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small heights in their rear, which obliged them ble condition, and had never been recruited, bad to think of retreating, or coming to a general || we not given them a month's time, which we battle, which was not their design.

lingered away fatally at this town of Gloucester; I had no occasion to follow them, not being in || but it was too late to reflect-we were a disa condition to attack their whole body; but the heartened army, though not beaten yet, por dragoons, coming out into the commion, gave broken we had a large country to recruit in, them another volley at a distance, which reached and we lost no time, but raised men apace. them effectually, for it killed about twenty of In the meantime his majesty, after a short them, and wounded more; but they drew off, || stay at Bristol, made back again towards Oxford and never fired a shot at us, fearing to be en- || with a part of the foot and all the horse. closed between two parties, and so marched away At Cirencester we had a skirmish again with to their general's quarters, leaving ten or twelve the Earl of Essex: that town owed us a shrewd nore of their fellows killed, and about a hundred || turn for having handled them so coarsely before, and eighty horses. Our men, after the country when Prince Rupert seized the county magazine. fashion, gave them a shout at parting, to let I happened to be in the town that night with *hem see we knew they were afraid of us. Sir Nicholas Crisp, whose regiment of horse was

However, this relieving of Gloucester raised || quartered there with Colonel Spencer, and some the spirits as well as the reputation of the parlia foot; my own regiment being gone before to ment forces, and was a great defeat to us; and Oxford. from this time things began to look with a me About ten at night a party of Essex's men lancholy aspect, for the prosperous condition of | beat up our quarters by surprise, just as we had the king's affairs began to decline.

served them before : they fell in with us just as The opportunities he had let slip were never we were going to bed ; and having beaten the to be recovered; and the parliament, in their || out-guards, were got into the middle of the town former extremity, having voted an invitation to before our men could get on horseback. the Scots to march to their assistance, we had U Sir Nicholas Crisp, hearing the alarm, got up, now new enemies to encounter, and indeed there || and, with some of his clothes on and some ofi, began the ruin of his majesty's affairs; for the came into my chamber_“ We are all undope," Earl of Newcastle, not able to defend himself || said he : "the Roundheads are upon us." We against the Scots on his rear, the Earl of Man had but little time to consult; but being in one chester in his front, and Sir Thomas Fairfax on of the principal inns in the town, we instantly his flank, was everywhere routed and defeated, ordered the gates of the inn to be shut, and sent and his forces obliged to quit the field to the | to the other inns, where our men were quartered, enemy.

to do the like, with orders, if they had any back About this time it was that we first began to || doors or ways to get out, to come to us. hear of one Oliver Cromwell, who, like a little

By this means, however, we got so much time cloud, rose out of the east, and spread first into

as to get on horseback, and so many of our men the north, till it shed down a flood that over.

came to us by back ways, that we had near three whelmed the three kingdoms.

| hundred horse in the yards and places behind He first was a private captain of horse, but

| the house; and now we began to think of breaking now commanded a regiment; and joining with

out by a lane which led from the back side of the Earl of Manchester, the first action we heard

the inn; but a new accident determined us of him, which emblazoned his fame, was at

another, though a worse way. Grantham, where, with only his own regiment, he defeated twenty-four troops of horse and dra

The enemy being entered, and our men cooped goons of the king's forces.

up in the yards of the inns, Colonel Spencer, the Then at Gainsborough, with two regiments of

other colonel, whose regiment of horse lay also his own horse, and one of dragoons, he defeated

in the town, had got on horseback before us, and near three thousand of the Earl of Newcastle's ll engaged with the enemy; but, being overpow. men, killed Lieutenant-General Cavendish, bro

ered, retreated fighting, and sent to Sir Nicholas ther to the Earl of Devonshire, who commanded

Crisp for help. them, and relieved Gainsborough; and, though

Sir Nicholas, moved to see the distress of his the whole army came in to the rescue, he made

friend, turning to me, said, “ What can we do for good his retreat to Lincoln, with little loss.

him ? * The next week he defeated Sir John Hender

I replied, I thought it was time to help him, if son at Winsby, near Horncastle, with sixteen

possible; upon which, opening the inn-gates, we regiments of horse and dragoons, himself having

sallied out in very good order, about three hunnot half that number, killed the Lord Widdring

dred horse ; and several of the troops from other ton, Sir Ingram Hopton, and several gentlemen

parts of the town joining us, we recovered Coloof quality.

nel Spencer, and, charging home, beat back the Thus this firebrand of war began to blaze,

enemy to their main body; but finding their foot and he soon grew a terror to the north; for vic

drawn up in the churchyard, and several de tory attended him like a page of honour, and he

tachments moving to charge us, we retreated in was scarce ever known to be beaten during the

| as good order as we could. whole war.

They did not think fit to pursue us, but took Now we began to reflect again on the misfor. || all the carriages which were under the convoy tune of our master's counsels: had we marched || of this party, laden with provisions and ammunito London, instead of besieging Gloucester, we || tion, &c., and above five hundred of our borse. had finished the war with a stroke.

The foot shifted away as well as they could. The parliament's army was in a most despica- || Thus we made off in a shattered condition to wards Farringdon, and so to Oxford ; and I was || The king was exceedingly concerned for him, very glad my regiment was not there. (Note 19.) and was observed to shed tears. We were in

We had little rest at Oxford, or indeed any. deed all of us troubled for the loss of so brave a where else, for the king had marched from gentleman, but the concern our royal master disthence, and we followed him. I was rather un covered moved us exceedingly. Everybody eneasy at being absent from my regiment, and did deavoured to have the king out of the room, but not know how the king might resent it, which he would not stir from the bed-side till one of the caused me to ride after them with all expedition. surgeons acquainted his majesty that all hopes of The armies were engaged that very day at New. life were gone. bury, but I came in too late.

The indefatigable industry of the king, his ser. I had not behaved myself so as to be sus-1 vants and friends, continually to supply and repected of a wilful shunning the action ; but all cruit his forces, and to harass and fatigue the colonel of a regiment ought to avoid absence enemy, was such that we should still have given from his regiment in time of fight, be the excuse a good account of the war had the Scots stood ever so just, as carefully as he would a surprise neuter, but bad news came every day from the in his quarters.

north. As for other places, parties were always The truth is, it was an error of my own, and in action ; Sir William Waller and Sir Ralph owing to two days' stay I made at the Bath, Hopton beat one another by turns; and Sir where I met with some ladies who were my rela Ralph had extended the king's quarters from tions; but this is far from being an excuse, for Launceston in Cornwall to Farnham in Surrey, if King Charles had been a Gustavus Adolphus, I where he gave Sir William a rub, and drove him had certainly received a check for it.

into the castle. This fight was very obstinate; and could our But in the north the storm grew thick, the horse have come to action as freely as the foot, Scots advanced to the borders, and entered Eng. the parliament army had suffered much more, land, in confederacy with the parliament, against for we had here a much better body of horse than their king, for which the parliament requited them they, and we never failed beating them where the afterwards as they deserved. weight of the work lay upon the horse.

Had it not been for the Scotch army, the par. Here the city trained bands, of which there | liament had easily been reduced to terms of peace, were two regiments, and whom we used to despise, but after this they never made any proposals fit fought very well; they lost one of their colonels for the king to receive. Want of success before and several officers in the action, and I heard our had made them differ among themselves; Essex men say they behaved themselves as well as any and Waller were ever at variance; the Earl of forces the parliament had.

|| Manchester and Lord Willoughby differed to the The parliament cried victory here too, as they highest degree, and the king's affairs went never always did, and indeed where the foot were con- || the worse for it. cerned they had the advantage, but our horse de But this storm in the north ruined us all, for feated them evidently. The king drew up his | the Scots prevailed in Yorkshire, and being army in battalia, and faced them all the next day, I joined by Fairfax, Manchester, and Cromwell, inviting them to renew the fight, but they had no carried all before them, so that the king was inclination to come on again.

obliged to send Prince Rupert, with a body of It was a kind of hedge fight, for neither army | four thousand horse, to the assistance of the was drawn out in the field, if it had, it would Earl of Newcastle, where that prince finished never have held from six in the morning to ten at the destruction of the king's interest by a rash night; but they fought for advantages-some and unaccountable action, of which I shall speak in times one side had the better, sometimes the its place. other ; .they fought twice through the town, in Another action on the part of the king gave at one end and out at the other, and in the hedges great offence, which was the calling the Scots and lanes, with exceeding fury.

into the nation, for even the king's own friends The king lost the most men, his foot having disliked it, and was carefully improved by his suffered for want of succour from the horse, which,

enemies, to the disadvantage of the king and of on two several occasions, could not come at them; his cause. but the parliament foot suffered also, and two regi. The rebels in Ireland had, ever since the ments were entirely cut in pieces, and the king | bloody massacre of the protestants, maintained a kept the field.

war against the English, and the Earl of Ormond Essex, the parliament general, had the pillage | was general and governor for the king. The of the dead, and left us to bury them; for while king, finding his affairs pinch him at home, sent We stood all day to our arms, having given them orders to the Earl of Ormond to agree to a cesa fair field to fight us in, their camp rabble strip sation of arms with the rebels, and to ship over ped the dead bodies, and they, not daring to ven certain of his regiments hither to his majesty's ture a second engagement, marched away towards assistance.

It is true the Irish had deserved to be very ill The king lost in this action the Earls of Car treated by the English; but while the parliament

von and Sunderland, the Lord Falkland, al pressed the king with a cruel and unnatural war French marquis, some very gallant officers, and at home, and called in an army out of Scotland about twelve hundred men. The Earl of Car to support their quarrel with their king, I could narvon was brought into an inn in Newbury, never be convinced that it was such a dishonour

e the king came to see him. He had just || able action for the king to suspend the correction ble enough to speak to his majesty, and died in

of his Irish rebels till he was in a capacity to do Il it with safety to himself, or to delay any further



his presence.

assistance to preserve himself here ; and the king, with whom they had articled and capitu. troops he recalled being his own, it was no breach lated, and who had so punctually complied with of his honour to make use of them, since he now all their demands, that they had no claim upon wanted them for his own security against those him, no grievances to be redressed, no oppression who fought against him at home,

to cry out of him, nor could ask any thing of But the king was persuaded to take one step him which he had not granted. further, and that, I confess, was unpleasing to us But as no action in the world is so vile but the all, and some of his best and most faithful ser-actors can cover with some specious pretence, vants took the freedom to speak plainly to him so the Scots, now passing into England, pubof it, and that was, bringing some regiments of lished a declaration to justify their assisting the the Irish themselves over. This cast, as we parliament; to which I shall only say, in my thought, an odium upon our whole nation, being opinion, it was no justification at all; for, ad some of those very wretches who had dipped mitting the parliament's quarrel had been ever their hands in the innocent blood of the pro so just, it could not be just in them to aid them, testants, and with unheard-of butcheries had mas because it was against their own king, to whom sacred so many thousands of English in cool blood. they had sworn allegiance, or at least crowned,

Abundance of gentlemen forsook the king upon and thereby had recognized his authority. this account; and, seeing they could not brook | For, if mal-administration be, according to the fighting in conjunction with this wicked || Prynn's doctrine, or according to their own Bu. generation, came into the declaration of the chanan, a sufficient reason for subjects to take parliament, and, making composition for their up arms against their prince, the breach of his estates, lived retired all the rest of the war, or coronation-oath being supposed to dissolve the went abroad.

oath of allegiance; yet this can never be ex. But as exigencies and necessities oblige us to tended to make it lawful, that because a king of do things which at other times we would not do, || England may, by mal-administration, discharge and is, as to man, some excuse for the doing such the subjects of England from their allegiance, things, so I cannot but think the guilt and dis- that therefore the subjects of Scotland may honour of such an action must lie, very much of take up arms against the King of Scotland, he it at least, at their doors who drove the king to having not infringed the compact of government these necessities and distresses by calling in an as to them, and they having nothing to complain army of his own subjects whom he had not in- of for themselves. jured, but had complied with them in everything, Thus I thought their own arguments were to make war upon him without any provocation. I against them, and Heaven seemed to concur

As to the quarrel between the king and his with it; for although they did carry the cause parliament, there may be something said on both for the English rebels, yet the most of them sides; and the king saw cause himself to disown | left their bones here in the quarrel. and dislike some things he had done, which the But what signifies reason to the drum and the parliament objected against, such as levying trumpet ? The parliament had the supreme ar. money without consent of parliament, infractions | gument with those men-the money; and having on their privileges, and the like. Here, I say, accordingly advanced a good round sum, upon was some room for an argument at least, and payment of this (for the Scots would not stir a concessions on both sides were needful to come foot without it), they entered England on the to a peace; but for the Scots, all their demands ||15th of January, 1643, with an army of twelve had been answered, all their grievances had been thousand men, under the command of General redressed: they had made articles with their | Lesley, now Earl of Leven, an old soldier of sovereign, and he had performed those articles ; great experience, having been bred to armis from their capital enemy, episcopacy, was abolished; his youth in the service of the Prince of Orange. they had not one thing to demand of the king ||(Note 20.) which he had not granted, and therefore they IT The Scots were no sooner entered England but had no more cause to take up arms against their they were joined by all the friends to the parliasovereign than they had against the Grandment party in the north; and first, Colonel Grey, Seignior. But it must for ever lie against them | brother to Lord Grey, joined them with a regi. as a brand of infamy, and as a reproach on their ment of horse, and several out of Westmoreland whole nation, that, purchased by the parliament's and Cumberland, and they advanced to Newmoney, they sold their honesty, and rebelled castle, which they summoned to surrender.

gainst their king for hire ; and it was not many 11 The Earl of Newcastle, who rather saw than years before, as I have said already, they were was able to prevent the storm, was in Newcastle, fully paid the wages of their unrighteousness, and did his best to defend it; but the Scots, inand chastised for their treachery by the very creased by this time to about twenty thousand, same people whom they thus basely assisted; laid close siege to the place, which was but then they would have retrieved it, if it had not meanly fortified, and having repulsed the garrison been too late.

upon several sallies, and pressing the place very But I could not but accuse this age of in- close, after a siege of twelve days they entered justice and partiality, who, while they reproached the town sword in hand. the king for his cessation of arms with the Irish | The Earl of Newcastle got away, and after: rebels, and not prosecuting them with the utmost wards gathered what forces together he could; severity, though he was constrained by the ne- but not strong enough to hinder the Scots from cessity of the war to do it, could yet, at the same advancing to Durham, which he quitted to them, time, justify the Scots taking up arms in a quar- \/nor to hinder the conjunction of the Scots with rel they had no concern in, and against their own the forces of Fairfax, Manchester, and Cromwelt. Whereupon the earl, seeing all things thus going || them off, if occasion was, and to post myself as to wreck, he sent his horse away, and retreated near as possibly I could to the lines, yet so as not with his foot into York, making all necessary to be discovered; and at the same time having preparations for a vigorous defence there, in case concluded what part of the works to fall upon, he should be attacked, which he was pretty sure he drew up his men on two other sides, as if he of, as indeed afterwards happened. York was in would storm them there, and on a signal I was a very good posture of defence : the fortifications to begin the real assault on my side with my very regular, and exceeding strong; well furnished || dragoons. with provisions, and had now a garrison of twelve I had got so near the town with my dragoons, thousand men in it. The governor, under the making them creep upon their bellies a great Earl of Newcastle, was Sir Thomas Glemham, a | way, that we could bear the soldiers talk on the good soldier, and a gentleman of great courage. walls, when the prince, believing one regiment

The Scots, as I have said, having taken Dur. || would be too few, sent me word that he had ham, Tynemouth Castle, and Sunderland, and ordered a regiment of foot to help, and that I being joined by Sir Thomas Fairfax, who had should not discover myself till they were come taken Selby, resolved, with their united strength, up to me. This broke our measures; for the to besiege York; but when they came to view march of this regiment was discovered by the the city, and saw a plan of the works, and had enemy, and they took the alarm. intelligence of the strength of the garrison, they Upon this I sent to the prince to desire he sent expresses to Manchester and Cromwell for || would put off the storm for that night, and I help, who came on and joined them with nine would answer for it the next day; but the prince thousand, making together about thirty thousand || was impatient, and sent orders we should fall on men.

as soon as the foot came up to us. The foot, The Earl of Newcastle's repeated messengers || marching out of the way, missed us, and feli had now convinced the king that it was absolutely || in with a road that leads to another part of necessary to send some forces to his assistance, ||-the town, and not being able to find us, made or else all would be lost in the north. Where- an attack upon the town themselves; but the upon Prince Rupert was detached with orders, | defendants, being ready for them, received them first to go into Lancashire, and relieve Latham very warmly, and beat them off with great loss. House, defended by the brave Countess of Derby :|| I was at a loss now what to do; for 'hearing and then, taking all the forces he could collect the guns, and by the noise knowing it was an in Cheshire, Lancashire, and Yorkshire, to march | assault upon the town, I was very uneasy to to relieve York.

have my share in it; but as I had learned under The prince marched from Oxford with but the King of Sweden punctually. to adhere to three regiments of horse, and one of dragoons, the execution of orders, and my orders being to making in all about two thousand eight hundred | lie still till the foot came up with me, I would not men. The colonels of horse were Goring, Biron, have stirred if I had been sure to have done and myself; the dragoons were commanded by ever so much service; but, however, to satisfy

myself, I sent to the prince to let him know In our march we were joined by a regiment that I continued in the same place, expecting

|| the foot, and none being yet come up, I desired Bristol, and three regiments of horse from Ches- further orders. ter, who, having been at the siege of Nantwich, II The prince was greatly amazed at this, and, were obliged to raise the siege by Sir Thomas finding there must be some mistake, came galFairfax; and the foot having yielded, the horse | loping away in the dark to the place, and drew made good their retreat to Chester, being about | off the men, which was no hard matter, for two thousand, of whom three regiments now they were willing enough to give it over. joined us.

The prince ordered me to come off so privately We received also two thousand foot from as not to be discovered, if possible, which í West-Chester, and two thousand more out of effectually did; and so we were disappointed for Wales, and with this strength we entered Lanca that night. The next day the prince fell on upon shire. We had not much time to spend, and a another quarter with three regiments of foot, great deal of work to do.

but was beaten off with loss, and the like a third Bolton and Liverpool felt the first fury of the

time. prince: at Bolton, indeed, he had some provoca At last the prince, resolving to carry it, doubled tion, for here we were like to be beaten off. ] his numbers, and renewing the attack with fresh When first the prince came to Bolton, he sent a men, the foot entered the town over their works, summons to demand the town for the king, but killing, in the first heat of the action, all that received no answer but from their guns, com- || came in their way; some of the foot, at the manding the messenger to keep off at his peril. same time, letting in the horse; and so the town

They had raised some works about the town; was entirely won. There were about six hunand having by their intelligence learned that we dred of the enemy killed, and we lost four hundred had no artillery, and were only a flying party, || in all, which was owing to the foolish mistakes so they called us, they contemned the summons, we made. Our men got some plunder here and showed themselves upon their ramparts which the parliament made a great noise about; ready for us. The prince was resolved to humble but it was their due, and they bought it dear them, if possible, and took up his quarters close | enough. to the town.

Liverpool did not cost us so much, nor did we In the evening he ordered me to advance with ll get so much by it, the people having sent their one regiment of dragoons, and my horse to bring || women and children, and best goods, on board

Colonel Smith.




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the ships in the road, and as we had no boats to was his business ; it was the enemy's business to board them with, we could not get at them. fight; it was his to avoid it, if possible; for, Here, as at Bolton, the town and fort were having delivered the city, and put the disgrace taken by storm, and the garrison were many of of raising the siege upon the enemy, he had no. them cut in pieces, which, by the way, was their||thing further to do but to have waited till he own faults.

had seen what course the enemy would take, and Our next stop was at Latham house, which the taken his further measures from their motion. Countess of Derby had gallantly defended above But the prince, a continual friend to precipi. eighteen weeks against the parliament forces : 1 tant councils, would hear no advice. I entreated and this lady not only encouraged her men by him not to put it to the hazard: I told him that her cheerful and noble maintenance of them, but| he ought to consider, if he lost the day, he lost by examples of her own undaunted spirit, ex the kingdom, and took the crown from off the posing herself upon the walls in the midst of the king's head. I put him in mind that it was imenemy's shot, would be with her men in the possible those three generals should continue long greatest dangers; and she well deserved our||together; and that if they did, they would not care of her person, for the enemy were prepared lagree long in their councils, which would be as to use her very rudely if she had fallen into their|| well for us as their separating. hands. (Note 21.)

It was plain Manchester and Cromwell must Upon our approach the enemy drew off; and return to the associated counties, who would not the prince not only effectually relieved this suffer them to stay, for fear the king should atvigorous lady, but left a good quantity of all tempt them; that he could subsist well enough, sorts of ammunition, three great guns, five hun having York city and river at his back. But dred arms, and two hundred men, commanded the Scots would eat up the country, make themby a major, as her extraordinary guard.

selves odious, and dwindle away to nothing, if he Here the way being now opened, and our would but hold them at bay a little. Other success answering our expectations, several general officers were of the same opinion; but all bodies of foot came into us from Westmore I could say, or they either, to a man deaf to ans. land and from Cumberland ; and here it was thing but his own courage, signified little. He that the prince found means to surprise the would draw out and fight; there was no pertown of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which was reco-suading him to the contrary, unless a man would vered for the king by the management of the run the risk of being upbraided with being a mayor of the town, and some loyal gentlemen of||coward, and afraid of the work. the county, and a garrison placed there again. The enemy's army lay on a large common, for the king.

called Marston Moor, doubtful what to do: some But our main design being the relief of York, were for fighting the prince; the Scots were the prince advanced that way apace, his army against it, being uneasy at having the garrison of still increasing; and being joined by the Lord Newcastle at their backs; but the prince brought Goring from Rutlandshire with four thousand their councils of war to a result, for he let them horse, which were the same the Earl of New-|| know they must fight him whether they would or castle had sent away when he threw himself into | not; for the prince being, as before, eighteen York with the infantry, we were now eighteen thousand men strong, and the Earl of Newcastle thousand effective men, of which ten thousand having joined him with eight thousand foot out were horse and dragoons; so the prince, full of of the city, were marched in quest of the enemy, hopes, and his men in good heart, boldly marched had entered the moor in view of their army, and directly for York.

began to draw up in order of battle; but night The Scots, as much surprised at the taking of coming on, the armies only viewed each other Newcastle as at the coming of their enemy, began to inquire which way they should get home, if We lay all night upon our arms, and with the they should be beaten; and calling a council of first of the day were in order of battle: the enemy war, they all agreed to raise the siege. The was getting ready; but part of Manchester's prince, who drew with him a great train of car men were not in the field, but lay about three riages, charged with provision and ammunition miles off, and made a hasty march to come up. for the relief of the city, like a wary general,||(Note 22.) kept at a distance from the enemy, and fetching Prince Rupert's army was exceedingly well a great compags about, brought all safe into the managed: he himself commanded the left, the city, and entered York with all his arıny. Earl of Newcastle the right wing; and Lord

No action of the whole war would have gained Goring, as general of the foot, assisted by Major. the prince so much honour, or the king's affairs General Porter and Sir Charles Lucas, led the so much advantage, had the prince but restrained main battle, his courage after this, and checked his fatal| I had prevailed with the prince, according to eagerness for fighting. Here was a siege raised the method of the King of Sweden, to place some the reputation of the enemy justly slurred, a city small bodies of musketeers in the intervals of his relieved, and furnished with all things necessary, | horse in the left wing, but could not prevail upon in the face of an army superior in number by the Earl of Newcastle to do it in the right, which near ten thousand men, and commanded by a she afterwards repented. triumvirate of those veteran generals, Leven, In this posture we stood facing the enemy, ex Fairfax, and Manchester.

Tlpecting they would advance to us, which at las Had the prince but remembered the proceed- they did; and the prince began the day by salut. ing of the great Duke of Parma at the relief of|ling them with his artillery, which, being we Paris, he would have seen the relieving the cityl.placed, galled them terribly for a quarter of al

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