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if we had had provisions, till the war had been cally as to time, that from one of tbe bills he over, and have met with no disturbance; and I showed us a part of the enemy's borse who won have often wondered since how we got into such | then marching into Westmoreland. horrible places as much as how we got out of We lay still that day, finding we were not disthem.
covered by them; and our guide proved the best That which was worse to us than all the rest scout that we could have had; for he would go was, that we knew not where we were going, out ten miles at a time, and bring us in all the nor what part of the country we should come news of the country : here he brought us word into when we came out of those desolate crags. that York was surrendered upon articles, and
At last, after a terrible fatigue, we began to || that Newcasle, which had been surprised by the see the western parts of Yorkshire, some few | king's party, was besieged by another army dl villages, and the country at a distance looked a || Scots advanced to help their brethren. ' little like England; for I thought before, it looked Along the edges of those vast mountains we like Old Brennus Hill, which the Grisons called || passed, with the help of our guide, till we canne the Grandfather of the Alps. We got some || into the forest of Swale ; and finding ourselves relief in the villages, which, indeed, many of us perfectly concealed, for no soldier had ever been had so much need of, that they were hardly able here all the war, nor perhaps would not, if it had to sit their horses, and others were forced to help | lasted seven years; we thought we wanted a fer them off, they were so faint.
days' rest, at least for our horses ; so we resolved I never felt so much of the power of hunger in || to halt, and while we did so, we made some my life; for having not eaten in thirty hours, I disguises, and sent out some spies into the was as ravenous as a hound; and if I had had || country; but as here were no great towns, De 100 a piece of horse flesh, I believe I should not have | no post roads, we got very little intelligence, had patience to have stayed dressing it, but have We rested four days, and then marched again; fallen upon it raw, and have eaten it as greedily || and indeed having no great stock of money about as a Tartar.
| us, and not very free of that we had, four dari However, I ate very cautiously, having often || was enough for those poor places to be able to seen the danger of men's eating heartily after maintain us. long lasting. Our next care was to inquire our We thought ourselves pretty secure now; but way. Halifax, they told us, was on our right, || our chief care was how to get over those ter there we durst not think of going ; General rible mountains ; for having passed the great Skippon was before us, and there we knew || road that leads from York to Lancaster, the not how it was; for a body of three thousand || crags, the further northward we looked, appeared horse, sent out by the enemy in pursuit of Prince | still the worse, and our business was all on the Rupert, had been there but two days before, and other side. the country people could not tell us whether Our guide told us he would bring us out; i they were gone or not; and Manchester's horse, il we wouid have patience, which we were obliged which were sent out after our party, were then to, and kept on this slow march till he brough! at Halifax in quest of us, and afterwards marched us to Stanhope, in the county of Durham ; when! into Cheshire.
some of Lord Goring's horse, and two regiment | In this distress we would have hired a guide, of foot, had their quarters: this was nineteca but none of the country people would go with days from the battle of Marstonmoor. us; for the Roundheads would hang them, they Prince Rupert, who was then at Kendal 1 said, when they came there. Upon this I called Westmoreland, and who had given me over 8 a fellow to me.“ Harke, friend, dost thee know lost, when he had news of our arrival, sent a the way so as to bring us into Westmoreland, express to me to meet him at Appleby. I went and not keep the great road from York ?"
thither accordingly, and gave him an account | " Ay, merry, I ken the ways weel enou." our journey; and there I heard the short histori
And you would go and guide us, but that you l of the other part of our men, whom we parte are afraid the Roundheads will hang you." from in Lancashire.
“ Indeed would I, measter, with all my heart." | They made the best of their way north; they 1"
" Why, then, thou hadst as well be hanged by had two resolute gentlemen who commanded; a Roundhead as a Cavalier ; for if thou will not and being so closely pursued by the enemy, that. go, I'll hang thee instantly.”
finding themselves under the necessity of het " Na, and ye serve me soa, Ise ene gan with |ing, they halted, and faced about, expecting the ye; for I care not for hanging ; and ye'l get me charge. a horse, Ise gang and be one of you, for I'll nere The boldness of the action made the officer come heame more."
who led the enemy's horse, which it seems were This pleased us still better, and we mounted the county horse only, afraid of them; white the fellow; for three of our men died that night | they perceiving, taking the advantage of De with the extreme fatigue of the last service. fears, bravely advanced, and charged them; and
Next morning, when our new trooper was though they were above two hundred hores mounted and clothed, we hardly knew him; and they routed them, killed about thirty or forty, this fellow led us by such ways, such wildernesses, got some horses and some money, and pusht and yet with such prudence, keeping the hills to on their march night and day; but coming next the left, that we might have the villages to re. Lancaster, they were so waylaid add pursuels fresh ourselves, that, without him, we had cer that they agreed to separate, and shift every tainly either perished in those mountains, or man for himself. fallen into the enemy's hands.
Many of them fell into the enemy's hands We passed the great road from York so criti- 11 some were killed attempting to pass through tre
river Lune; some went back again, six or seven || about Winchester, having lately beaten Sir Ralph got to Bolton, and about eighteen got safe to Hopton. Upon all these considerations, the Earl Prince Rupert.
of Essex marched westward. The prince was in a better condition here The forces in the west being too weak to opthan I expected; he and Lord Goring, with the || pose him, everything gave way to him, and all help of Sir Marmaduke Langdale, and the gen people expected he would besiege Exeter, where tlemen of Cumberland, had a body of four thou the queen was newly lying-in, and sent a trumpet sand horse and about six thousand foot.
to desire he would forbear the city until she They had retaken Newcastle, Tynemouth, could be removed; which he did, and passed on Durham, Stockton, and several towns of conse westward, took Tiverton, Bideford, Barnstaple, quence, from the Scots, and might have cut Launceston, relieved Plymouth, drove Sir Richard them out work enough still, if that base people, Grenvill up into Cornwall, and followed him thiresolved to engage their whole interest to ruin ther, but left Prince Maurice behind him with their sovereign, had not sent a second army of four thousand men about Barnstaple and Exeter. ten thousand men, under the Earl of Calender, The king, in the meantime, marched from Oxto help their first.
ford to Worcester, with Waller at his heels. At These came and laid siege to Newcastle, but || Edgehill his majesty turned upon Waller, and found more vigorous resistance now than they il gave him a brush to put him in mind of the had done before.
place; the king went on to Worcester, sent three There were in the town Sir John Morley, the hundred horse to relieve Durley Castle, besieged Lord Crawford, Lord Rea, and Maxwell, Scots, by the Earl of Denbigh, and sending part of his and old soldiers, who were resolved their coun- forces to Bristol, returned to Oxford. trymen should buy the town very dear if they II His majesty had now firmly resolved to march had it; and had it not been for our disaster at into the west, not having yet any account of our Marstonmoor, they had never had it; for Calen misfortunes in the north. Waller and Middleton der, finding he was not able to carry the town, waylaid the king at Cropedy bridge; the king sent to General Leven to come from the siege attacked Middleton at the bridge; Waller's men of York to help him.
were posted with some cannon to guard a pass; Meantime the prince formed a very good Middleton put a regiment of the king's foot to army, and the Lord Goring, with ten thousand the rout, and pursued them: Waller's men, wil. men, showed himself on the borders of Scotland, ling to come in for the plunder, a thing their to try if that might not cause the Scots to recall general had often used them to, quitted their post their forces; and I am persuaded had he entered at the pass, and their great guns, to have part in Scotland, the parliament of Scotland would have the victory. recalled the Earl of Calender, for they had but The king, coming in seasonably to the relief of five thousand men left in arms to send against his men, routed Middleton, and at the same time him ; but he was loath to venture.
sent a party round, who clapt in between Sir However, this effect it had, that it called the William Waller's men and their great guns, and Scots northward again, and found them work ll secured the pass and the cannon too. there for the rest of the summer, to reduce the The king took three colonels, besides other several towns in the bishopric of Durham, officers, and about three hundred men, prisoners,
I found with the prince the poor remains of ll with eight great guns, nineteen carriages of ammy regiment, which, when joined with those that munition, and killed about two hundred men. had been with me, could not all make up three Waller lost his reputation in this fight, and was troops, and but two captains, three lieutenants, l exceedingly slighted ever after, even by his own and one cornet : the rest were dispersed, killed, Il party; but especially by such as were of Essex's or taken prisoners.
party, between whom and Waller there had been However, with those, which we still called a l jealousies and misunderstandings for some time. regiment, I joined the prince, and after having i The king, about eight thousand strong, marchdone all we could on that side, the Scots being led on to Bristol, where Sir William Hopton returned from York, the prince returned through | joined him; and from thence he followed Essex Lancashire to Chester.
into Cornwall; Essex still following Grenvill, The enemy often appeared and alarmed us, the king came to Exeter, and joining with Prince and once fell on one of our parties, and killed us | Maurice, resolved to pursue Essex; and now the about a hundred men; but we were too many Earl of Essex began to see his mistake, being for them to pretend to fight us, so we came to cooped up between two seas, the king's army in Bolton, beat the troops of the enemy near War- | his rear, the country his enemy, and Sir Richard rington, where I got a cut with a halberd in my || Grenvill in his van. face, and arrived at Chester the beginning of The king, who always took the best measures August.
when left to his own counsel, wisely refused to The parliament, upon their great success in engage, though superior in number, and much the north, thinking the king's forces quite broken, || stronger in horse. Essex often drew out to fight; had sent General Essex into the west, where the li but the king, fortified, took the passes and bridges, king's army was commanded by Prince Maurice, ll planted cannon, and secured the country to keep Prince Rupert's elder brother, but not very | off provisions, and continually straitened their strong; and the king being, as they supposed, by ll quarters, but would not fight. the absence of Prince Rupert, weakened so much | Now Essex sends away to the parliament for that he might be checked by Sir William Waller, ll help, and they write to Waller, Middleton, and who, with four thousand five hundred foot, and | Manchester, to follow and come up with the king one thousand five hundred horse, was at that time Il in his rear; but some were too far off, and could
not, as Manchester and Fairfax ; others made no 1 Flushed with this success, and eager to assist haste, as having no mind to it, as Waller and the fifty men I had left bebind, he faced about, Middleton; and if they had, it had been too late. || and charged through them again, and with these
At last the Earl of Essex, finding nothing to be two charges entirely routed them. dune, und unwilling to fall into the king's hands, Sir William Brereton finding himself disaptook shipping, and left his army to shift for them- pointed, advanced and fell upon the fifty men just selves. The horse, under Sir William Balfour, as the colonel came up to them; they fought him the best horse officer, and, without comparison, with a great deal of bravery ; but the colonel the bravest in all the parliament army, advanced being unfortunately killed in the first charge, the in small parties, as if to skirmish, but following men gave way, and came flying all in confusion, in with the whole body, being three thousand five with the enemy at their heels. hundred horse, broke through, and got off.
As soon as I saw this, I advanced, according Though this was a loss to the king's victory, || to my orders, and the enemy, as soon as we apvet the foot were now in a condition so much the peared, e over the pursuit. This gentleman, worse. Brave old Skipton proposed to fight | I remember, was Colonel Morrough; we fetched through with the foot, and die, as he called it, | off his body, and retreated into Chester. like Englishmen, with sword in hand; but the The next morning the prince drew out of the rest of the officers shook their heads at it; for, || city with about one thousand two hundred horse being well paid, they had, at present, no inclina and two thousand foot, and attacked Sir William tion for dying.
Brereton in his quarters. The fight was very Seeing it thus, they agreed to treat, and the I sharp for the time, and near seven hundred men king granted them conditions, upon laying down on both sides were killed; but Sir William would their arms, to march off free. This was too ll not put it to a general engagement, so the prince much : had his majesty but obliged them upon | drew off, contenting himself to have insulted him oath not to serve again for a certain time, he had in bis quarters. done his business ; but this was not thought of; We now had received orders from the king to so they passed free, only disarmed, the soldiers | join him ; but I representing to the prince the rot being allowed so much as their swords. condition of my regiment, which was now reduced
The king gained by this treaty forty pieces of to a hundred men, and that being within twenty. cannon, all of brass, three hundred barrels of || | five miles of my father's house, I might soon regunpowder, nine thousand arms, eight thousand cruit it, my father having got some men tog ther swords, match and bullet in proportion, two hun already, I desired leave to lay at Shrewsbury for dred waggons, one hundred and fifty colours and a month, to make up my men. standards, all the bag and baggage, and about a Accordingly, having obtained his leare, I thousand of the men listed in his army. This was marched to Wrexham, where, in two days, I got a complete victory without bloodshed; and had twenty men, and so on to Shrewsbury. I had the king but secured the men from serving only not been here above ten days, but I received an for six months, it had most effectually answered | express to come away with what recruits I had the battle of Marston Moor.
got together, Prince Rupert having positive As it was, it infused new life into all his ma orders to meet the king by a certain day. jesty's forces and friends, and retrieved his affairs I had not mounted one hundred men, though I very much ; but especially it encouraged us in had listed above two hundred, when these orders the north, who were more sensible of the blow | came; but leaving my father to complete theu received at Marston Moor, and of the destruction for me, I marched with those I had, and went to the Scots were bringing upon us all.
| Oxford. While I was at Chester, we had some small | The king, after the rout of the parliament skirmishes with Sir William Brereton. One forces in the west, had marched back, took Bart. morning in particular Sir William drew up, and staple, Plympton, Launceston, Tiverton, and faced us, and one of our colonels of horse observ. several other places, and left Plymouth besieged ing the enemy to be not, as he thought, above by Sir Richard Grenvill; met with Sir William two hundred, desired leave of Prince Rupert to Waller at Shaftesbury, and again at Andover ; attack them with the like number, and accord. || had a skirmish with him at both places, and ingly he sallied out with two hundred horse. ll marched for Newbury.
I stood drawn up without the city with eight | Here the king sent for Prince Rupert to meet hundred more, ready to bring him off, if he should || him, who, with three thousand horse, made long be put to the worst, which happened accordingly; || marches to join him; but the parliament having for, not having discovered neither the country I joined their three armies together, Manchester nor the enemy as he ought, Sir William Brereton from the north, Waller and Essex, the men being drew him into an ambuscade; so that before he clothed and armed from the west, had attacked came up with Sir William's forces near enough the king, and obliged him to fight, the day before to charge, he found about three hundred horse | the prince came up. in his rear: though he was surprised at this, yet, The king had so posted himself as that he being a man of ready courage, he boldly faced I could not be obliged to fight but with advagabout with one hundred and fifty of his men, tage; the parliament's forces being superior In leaving the other fifty to face Sir William. number, and therefore, when they attacked him, "
With this small party he desperately charged he galled them with his cannon, and, declining to the three hundred horse in his rear, and putting come to a general battle, stood upon the delen them into disorder, broke through them, and had sive, expecting Prince Rupert with the horse. there been no greater force, he had cut them all The parliament's forces had some advantage to picces,
ll over our foot, and took the Earl of Cleveland p
soner; but the king, whose foot were not above | orders among them as well as among us, only one or two. drew his men under the cannon of | with this diflerence, that they, for reasons I menDennington Castle, and, having secured his artil- !! tioned before, were under circumstances to prelery and baggage, made a retreat with his foot in !' vent it better than the king. very good order, having not lost in all the fight But I must do the king's memory that justice, above three hundred men, and the parliament as that he used all possible methods, by punishmany. We lost five pieces of cannon and took | ment of soldiers, charging, and sometimes two, having repulsed the Earl of Manchester's entreating, the gentlemen not to suffer such men on the north side of the town, with consi- disorders and such violences in their men; but derable loss.
it was to no purpose for his majesty to attempt The king, having lodged his train of artillery | it, while his officers, generals, and great men and baggage in Dennington Castle, marched the winked at it; for the licentiousness of the soldier next day for Oxford ; there we joined him with is supposed to be approved by the officer when three thousand horse and two thot and foot. it is not corrected. Encouraged with this reinforcement, 'the king | The rudeness of the parliament soldiers began appeared upon the hills on the north-west of from the division among their officers; for in Newbury, and faced the parliament army. The many places the soldiers grew so out of all dis. parliament having too many generals as well as cipline, and so insufferably rude, that they in soldiers, the former could not agree whether they particular refused to march when Sir William should fight or not.
Waller went to Weymouth. This had turned This was no great token of the victory they to good account for us had these cursed Scots boasted of; for they were now twice our number been out of our way; but they were the staff in the whole, and their foot three for one. The of the party; and now they were daily solicited king stood in battalia all day, and finding the l to march southward, which was a very great parliament forces had no mind to engage him, he affliction to the king and all his friends. drew away his cannon and baggage out of Den | One booty the king got at this time which was nington Castle, in view of their whole army, and a very seasonable assistance to his affairs. marched to Oxford.
A great merchant ship, richly laden at Lon. This was such a false step of the parliament || don, and bound to the East Indies, was, by the generals, that the people cried shame of them, seamen, brought into Bristol, and delivered up and the parliament appointed a committee to in to the king. quire into it.
Some merchants in Bristol offered the king Cromwell accused Manchester, and Manchester | forty thousand pounds for her, which his majesty accused Waller, and so they laid the fault upon || ordered should be accepted, reserving only thirty each other,
great guns for his own use. Waller would have been glad to have charged | The treaty at Uxbridge now was begun, and it upon Essex; but, as it happened, he was not in || we, that had been well beaten in the war, heartily the army, having been taken ill some days be- || wished the king would come to a peace; but we fore ; but, as it generally is when a mistake is all foresaw the clergy would ruin it all. The made, the actors fall out among themselves, so it commons were for presbytery, and would never was here.
agree the bishops should be restored ; the king No doubt it was as false a step as that at Corn | was more willing to comply with anything than wall, to let the king draw away his baggage and | this, and we foresaw it would be so; from whence cannon, in the face of three armies, and never fire we used to say among ourselves, that the clergy a shot at them.
was resolved, if there was no bishop, there should The king had not above eight thousand foot in || be no king. his army, and they above twenty-five thousand. || This treaty at Uxbridge was a perfect war It is true, the king had eight thousand horse, a | between the men of the gown; ours was between fine body, and much superior to theirs; but the | those of the sword; and I cannot but take foot might, with the greatest ease in the world, I notice how the lawyers, statesmen, and the clergy have prevented the removing of the cannon, and of every side bestirred themselves rather to hinin three days have taken the castle, with all that der than promote the peace. was in it.
There had been a treaty at Oxford some time Those differences produced their self-denying before, where the parliament, insisting that the ordinance, and the putting by most of their old ge king should pass a bill to abolish episcopacy, nerals, as Essex, Waller, Manchester, &c.; and Sir! quit the militia, abandon several of his faithful Thomas Fairfax, a terrible man in the field, though || servants to be exempted from pardon, and makthe mildest of men out of it, was voted to have the ing several other most extravagant demands ; command of all their forces, and Lambert to take nothing was done, but the treaty broke off, both the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax's troops in parties being rather further exasperated than the north, old Skipton being major-general. inclined to hearken to conditions.
This winter was spent on the enemy's side in However, soon after the success in the west, modelling, as they called it, their army; and, his majesty, to let them see that the victory had on our side in recruiting ours, and some petty not elated him so as to make him reject the excursions.
peace, sent a messenger to the parliament to put Amongst the many addresses, I observed one them in mind of messages of like nature which from Sussex or Surry, complaining of the rude. they had slighted, and to let them know that, ness of our soldiers, and particularly of the ra notwithstanding he had beaten their forces, he vishing of women and the murdering of men; was yet willing to hearken to a reasonable pro. from which I only observed that there were dis- | posal for putting an end to the war.
The parliament pretended the king in his mes. || above eight or ten men killed on both sides; sage did not treat with them as a legal parlia- || for the town was surprised, not atormed. ment, and so made hesitations; but after long I I had a particular loss in this action; for all the debates and delays they agreed to draw up pro- || men and horses my father had got together for positions for peace to be sent to the king.
the recruiting my regiment were here lost and As this message was sent to the houses about dispersed; and which was the worse, my father, August, I think they made it the middle of No-|| happening to be then in the town, was taken vember before they brought propositions for || prisoner, and carried to Beeston Castle, in Chea peace; and when they brought them they had shire. no power to cnter either upon a treaty, or so I was quartered all this winter at Banbury, in much as preliminaries for a treaty, only to deliver | Oxfordshire, and went little abroad; nor bad we the letter and receive an answer.
any action till the latter end of February, when However, such were the circumstances of I was ordered to march to Leicester with Sir affairs at this time, that the king was uneasy to Marmaduke Langdale, in order, as we thought, see himself thus treated, and take no notice of it. to raise a body of men in that county, and StafThe king returned an answer to the proposi fordshire, to join the king. tions, and proposed a treaty by commissioners, We lay at Daventry one night, and continued which the parliament appointed.
our march to pass the river above Northampton; Three months more were lost in naming com- || that town being possessed by the enemy, we missioners. There was much time spent in this || understood a party of Northampton forces were treaty, but little done; the commissioners de- || abroad, and intended to attack us. bated chiefly the article of religion and of the | Accordingly, in the afternoon, our scouts militia ; in the latter they were very likely to brought us word the enemy were quartered in agree; in the former both sides seemed too some villages on the road to Coventry; vur positive. The king would by no means aban. commander, thinking it much better to set upon don episcopacy, nor the parliament presbytery; them in their quarters than to wait for them in for both, in their opinion, were of divine appoint- the field, resolved to attack them early in the ment.
morning before they were aware of it. The commissioners, finding this point hardest U We refreshed ourselves in the field for that to adjust, went from it to that of the militia ; || day, and getting into a great wood near the but the time spinning out, the king's commis. || enemy, we stayed there all night, till almost break sioners demanded longer time for the treaty; the of day, without being discovered other sent up for instructions, but the house re- In the morning very early we heard the ene fused to lengthen out the time.
my's trumpets sound to horse; this roused us This was thought an insolence upon the king, to look abroad; and sending out a scout, be and gave all good people a detestation of such | brought us word a party of the enemy was at haughty behaviour; and thus the hopes of peace | hand. We were vexed to be so disappointed; vanished; both sides prepared for war with as but finding their party small enough to be dealt much eagerness as before.
|| with, Sir Marmaduke ordered me to charge The parliament was now employed in what | them with three hundred horse and two hunthey called modelling their army; that is to say, | dred dragoons, while he at the same time enthe independent party began to prevail; and as || tered the town. they outdid all the others in their resolution of Accordingly I lay still till they came to the carrying on the war to all extremities, so they ll very skirt of the wood where I was posted, when were both the more vigorous and more politic || I saluted them with a volley from my dragoons party in carrying it on.
out of the wood, and immediately showed myself Indeed the war was after this carried on with | with my horse on their front, ready to charge greater animosity than ever, and the generals || them; they appeared not to be surprised, and pushed forward with a vigour, that, as it had received our charge with great resolution; and something in it unusual, told us plainly from being above four hundred men, they pushed me this time, whatever they did before, they now | vigorously in their turn, putting my men into pushed at the ruin even of monarchy itself. || some disorder.
All this while also the war went on, and though I In this extremity I sent to order the dragoons the parliament had no settled army, yet their to charge them in the flank, which they did with
egiments and troops were always in action, and I great bravery, and the other still maintained the sword was at work in every part of the king the fight with desperate resolution. There was dom.
no want of courage on either side; but our dra. Among an infinite number of party skirmishes goons had the advantage, and at last routed them, and fights this winter, one happened which I and drove them back to the village. nearly concerned me. Colonel Mitton, with Here Sir Marmaduke Langdale had his hands about twelve hundred horse and foot, having full too; for my firing had alarmed the places intelligence from some of the inhabitants of adjacent, that when he came into the town, he Shrewsbury, on a Sunday morning early broke found them all in arms, and, contrary to his exinto the town and took it castle and all.
pectation, two regiments of foot, with about The loss for the quality, more than the num- five hundred horse more. As Sir Marmaduke ber, was very great to the king's affairs. They had no foot, only horse and dragoons, this was took there fifteen pieces of cannon, Prince a surprise to him; but he caused bis dragoons Maurioe's magazine of arms and ammunition, | to enter the town, and charge the foot, while Prince Rupert's baggage, and above fifty pero his horse secured the avenues of the town. sons of quality and officers. There were not The dragoons bravely attacked the foot, and