs both of their bravery and conduct. | declined, not being in any commission ; but they

I am obliged, in the course of my relation, so I pressed me to speak. I told them I was for stay. often to mention the great respect I often received || ing at least till the Rhinegrave came up, who from these great men, that it makes me sometimes might, if expresses were sent to hasten bin, be jealous lest the reader may think I affect it as with us in twenty-four hours. But Off kirk couc vanity.

not hold his passion; and, had not he been overThe truth is, and I am ready to confess the ruled, he would bave almost quarrelled with Mar honours I received, upon all occasions, from per- || shal Horne. Upon which the old general, not to sons of such worth, and who had such an eminent foment him, with a great deal of mildness, stock share in the greatest actions of that age, very || up, and spoke thus :much pleased me, and particularly as they gave I *• Come, Offkirk,” says he, “I'll submit my me occasions to see everything that was doing on opinion to you and the majority of our fell the whole stage of the war; for being under no soldiers. We will fight; but, believe me, wesha command, but at liberty to rove about, I could have our hands full. come to no Swedish garrison or party, but sendo | The resolution thus taken, they attacked ing my name to the commanding officer, I could || Imperial army. I must confess the counctis have the word sent me; and if I came into the this day seemed as confused as the resolutions army, I was often treated as I then was at the ) the night. famous battle of Norlingen.

Duke Bernard was to lead the van of the best I cannot but say that I always looked upon || wing, and to post himself upon a hill which is

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on the enemy's right without their intrench-|| Gustavus Horne refused quarter several times, ments; so that, having secured that post, they | and still those that attacked him were cut down might level their cannon upon the foot who stood by his men, who fought like furies, and, by the behind the lines, and relieve the town at plea- || example of their general, behaved themselve sure.

like lions. But at last these poor remains of a He marched accordingly by break of day, and body of the bravest men in the world were forced falling with great fury upon eight regiments of to submit. I have heard him say he had much foot which were posted at the bottom of the hill, rather have died than been taken, but that he he presently routed them, and made himself mas yielded in compassion to so many brave men as ter of the post. Flushed with this success, he were about him; for none of them would take never regarded his own concerted measures of || quarter till he gave his consent. stopping there, and possessing what he had got, | I had the worst share in this battle that ever I but pushes on and falls in with the main body of had in any action in my life, and that was, to be the enemy's army..

posted among as brave a body of horse as any in While this was doing Gustavus Horne attacks 1) Germany, and yet not to be able to succour our own another post on a hill, where the Spaniards had men, for our foot were cut in pieces, as it were, posted and lodged themselves behind some works before our faces, and the situation of the ground they had cast up on the side of the hill. Here I was such that we could not fall in. All that we they defended themselves with extreme obsti. I were able to do was to carry off about two thou. nacy for five hours, and at last obliged the || sand of the foot, who, running away in the rout Swedes to give it over with loss.

of the left wing, rallied among our squadrons, This extraordinary gallantry of the Spaniards and got away with us. was certainly the saving of the Imperial army; Thus we stood till we saw all was lost, and for Duke Bernard having all this while resisted then made the best retreat we could to save our. the frequent charges of the Imperialists, and selves, several regiments having never charged borne the weight of two-thirds of their army, nor fired a shot; for the foot had so embarrassed was not able to stand any longer; but sending themselves among the lines and works of the one messenger on the neck of another to Gustavus enemy, and in the vineyards and mountains, Horne for more foot, he, finding he could not that the horse were rendered absolutely unsercarry his point, had given it over, and was in full || viceable. march to second the duke.

1 The Rhinegrave had made such expedition to But now it was too late ; for the King of Hun- ll join us, that he reached within three miles of the gary, seeing the duke's men, as it were, wavering, Il place of action that night, and he was a great and having notice of Horne's wheeling about to safeguard for us in rallying our dispersed men, second him, falls in with all his force upon his | who else had fallen into the enemy's hands, and fank, and with his Hungarian hussars made such || io checking the pursuit of the enemy. a furious charge, that the Swedes could stand no And, indeed, had but any considerable body longer.

of the foot made an orderly retreat, it had been The rout of the left wing was so much the || very probable they had given the enemy a brush more unhappy, as it happened just upon Gusta || that would have turned the scale of victory; for vus Horne's coming up; for being pushed on our horse being whole, and in a manner un. with the enemy at their heels, they were driven || touched, the enemy found such a check in the upon their own friends, who, having no ground | pursuit, that sixteen hundred of their forwardest

to open and give them way, were trodden down men, following too eagerly, fell in with the Rhine! by their own runaway brethren. This brought || grave's advanced troops the next day, and were

all into the utmost confusion. The Imperialists || cut in pieces without mercy. cried “ Victoria,” and fell into the middle of the || This gave us some satisfaction for the loss, but infantry with a terrible slaughter.

it was but small compared to the ruin of that I have always observed it is fatal to upbraid an | day. We lost near cight thousand men upon old experienced officer with want of courage. If || the spot, and above three thousand prisoners, Gustavus Horn had not been whetted with the all our cannon and baggage, and one hundred and reproaches of Baron d'Ofskirk, and some of the || twenty colours. I thought I never made so inother general officers, I believe it had saved the different a figure in my life, and so we thought lives of one thousand men; for, when all was all, to come away, lose our infantry, our general, thus lost, several officers advised him to make a l and our honour, and not so much as fight for it. retreat with such regiments as he had yet un Duke Bernard was utterly disconsolate for broken, but nothing could persuade him to stir a || old Gustavus Horne, for he concluded him killed; foot; but, turning his flank into a front, he sa- || he tore the hair from his head like a madman, Juted the enemy as they passed by him in pursuit of land, telling the Rhinegrave the story of the the rest with such terrible volleys of small shot || council of war, would reproach himself with not as cost them the lives of abundance of their men. || taking his advice, often repeating in his passion,

The Imperialists, eager in the pursuit, left him "'Tis I that have been the death of the bravest unbroken, till the Spanish brigade came up and general in Germany;" would call himself fool and charged him; these he bravely repulsed with a boy, and such names, for not listening to the great slaughter, and after them a body of dra- || | reasons of an old, experienced soldier. But when goons, till, being laid at on every side, and most I he heard he was still alive in the enemy's hands of his men killed, the brave old general, with all || he was the easier, and applied himself to the rewho were left, were made prisoners. (Note 11.) || cruiting his troops, and other business of the war,

The Swedes had a terrible loss here; for almost || and it was not long before he paid the Imperialall their infantry were killed or taken prisoners. I ists with interest.

I returned to Frankfort au Main after this || was forty years in beating them out of seven, he action, which happened the 17th of August, 1634; | had left them rich and strong at home, and able but the progress of the Imperialists was so great to keep him in constant apprehensions of a rethat there was no staying at Frankfort. The turn of their power, Chancellor Oxenstern removed to Magdeburg, Whereas, by the long continuance of the war, Duke Bernard and the Landgrave marched into || he so broke the very heart of the Spanish mo. Alsatia, and the Imperialists carried all before narchy, so absolutely and irrecoverably imthem for the remainder of the campaign : they poverished them, that they have ever since lantook Philipsburgh by surprise ; they took Augs- guished of the disease, till they are fallen from burg by famine; Spire and Treves by sieges, the most powerful to be the most despicable taking the elector prisoner.

nation in the world. But this success did one piece of service to The prodigious charge the King of Spain sa the Swedes, that it brought the French into the lat in losing the seven provinces broke the very war on their side, for the Elector of Treves was spirit of the nation, and that so much, that all their confederate. The French gave the conduct Il the wealth of their Peruvian mountains have not of the war to Duke Bernard. This, though the been able to retrieve it. Duke of Saxony fell off, and fought against them, King Philip having often declared that war, beturned the scale so much in their favour, that | sides his armada for invading England, had cost they recovered their losses, and proved a terror him three hundred and seventy millions of ducats, to all Germany. The further accounts of the and four millions of the best soldiers in Europe; war I refer to the histories of those times, which whereof, by an unreasonable Spanish obstinasy, I have since read with great delight.

above sixty thousand lost their lives before 0 I confess, when I saw the progress of the Im tend, a town not worth a sixth part either of the perial army after the battle of Norlingen, and the blood or money it cost in a siege of three years, Duke of Saxony turning his arms against them, and which at last he had never taken, but that I thought their affairs declining; and giving them | Prince Maurice thought it not worth the charge over for lost, I left Frankfort, and came down the of defending it any longer. Rhine to Cologne, and from thence into Holland. However, I say, their way of fighting in Hols

I came to the Hague the 8th of March, 1635, || land did not relish with me at all. The priree having spent three years and a half in Germany, I lay a long time before a little fort called Shenks and the greatest part of it in the Swedish army. I cans, which the Spaniards took by surprise, and

I stayed some time in Holland, viewing the I thought he might have taken it much sooner. wonderful power of art which I observed in the Perhaps it might be my mistake; but I fancial fortifications of their towns, wnere the very bas- my hero, the King of Sweden, would have cartions stand on bottomless morasses, and yet are ried it sword in hand in half the time. firm as any in the world. There I had the op- || However it was, I did not like it ; so, in the portunity of seeing the Dutch army, and their | latter end of the year, I came to the Hague, and famous general, Prince Maurice.

took shipping for England, where I arrived to the It is true the men behaved themselves well great satisfaction of my father and all my friends. enough in action, when they were put to it; but | My father was then in London, and carried the prince's way of beating his enemies, without | me to kiss the king's hand. His majesty was fighting, was so unlike the gallantry of my royal pleased to receive me very well, and to say instructor, that it had no manner of relish with a great many very obliging things to my fatber me.

upon my account. Our way in Germany was always to seek out I spent my time very retired from court, for I the enemy and fight him; and, give the Impe- |was almost wholly in the country; and it being rialists their due, they were seldom hard to be so much different from my genius, which has found, but were as free of their flesh as we were. kered after a warmer sport than hunting among

Whereas Prince Maurice would lie in a camp our Welsh mountains, I could not but be peeping till he starved half his men, if by lying there he || in all the accounts from Germany to see how could but starve two-thirds of his enemy's; so l things went on. I could never hear of a battle that indeed the war in Holland had more of fa- | but the Germans were beaten, yet I began to tigues and hardships in it, and ours had more of || wish myself there. fighting and blows : hasty marches, long and un But when an account came of the progress o wholesome encampments, winter parties, counter- Sir John Bannier, the Swedish general in Saxony, marching, dodging, and intrenching, were the and of the constant victories he had there over the exercises of his men, and oftentimes killed him Saxons, I could no longer contain myself, and mote men with hunger, cold, and diseases, than told my father this life was very disagreeable to he could do with fighting

me; that I lost my time here, and might to Not that it required less courage, but rather || much more advantage go into Germany. #bere more; for a soldier had, at any tiine, rather die I was sure I might make my fortune upon my in the field by a musket than be starved with own terms; that, young as I was, I might have hunger, or frozen to death in the trenches. been a general officer by this time, if I had not

Nor do I think I lessen the reputation of that || laid down my commission; and if he pleased to great general; for it is most certain he ruined give me leave, I would go to Germany again. the Spaniards more by spinning the war thus out My father was very unwilling to let me go; in length than he could possibly have done by a | but, seeing me uneasy, told me, if I was resolved swift conquest ; for bad he, Gustavus like, with he would oblige me to stay no longer in England a torrent of victory dislodged the Spaniards of than the next spring, and then I should have his all the twelve provinces in five years, whereas hell consent.

The winter following began to look very un- 11 expedition ended in an accommodation with the pleasant upon us in England, and my father used | Scots; and they not advancing so much as to often to sigh at it, and would sometimes tell me | their own borders, we never came to any action ; he was afraid we should have no need to send but the armies lay in the counties of NorthumEnglishmen to fight in Germany.

berland and Durham, eat up the country, and The cloud that seemed to threaten most was || spent the king a vast sum of money; and so this from Scotland. My father, who had made him- || war ended, a pacification was made, and both self master of the arguments on both sides, used sides returned. to say he feared there was some about the king, But, indeed, I never saw such a despicable apwho exasperated him too much against the Scots, | pearance of men in arms to begin a war in my and drove things too high.

life; whether it was that I had seen so many For my part, I confess I did not much trouble || braver armies abroad that prejudiced me against my head with the cause; but all my fear was | them, or that it really was so, for to me they they would not fall out, and we should have no seemed little better than a rabble met together to fighting. I have often reflected since, that I devour, rather than fight for their king and country, ought to have known better, that had seen how There was, indeed, a great appearance of gen. the most flourishing provinces of Germany were tlemen, and those of extraordinary quality; but reduced to the most miserable condition that their garb, their equipages, and their mien, did ever any country in the world was, by the not look like war; their troops were filled with ravagings of soldiers, and the calamities of war. footmen and servants, and wretchedly armed, God

How much soever I was to blame, yet so it was, ll wot! I had a secret joy at the news of the king's I believe I might say, without vanity, one regiraising an army, and nothing could hare with ment of Finland horse would have made sport at held me from appearing in it; but my eagerness beating them all. There were such crowds of was still increased by an express the king sent to | parsons, for this was a church war in particular, my father to know if his son was in England :) that the camp and court was full of them; and and my father having ordered me to carry the || the king was so eternally besieged with clergyanswer myself, I waited upon his majesty with men of one sort or another, that it gave offence the messenger. The king received me with his to the chief of the nobility. usual kindness, and asked me if I was willing to | As was the appearance, so was the service; serve him against the Scots.

the army marched to the borders, and the head. I answered, I was ready to serve him against quarters was at Berwick-upon-Tweed; but the any that his majesty thought fit to account his Scots never appeared, no, not so much as their enemies, and should esteem it an honour to || scouts; whereupon the king called a council of receive his commands. Hereupon his majesty war, and there it was resolved to send the Earl offered me a commission. I told him I supposed of Holland, with a party of horse, into Scotland, there would not be much time for raising of men ; | to learn some news of the enemy; and, truly, the that if his majesty pleased I would be at the first news he brought us was, that, finding their rendezvons with as many gentlemen as I could army encamped about Coldingham, fifteen miles get together to serve his majesty as volunteers. from Berwick, as soon as he appeared the Scots

The truth is, I found all the regiments of drew out a party to charge him ; upon which horse the king designed to raise were but two, as most of his men halted—I do not say run away, regiments; the rest of the horse were such as but it was next to it; for they could not be perthe nobility raised in their several counties, and suaded to fire their pieces, and wheel off like commanded by themselves. As I had com. | soldiers, but retreated in such a disorderly and manded a regiment of horse abroad, it looked a shameful manner, that had the enemy had either little odd to serve with a single troop at home; | the courage or conduct to have followed them, and the king took the thing presently.

it must have certainly ended in the ruin of the “ Indeed, it will be a volunteer war,” said the whole party. king, “ for the northern gentry have sent me an || I confess, when I went into arms at the beginaccount of above four hundred horse they have ning of this war, I never troubled myself to exalready.”

amine sides; I was as glad to hear the drums I bowed, and told his majesty I was glad to beat for soldiers as if I had been a mere Swiss, hear his subjects were so forward to serve him ; who cares not which side gets the better, proso, taking his majesty's orders to be at York by vided he receives his pay. I went as eagerly and the end of March, I returned to my father. blindly about my business as the meanest wretch

My father was very glad I had not taken a 1 that listed into the army ; nor had I the least commission, for I know not from what kind of compassionate thought for the miseries of my naemulation between the western and northern tive country till after the fight at Edgehill. gentry, the gentlemen of our side were not very I had known as much, and perhaps more than forward in the service; their loyalty to the king | most in the army, what it was to have an enemy in the succeeding times made it appear it was ranging in the bowels of a kingdom; I had seen not from any disaffection to his majesty's interest the most flourishing provinces of Germany reor person, or to the cause; but this, however, duced to perfect deserts, and the voracious Cramade it difficult for me, when I came home, to | bats, with inhuman barbarity, quenching the fires get any gentleman of quality to serve with me; of the plundered villages with the blood of the so that I presented myself to his majesty only as | inhabitants. Whether this had hardened me a volunteer, with eight gentlemen, and about against the natural tenderness which I afterwards thirty-six countrymen, well mounted and armed. I found return upon me or not, I cannot tell, but I

And as it proved, these were enough, for this reflected upon myself afterwards with a great deal

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