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other place; but to send word they would not 1: during their own pleasure, and after them trientreat at York, I could deliver no such message, nial parliaments to meet, whether the king called for, when fully considered, it would signify they (them or not; and granting this completed his would not treat at all.
majesty's ruin. I used a great many reasons and arguments Had the house only regulated the abuses of the with them on this head; and at last, with some court, punished evil counsellors, and restored par. difficulty, obtained of them to give the reason, liaments to their original and just powers, all had which was, the Earl of Strafford's having the been well, and the king, though he had been more chief command at York, whom they denounced than mortified, had yet reaped the benefit of their mortal enemy, he having declared them future peace; for now the Scots were sent home, rebels in Ireland.
after having eaten up two counties, and received With this answer I returned. I could make a prodigious sum of money to boot; and the king, no observation in the short time I was with them, though too late, goes in person to Edinburgh, and for I staid but one night, and was guarded as a grants them all they could desire, and more than close prisoner all the while. I saw several of their they asked; but in England the desires were un. officers whom I knew, but they durst not speak bounded, and drove at all extremes. to me, and if they had offered, my guard would They threw out the bishops from sitting in the not have permitted them.
house, made a protestation equivalent to the In this manner I was conducted out of their Scotch covenant, and, this done, printed their requarters to my own party again ; and having demonstrance. This so provoked the king, that he livered my message to the king, and told his resolves upon seizing some of the members, and majesty the circumstances, I saw the king re- in an ill hour enters the House of Commons in ceived the account of the haughty behaviour of person to take them. Thus one imprudent thing the Scots with some regret; however, it was his on one hand produced another on the other hand, majesty's time now to bear, and therefore the until the king was obliged to leave them to themScots were complied with, and the treaty ap- selves for fear of receiving treatment unworthy pointed at Rippon, where, after much debate, of himself. several preliminary articles were agreed on, as These proceedings began to alarm the gentry a cessation of arms, quarters and bounds to the and nobility of England, for however willing we armies, subsistence to the Scotch army, and the were to have evil counsellors removed, and the residue of the demands was referred to a treaty government return to a settled and legal course, at London.
according to the happy constitution of this naWe were all amazed at the treaty, and I re- tion, and might have been forward enough to have member we would much rather have been suf. | owned the king had been misled and imposed fered to fight, for, though we had been worsted upon to do things which he had rather had not at first, the power and strength of the king's in been done, yet it did not follow that all the terest, which was not yet tried, must, in the end, powers and prerogatives of the crown should de. have been too strong for the Scots, whereas wel, volve upon the parliament, and the king, in a now saw the king was for complying with any. manner, be deposed, or else sacrificed to the fury thing, and all his friends would be ruined.
of the rabble. I confess I had nothing to fear, and so was not The heats of the house running them thus to much concerned; but our predictions soon came all extremes, and at last to take from the king to pass, for no sooner was this parliament called, the power of the militia, which indeed was all that but abundance of those who had embroiled their was left to make him anything of a king, put him king with his people of both kingdoms, like the upon opposing force with force; and thus the disciples when their Master was betrayed to the flame of civil war began. Jews, forsook him and fled.
However backward I was in engaging in the And now parliament tyranny began to succeed second year's expedition against the Scots, I church tyranny, and we soldiers were glad to see was as forward now, for I waited on the king it at first. The bishops trembled; the judges at York, where a gallant company of gentlemen went to gaol; the officers of the customs were as ever were seen in England engaged themlaid hold on; and the parliament began to lay selves to enter into his service; and here some their fingers on the great ones, particularly Arch of us formed ourselves into troops for the guard bishop Laud and the Earl of Strafford.
of his person. We had no great concern for the first, but the The king having been waited upon by the last was a man of so much conduct and gallantry, gentry of Yorkshire, and having told them his and so beloved by the soldiers and principal gentry resolution of erecting his royal standard, and reof England, that everybody was touched with his
ceived from them hearty assurances of support, misfortune.
dismisses them, and marches to Hull, where lay The parliament now grew mad in their turn,
the train of artillery, and all the arms and ammu. and as the prosperity of any party is the time to
nition belonging to the northern army which had show their discretion, the parliament showed they
been disbanded. knew as little where to stop as other people. The
| But here the parliament had been beforehand king was not in a condition to deny anything,
with his majesty, so that when he came to Hull and, shortly after, whatever was demanded was he found the gates shut, and Sir John Hotham, complied with.
the governor, upon the walls, though with a great They attainted the Earl of Strafford, and, me- deal of seeming humility and protestations of taphorically, made the king cut off his right hand loyalty to his person, yet with a positive denial
ve his left, and yet not save it neither; they to admit any of the king's attendants into the uned another bill, to empower them to sit ll town.
If his majesty pleased to enter the town in per- 1, one to the queen, then at Windsor; one to the son, with any reasonable number of his house- || Duke of Newcastle, then Earl of Newcastle, intc hold, he would submit, but would not be pre the north; one into Scotland, and one into France vailed on to receive the king, as he would be re where the queen soon after arrived to raise money ceived, with his forces, though those forces were and buy arms, and to get what assistance she then but very few.
could among her own friends. The king was exceedingly provoked at this re- || Nor was her majesty idle, for she sent over pulse, and indeed it was a great surprise to us all, several ships laden with arms and ammunition for certainly never prince began a war against with a fine train of artillery, and a great many the whole strength of his kingdom under the cir- | very good officers; and though one of the first cumstances that he was in. He had not a gar fell into the hands of the parliament, with three rison, or a company of soldiers, in his pay ; not hundred barrels of powder and some arms, and a stand of arms, or a barrel of powder, a musket, | one hundred and fifty gentlemen, yet most of cannon, or mortar; not a ship of all the fleet, or them found means to get to us, and most of the money in his treasury to procure them; whereas ships the queen freighted arrived; and at last the parliament had all his navy, ordnance, stores, her majesty came herself, and brought an extramagazines, arms, ammunition, and revenue in ordinary supply of men, money, and arms, with their keeping.
which she joined the king's forces, under the Earl And this I take to be another defect of the of Newcastle, in the north. king's counsel, and a sad instance of the destruc- Finding his majesty active to muster his friends tion of his affairs, that when he saw how all things together, I asked him if he thought it might not were going to wreck, as it was impossible but he || be for his majesty's service to let me go among should see it, and it is plain he did see it, that he my friends and his loyal subjects about Shrews. should not, long enough before it came to ex bury? tremities, secure the navy, magazines, and stores “Yes," says the king, smiling, “I intend you of war in the hands of his trusty servants, that I shall, and I design to go with you myself." would have been sure to have preserved them for || I did not understand what the king meant his use at a time when he wanted them.
I then, and did not think it good manners to inIt cannot be supposed but the gentry of Eng. Il quire; but the next day I found all things disland, who generally preserved their loyalty for posed for a march, and the king on horseback by their royal master, and at last beartily showed it, Il eight in the morning; when, calling me to him, were exceedingly discouraged at first, when they | he told me I should go before, and let my father saw the parliament had all the means of making and all my friends know he would be at Shrews war in their own hands, and the king was naked bury the Saturday following. and destitute both of arms and ammunition, and I left my equipages, and, taking post with only money to procure them.
I one servant, was at my father's the next morning Not but that the king, by extraordinary appli- / by break of day. My father was not surprised cation, recovered the disorder the want of these at the news of the king's coming; for it seems things had thrown him into, and supplied himself | he, together with the loyal gentry of those parts, with all things needful.
| had sent particularly to give the king an invitaBut my observation was this-had his majesty Il tion to move that way, which I was not made had the magazines, navy, and forts, in his own privy to, with an account of what encouragement hand, the gentry, who wanted but the prospect they had there in the endeavours made for buis of something to encourage them, had come in at interest. first, and the parliament, being unprovided, would
In short, the whole country was entirely for have been presently reduced to reason.
the king; and such was the universal joy the But this was it that balked the gentry of York
people showed when the news of his majesty's shire, who went home again, giving the king good
coming down was positively known, that all manpromises, but never appeared for him till, by
ner of business was laid aside, and the whole raising a good army in Shropshire and Wales, he
body of the people seemed to be resolved upon marched towards London, and they saw there
the war. was a prospect of being supported. In this condition the king erected his standard
As this gave a new face to the king's affairs, so at Nottingham. August 22ud. 1642: and I con. || I must own it filled me with joy; for I was astofess I had very melancholy apprehensions of the
nished before, when I considered what the king king's affairs, for the appearance of the royal
and his friends were like to be exposed to. The standard was but small. The affront the king news of the proceedings of the parliament, and had met with at Hull had dispirited the northern
their powerful preparations, were now no more gentry, and the king's affairs looked with a very
terrible. The king came at the time appointed dismal aspect.
and having lain at my father's house one night, We had expresses from London of the prodi- || entered Shrewsbury in the morning. gious success of the parliament's levies, how their The acclamations of the people, the concourse men came in faster than they could entertain of the nobility and gentry about his person, and them, and that arms were delivered out to whole the crowds which now came every day in to his companies listed together; and all this while the standard, were incredible. king had not got together a thousand foot, and The loyalty of the English gentry was not only had no arms for them neither.
! worthy notice, but their power also was extraorWhen the king saw this, he immediately dis- || dinarily visible; for the king, in about six weeks, patched five several messengers, whereof one which was the most of his stay at Shrewsbury, went to the Marquis of Worcester into Wales; ll was supplied with money, arms, ammunition, and
ren, then at de
into Scotland, and on
and to get what are her own friends
na astr idle, h He with arms and
of artillers, and op 13; and though as ? nds of the paramente
of powder and id Éry gentlema, te : Ils w get to us, and DX ir sighted arrived; 21
bersei, and broad cmen, DOOST, DA
the kings forces nisi. the north. last actire to rustelis cumnil he thought to service to keegi is loyal subjects
king, smiling, IBS to go with you DIY rstand what the bod bok it good at dar / found here and the king and g; when, cales
go before, and le." now he would be ss 30. owing.
s, and taking per m; father's te 2017 Ju father waar king's coming ; Ép zloral gent de - to give the lines
a train of artillery, and had enlisted an army of Abingdon, Wallingford, Basingstoke, and Readupwards of twenty thousand men.
ing were all garrisoned and fortified as outworks His majesty, seeing the general alacrity of his to defend this as the centre; and thus all Engpeople, immediately issued out commissions, and land became the theatre of blood, and war was formed regiments of horse and foot; and having spread into every corner of the country, though some experienced officers about him, together as yet there was not a stroke struck. with about sixteen who came from France with I had no command in this army: my father led a ship loaded with arms and some field-pieces, his own regiment, and, old as he was, would not which came very seasonably into the Severn, the leave his royal master; and my elder brother men were exercised, regularly disciplined and staid at home to support the family. As for me, quartered, and now we began to look like soldiers. I rode a volunteer in the royal troop of guards, *My father had raised a regiment of horse at | which may very well deserve that title, being his own charge, and the king gave out arms to composed of young gentlemen, sons of the nothem from the supplies which I mentioned came bility and prime gentry of the nation, and I think from abroad. Another party of horse, all brave not a person of so mean a birth or fortune as stout fellows, and well mounted, came in from myself. Lancashire, and the Earl of Derby at the head We reckoned in this troop two-and-thirty of them.
| lords, or who came afterwards to be such, and The Welshmen came in by droves; and so great eight-and-thirty younger sons of the nobility, was the concourse of people, that the king began | five French noblemen, and the rest gentlemen of to think of marching, and gave the command, as very good families and estates. well as the trust of regulating the army, to the And that I may give the due to their personal brave Earl of Lindsey, as general of the foot. valour, many of this troop lived to have regiments (Note 14.)
and troops under their command in the service The parliament-general being the Earl of Essex, ll of the king ; many of them lost their lives for two braver men, or two better officers, were not him, and most of them their estates : nor did in the kingdom : they had both been old soldiers, they behave unworthy of themselves in their first and had served together as volunteers, in the 11 showing their faces to the enemy, as shall be men. Low-country wars, under Prince Maurice. They || tioned in its place. had been comrades and companions abroad, and || While the king remained at Shrewsbury his now came to face one another as enemies in the || loyal friends bestirred themselves in several parts field. (Note 15.)
of the kingdom. Goring had secured PortsSuch was the expedition used by the king and
mouth; but being young in matters of war, and his friends in the levies of this first army, that,
not in time relieved, though the Marquis of Hert.
ford was marching to relieve him, yet he was notwithstanding the wonderful expedition the parliament made, the king was in the field before
obliged to quit the place, and shipped himself them; and now the gentry in other parts of the
for Holland, from whence he returned with relief nation bestirred themselves, and seized upon and
for the king, and afterwards did very good garrisoned several considerable places for the
service upon all occasions, and very effectually cleared himself of the scandal the hasty surrender
of Portsmouth had brought upon him. In the north, the Earl of Newcastle not only
The chief power of the king's forces lay in garrisoned the most considerable places, but even three places in Cornwall, in Yorkshire, and at the general possession of the north was for the
Shrewsbury. In Cornwall, Sir Ralph Hopton, king, excepting Hull, and some few places which afterwards Lord Hopton, Sir Bevil Granvil, and the old Lord Fairfax had taken up for the Parlia Sir Nicholas Slamming, secured all the country, ment. On the other hand, Cornwall entire and most and afterwards spread themselves over Devonof the western counties were the king's. The par shire and Somersetshire, took Exeter from the liament had their chief interest in the south and parliament, fortified Bridgewater and Barnstaple, eastern parts of England, as Kent, Surrey, and
and beat Sir William Waller at the battle of Sussex, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, Bed Roundway Down, as I shall mention more parford, Huntingdon, Hertford, Buckinghamshire, ticularly when I come to recite the part of my and the other midland counties.
own travels that way.
very great oversight in them, the situation of scale of the war; for, had it not been for this
-quarters, and received great supplies and already: the alacrity of the gentry Glled him with istance from the wealth of the colleges and the hopes, and all his army with vigour, and the Sth plenty of the neighbouring country.
Il of October, 1642, his majesty gave orders to
ar, which / ont of what are de endeavours !
ir poner als be king, in
of bis stars oney, as SIM
Bities di. ll seen.
march. The Earl of Essex had spent above a || Earl of Essex, that he might expect him that month after his leaving London (for he went way; whereas the king's design was to get be. thence the 9th of September) in modelling and ||tween the Earl of Essex's army and the city of drawing together his forces : his rendezvous was | London, and his majesty's end was doubly an. at St Alban's, from whence he marched to North swered, for he not only drew Essex on to Wor. ampton, Coventry, and Warwick, and leaving | | cester, where he spent more time than he needed, garrisons in them, he comes on to Worcester. | but he beat the party into the bargain.
Being thus advanced, he possesses Oxford, as | I went volunteer in this party, and rode in my I noted before, Banbury, Bristol, Gloucester, and father's regiment; for though we really expected Worcester, out of all which places, except Glou- || not to see the enemy, yet I was tired with lying cester, we drove him back to London in a very || still. We came to Worcester just as notice was little while.
brought to Sir John Biron that a party of the Sir John Biron had raised a very good party of | enemy was on their march for Worcester, upon five hundred horse, mostly gentlemen, for the which the prince, immediately consulting what king, and had possessed Oxford ; but on the ap- was to be done, resolves to march the next morn. proach of the Lord Say quitted it, being now but ing and fight them. an open town, and retreated to Worcester; from || The enemy, who lay at Pershore, about eight whence, on the approach of Essex's army, he || miles from Worcester, and, as I believe, had no retreated to the king.
notice of our march, came on very confidently in And now all things grew ripe for action, both || the morning, and found us ready drawn up to parties having secured their posts, and settled receive them. I must confess this was the bluottheir schemes of the war, taking their posts and est, downright way of making war that erer was places as their measures and opportunities directed. The field was next in their eye, and the The enemy, who, in all the little knowledge soldiers began to inquire when they should fight, || had of war, ought to have discovered our numfor as yet there had been little or no blood drawn, bers, and guessed by our posture what our de. but it was not long before they had enough of it; || sign was, might easily have informed themselves for I believe I may challenge all the historians in that we intended to attack them, and so might Europe to tell me of any war in the world where, have secured the advantage of a bridge in their in the space of four years, there were so many || front; but, without any regard to these methods pitched battles, sieges, fights, and skirmishes, as of policy, they came on at all hazards. in this war.
Upon this notice my father proposed to the We never encamped or intrenched, never for- prince to halt for them, and suffer ourselves to be tified the avenues to our posts, or lay fenced with attacked, since we found them willing to give us rivers and defiles. Here were no leaguers in the the advantage. The prince approved of the adfield, as at the story of Nuremberg; neither had | vice, so we halted within view of a bridge, leaf. our soldiers any tents, or what they call heavy | ing space enough on our front for about half the baggage. It was the general maxim of this war, || number of their force to pass and draw up; and at Where is the enemy? Let us go and fight them: | the bridge was posted about fifty dragoons, with or, on the other hand, if the enemy was coming, I orders to retire as soon as the enemy advanced, What was to be done? Why, what should be as if they had been afraid. done? Draw out into the field and fight them. u On the right of the road was a ditch, and a very
I cannot say it was the prudence of the parties, | high bank behind, where we had placed three and had the king fought less he had gained more; || hundred dragoons, with orders to lie flat on their and I shall remark several times when the eager- || faces till the enemy had passed the bridge, and to ness of fighting was the worst counsel, and let fly among them as soon as our trumpets sounded proved our loss. This benefit, however, hap- || a charge. pened in general to the country, that it made a Nobody but Colonel Sandys would have been quick, though a bloody, end of the war, which caught in such a snare, for he might easily hare otherwise had lasted till it might have ruined the seen that when he was over the bridge there was whole nation.
not room enough for him to fight; but the Lord On the 10th of October the king's army was of Hosts was so much in their mouths (for that in full march; his majesty, generalissimo; the || was the word for that day) that they took little Earl of Lindsey, general of the foot; Prince Ru- || heed how to conduct the host of the Lord to their pert, general of the horsc; and the first action in | own advantage. the field was by Prince Rupert and Sir John || As we expected, they appeared, beat our draBiron, Sir John had brought his body of five ll goons from the bridge, and passed it. We stood hundred horse, as I have said, from Oxford to firm in one line, with a reserve, and expected a Worcester; the Lord Say, with a strong party, charge ; but Colonel Sandys showing a great deal being in the neighbourhood of Oxford, and ex more judgment than we thought he was master pected in the town, Colonel Sandys, a hot man, | of, extended himself to the left, finding the ground who had more courage than judginent, advanced too straight, and began to form his men with a with about fifteen hundred horse and dragoons, great deal of readiness and skill, for by this time with design to beat Sir John Biron out of Wor he saw our number was greater than he expected. cester, and take post there for the parliament. The prince perceiving it, and foreseeing that
The king had notice that the Earl of Essex | the stratagem of the dragoons would be frustrated was designed for Worcester, and Prince Rupert || by this, immediately charges with the horse, and was ordered to advance with a body of horse and the dragoons at the same time, standing upon dragoons to face the enemy, and bring off' Sir ll their feet, poured in their shot upon those that John Biron. This his majesty did to amuse the!! were passing the bridge. This surprise put th
into such disorder, that we had but little work || thoughts of our coming to London. Besides with them; for though Colonel Sandys, with the this, the city was in a worse fright than the house, troops next him, sustained the shock extremely and the great moving men began to go out of town. well, and behaved themselves gallantly, yet the In short, they expected us, and we expected to confusion beginning in their rear, those that had come; but Providence, for our ruin, had othernot yet passed the bridge were kept back by the wise determined it. fire of the dragoons, and the rest were easily cut | | Essex, upon news of the king's march, and to pieces.
| upon receipt of the parliament's letters, made Colonel Sandys was mortally wounded and long marches after us, and on the 23rd of October taken prisoner ; and the crowd was so great to reached the town of Keynton, in Warwickshire, get back, that many pushed into the water, and The king was almost as far as Banbury, and were rather smothered than drowned. Some of || there called a council of war. Some of the old them, who never came into the fight, were so officers that foresaw the advantage the king had, frightened, that they never looked behind them the concern the city was in, and the vast addiuntil they came to Pershore; and, as we were tion both to the reputation of his forces and the afterwards informed, the life-guards of the gene- || increase of his interest it would be, if the king ral, who had quartered in the town, left it in could gain that point, urged the king to march great disorder, expecting us at the heels of their on to London. men.
Prince Rupert and the fresh colonels pressed Ifour business had been to keep the parliament for fighting, told the king it dispirited their men army from coming to Worcester, we had a very || to march with the enemy at their heels; that good opportunity to have secured the bridge at || the parliament army was inferior to him by six Pershore; but our design lay another way, as I thousand men, and fatigued with hasty marching : have said, and the king was for drawing Essex on ll that their orders being to fight, he had nothing to the Severn, in hopes to get behind him, which to do but to post himself to advantage, and refell out accordingly.
ceive them to their destruction; that the action Essex, spurred by this affront in the infancy of || near Worcester had let him know how easy it their affairs, advanced the next day, and came to || was to deal with a rash enemy; and that it was Pershore time enough to be at the funeral of a dishonour for him, whose forces were so much some of his men, and from thence he advanced superior, to be pursued by his subjects in reto Worcester.
bellion. We marched back to Worcester extremely These and the like arguments prevailed with pleased with the good success of our first attack, || the king to alter his wiser measures, and resolve and our men were so flushed with this little vic- to fight. Nor was this all: when a resolution of tory, that it put vigour into the whole army. The fighting was taken, that part of the advice which enemy lost about three thousand men, and we they who were for fighting gave as a reason | carried away near one hundred and fifty prison- || for their opinion, was forgot, and, instead of
ers, with five hundred horses, some standards and halting, and posting ourselves to advantage till arms; and among the prisoners their colonel, but the enemy came up, we were ordered to march he died a little after of his wounds.
back and meet them. Upon the approach of the enemy Worcester Nay, so eager was the prince for fighting, that was quitted, and the forces marched back to join || when, from the top of Edgehill, the enemy's army the king's army, which lay then at Bridgenorth, I was descried in the bottom between them and the Ludlow, and thereabout. As the king expected, | town of Keynton, and that the chemy had bid us it fell out. Essex sound so much work at Wor | defiance, by discharging three cannons, we accester to settle parliament-quarters, and secure cepted the challenge, and answering with two Bristol, Gloucester, and Hereford, that it gave shot from our army, we must needs forsake the the king a full day's march of him; so the king advantages of the hills, which they must have having the start of him, moved towards London ; | mounted under the command of our cannon, and and Essex, nettled to be both beaten in fight march down to them into the plain. and outdone in conduct, decamped, and followed U I confess I thought here was a great deal more
gallantry than discretion, for it was plainly taking The parliament, and the Londoners too, were an advantage out of our own hands, and putting in a strange consternation at this mistake of their || it into the hands of the enemy; for an enemy general; and had the king, whose great misfor- || that must fight may always be fought with to tune was always to follow precipitant advices, but || advantage. pushed on his first design, which he had formed My old hero, the glorious Gustavus Adolphus, with very good reason, and for which he had | was as forward to fight as any man of true valour been dodging with Essex eight or ten days, viz. mixed with any policy need to be, or ought to be ; of marching directly to London, where he had a but he used to say, “ An enemy, reduced to a very great interest, and where his friends were necessity of fighting, is half beaten." not yet oppressed and impoverished, as they were It is true, we were all but young in the war: afterwards, he had turned the scale of his affairs, | the soldiers hot and forward, and eagerly desired and every man expected it, for the members be to come to hands with the enemy. But I take gan to shift for themselves ; expresses were sent the inore notice of it here, because the king in on the heels of one another to the Earl of Essex || this acted against his own measures, for it was to hasten after the king, and, if possible, to bring || the king himself had laid the design of getting the him to battle. Some of these letters fell into start of Essex, and marching to London. our hands, and we might easily discover that | His friends had invited him thither, and ex. the parliament were in the last confusion at the "pected him, and suffered deeply for the omission.