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Sir Marmaduke falling in with his horse, the || Aanks with them, as if we had been marching; fight was obstinate and bloody, when the horse which, though it was done without orders, had that I had routed came flying into the street of | two very good effects, and which did us extrathe village, and my men at their heels.
ordinary service. Immediately I left the pursuit , and fell in First, it secured us from being charged in the with all my force to the assistance of my friends ; flank, which Rositer had twice attempted; and, and, after an obstinate resistance, we routed the secondly, it secured our earriages from being whole party. We killed about seven hundred plundered, which had spoiled our expedition. men, took three hundred and fifty, twenty-seven Being thus enclosed, we fought with great seofficers, one hundred arms, all their baggage, curity; and though Rositer made three despeand two hundred horses, and continued our rate charges upon us, he could never break us. march to Harborough, where we halted to re Our men received him with so much courage, fresh ourselves.
and kept their orders so well, that the enemy, Between Harborough and Leicester, we met finding it impossible to force us, gave over, and with a party of eight hundred dragoons of the left us to pursue our orders. We did not offer Parliament forces. They found themselves tool to chase them, but contented enough to have few to attack ; and therefore, to avoid us, they repulsed and beaten them off, and our business got into a small wood; but perceiving themselves being to relieve Newark, we proceeded. discovered, they came boldly out, and placed If we are to reckon by the enemy's usual methemselves at the entrance into a lane, lining thod, we got the victory because we kept the both sides of the hedges with their shot. field, and had the pillage of their dead; but
We immediately attacked them, beat them | otherwise neither side had any great cause to from the hedges, from thence into the wood, and boast. out of the wood again, and forced them at lastWe lost about 150 men, and near as many to a downright runaway on foot among the en- hurt; they left 170 on the spot, and carried off closures, where it was difficult to follow ; killed || some. How many they had wounded we could about a hundred of them, and took two hundred ll not tell; we got about seventy or eighty horses, and fifty prisoners, with all their horses, and which helped to remount some of our men that came that night to Leicester. When we came I had lost theirs in the fight. there, and had taken up our quarters, Sir Mar | We had, however, this disadvantage, that we maduke Langdale sent for me to sup with him, I were to mareh on immediately after this service; and told me that he had a secret commission in the enemy only to retire to their quarters, about his pocket, which his majesty had commanded a mile. This was an injury to our wounded him not to open until he came to Leicester; || men, who we were afterwards obliged to leave that now he had sent for me to open it together, at Belvoir Castle, and from thence we advanced that we might know what it was we were to do, ll to Newark. and to consider how to do it.
Our business at Newark was to relieve the Then pulling out his sealed orders, we found | place, and this we resolved to do, whatever it we were to get what force we could together, cost, though, at the same time, we resolved not and a certain number of carriages with ammuni. I to fight unless we were forced to it. tion, which the governor of Leicester was to || The town was rather blocked up than bedeliver us, and a certain quantity of provisions, | sieged; the garrison were strong, but ill proespecially corn and salt, and to relieve Newark. || vided : we had sent them word of our coming,
This town had long been besieged; the fortifi- ||' and our orders to relieve them, and they procations, together with its situation, had rendered | posed some ineagures for our doing it. it the strongest place in England; and as it was The chief strength of the enemy lay on the the greatest pass in the kingdom, so it was of other side of the river ; but they, having also vast consequence to the king's affairs.
some notice of our design, had sent over forces There was in it a garrison of brave old rugged to strengthen their leaguer on this side. The boys, fellows that, like Count Tilly's Germans, l garrison had often surprised them by sallies, and had iron faces, and they had defended themselves indeed had chiefly subsisted for some time by with extraordinary bravery a great while, but what they brought in on this manner. Dow were exceedingly reduced for the want of Sir Marmaduke Langdale, who was our comfood.
mander for the expedition, was for a general atAccordingly we received the ammunition and || tempt to raise the siege ; but I had persuaded provision, and away we went for Newark. About him from it; first, becanse, if we should be Melton Mowbray, Colonel Rositer set upon us || beaten, as might be probable, we then lost the with above three thousand men; we were about town. the same number, having two thousand five Sir Marmaduke briskly replied, “A soldier hundred horse, and eight hundred dragoons. ought never to suppose he shall be beaten.” We had some foot, but they were still at Har. "But, sir,” said I, “ you will get more ho. borough, and were ordered to come after us. nour by relieving the town than by beating
Rositer, like a brave officer, charged us with them : one will be a credit to your conduct, as great fury, and rather outdid us in number, while the other will be to your courage; and, if you we defended ourselves with all the eagerness we think you can beat them, you may do it after. could, and gave him to understand we were not wards; and then if you are mistaken the town 80 soon to be beaten as he expected.
! is nevertheless secured, and half your victory While the fight continued doubtful, especially li gained." on our side, our people, who had charge of the He was prevailed with to adhere to this ad. carriages and provisions, began to enclose our || vice, and accordingly we appeared before tho town about two hours before night. The horse il two parties of horse on each point by themdrew up before the enemy's works; the enemy || selves, and the dragoons in the centre, on foot. drew up within their works, and, seeing no foot, || Their foot charged us home, and stood with expected our dragoons would dismount and at- | push of pike a great while; but their horse tack them.
charging our horse and musketeers, and being They were in the right to let us attack them, || closed on the flanks with those two extended because of the advantage of their batteries and troops on our wings, they were presently disor. works, if that had been our design ; but, as we dered, and fled out of the field. intended only to amuse them, this caution of | The foot, thus deserted, were charged on theirs effected our purpose ; for, while we thus | every side and broken. They retreated, still faced them with our horse, two regiments of foot fighting and in good order, for awhile; but which came up to us but the night before, and the garrison sallying upon them at the same was all the infantry we had, with the waggons of time, and being followed close by our horse, they provisions, and five hundred dragoons, taking a | were scattered, entirely routed, and most of compass clean round the town, posted them- | them killed. selves on the lower side of the town by the || Lord Fairfax was come with his horse as far river.
as Ferrybridge, but the fight was over; and all Upon a signal the garrison agreed on before, he could do was to rally those that fled, and they sallied out at this very juncture with all || save some of their carriages, which else had the men they could spare, and dividing them fallen into our hands. selves in two parties, while one party moved to We drew up our little army in order of battle the left to meet our relief, the other party fell | the next day, expecting Lord Fairfax would have on upon part of that body which faced us. charged us; but his lordship was so far from
We kept in motion, and upon this signal ad-| any such thoughts, that he placed a party of vanced to their works, and our dragoons fired dragoons with orders to fortify the pass at Ferupon them : and the horse wheeling and coun rybridge, to prevent our falling upon him in his ter-marching often, kept them continually ex retreat, which he needed not to have done; for, pecting to be attacked.
having raised the siege of Pontefract, our busiBy this means the enemy were kept employed, ness was over : we had nothing to say to him, and our foot, with the waggons, appearing on | unless we had been strong enough to stay. that quarter where they were least expected, We lost not above thirty men in this action, casily defeated the advanced guards and forced and the enemy three hundred, with about one that post; where, entering the leaguer, the || hundred and fifty prisoners, one piece of cannon, other part of the garrison who had sallied that | all their ammunition, one thousand arms, and way came up to them, received the waggons, most of their baggage, and Colonel Lambert and the dragoons entered with them into the was once taken prisoner. being wounded, but town.
got off again. (Note 23.) That party which we faced on the other side We brought no relief for the garrison, but the of the works, knew nothing of what was done li opportunity to furnish themselves out of the till all was over; the garrison retreated in good country, which they did very plentifully. The order, and we drew off, having finished what we || | ammunition taken from the enemy was given to came for with little fighting.
them, which they wanted, and was their due; Thus we plentifully stored the town with all | for they had seized it in the sally they made, things wanting, and with an addition of 500 || before the enemy was quite defeated. dragoons to their garrison ; after which we I cannot omit taking notice, on all occasions, marched away.
how exceedingly serviceable this method was of Our next orders were to relieve Pontefract posting musketeers in the intervals, among the Castle, another garrison of the king's which had || horse, in all this war: been besieged ever since the fight at Marston I persuaded our generals to it as much as Moor, by Lord Fairfax, Sir Thomas Fairfax, possible, and I never knew a body of horse and other generals in their turn.
beaten that did so; yet I had great difficulty to By the way we were joined with 800 horse prevail upon our people to believe it, though it out of Derbyshire, and some foot, so many as was taught me by Gustavus Adolphus, the made us in all about 4,500 men.
greatest general in the world. Prince Rupert Colonel Forbes, a Scotchman, commanded at did it at the battle of Marston Moor; and had the the siege, in the absence of Lord Fairfax; the || Earl of Newcastle not been obstinate against it colonel had sent to my lord for more troops, and in his right wing, as I observed before, the day bis lordship was gathering his forces to come up I had not been lost. to him; but he was pleased to come too late. In discoursing this with Sir Marmaduke Lang.
We came up with the enemy's leaguer about dale, I had related several examples of the serbreak of day, and having been discovered by | viceableness of these small bodies of firemen, and, their scouts, they, with more courage than dis with great difficulty, brought him to agree, telling cretion, drew out to meet us.
him I would be answerable for the success; We saw no reason to avoid them, being after the fight, he told me plainly he saw the stronger in horse than they; and though we | advantage of it, and would never fight otherwise had but few foot, we had 1,000 dragoons. We | again, if he had any foot to place. had placed our horse and foot throughout in one Having relieved these two places, we hastened, line, with two reserves of horse, and between | by long marches, through Derbyshire, to join every division of horse a division of foot, only | Prince Rupert on the edge of Shropshire and that on the extremes of our wings there were ll Cheshire. 'We found Colonel Rositer had fellowed us at a distance ever since the business at || ment, and above twenty thousand pounds in Melton Mowbray, but never cared to attack us, money and plate, which at several times he had and we found he did the like still. Our general lent, or rather given to the king, had reduced would fain have been doing with him again, but our family to very ill circumstances; and now we found him too shy.
they talked of cutting down his woods. Once we laid a trap for him at Dovebridge, I had a great deal of discourse with my father between Derby and Burton-upon-Trent, the body on this affair; and finding him extremely conbeing marched two days beforc; three hundred | cerned, I offered to go to the king, and desire dragoons were left to guard the bridge, as if we his leave to go to London, and treat about his were afraid he should fall upon us.
composition, or to render myself a prisoner in Upon this we marched on to Burton, and the his stead, while he went up himself. next day, fetching a compass round, came to al In this difficulty I treated with the governor village near Titbury Castle, whose name I have of the town, who very civilly offered me his pass forgot, where we lay still, expecting our dragoons to go for London, which I accepted; and waiting would be attacked.
on Prince Rupert, who was then at Worcester, Accordingly Rositer, strengthened with some I acquainted him with my design. troops of horse from Yorkshire, came up to the ! The prince was unwilling I should go to bridge, and, finding some dragoons posted, ad- || London ; but told me he had some prisoners of vanced to charge them; the dragoons imme the parliament's friends in Cumberland, and he diately mounted their horses and fled, as they would get an exchange for my father : were ordered; but the old lad was not to be I replied, if he would give me his word for it, caught so; for he halted immediately at the I knew I might depend upon it, otherwise there bridge, and would not come over till he had sent were so many of the king's party in their hands, three or four flying parties abroad to discover that his majesty was tired with solicitations for the country.
exchanges; for we never had a prisoner but One of these parties fell into our hands, and there were ten offers of exchanges for him. received but coarse entertainment. Finding The prince said I might depend upon him, and the plot would not take, we appeared and drew he was as good as his word quickly after. up in view of the bridge, but he would not stir ; While the prince lay at Worcester he made so we continued our march into Cheshire, where | an excursion into Herefordshire, and having we joined Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice, | made some of the gentlemen prisoners, brought making together a fine body, being above eight them to Worcester; and though it was an acthousand horse and dragoons.
tion which had not been usual, they being perThis was the best and most successful expe sons not in arms, yet the like being my father's dition I was in during this war. It was well case, who was really not in commission, nor in concerted, and executed with as much expedi any military service, having resigned his regition and conduct as could be desired, and the ment three years before to me, the prince insuccess was answerable to it.
sisted on exchanging them for such as the Indeed, considering the season of the year, for parliament had in custody in similar cir. we set out from Oxford the latter end of Feb cumstances. ruary, the ways bad, and the season wet, it was The gentlemen, sceing no remedy, solicited a terrible march of above two hundred miles, in their own case at the parliament, and got it continual action, and incessantly dodged and passed in their behalf, and by this means my faobserved by a vigilant enemy, and at a time ther got his liberty; and, by the assistance of when the north was overrun by their armies, and the Earl of Denbigh, got leave to come to Lonthe Scots wanting employment for their forces ; || don to make a composition, as a delinquent, for yet, in less than twenty-three days, we marched his estate. two hundred miles, fought the enemy in open || This they charged at seven thousand pounds; field four times, relieved one garrison besieged, li but, by the assistance of the same noble person, raised the siege of another, and joined our friends he got off for four thousand pounds : some memat last in safety.
bers of the committee moved very kindly that The enemy was in great pain for Sir William || my father should oblige me to quit the king's Brereton and his forces, and expresses rode night | service; but that, as a thing which might be out and day to the Scots in the north, and to the l of his power, was not insisted on. parties in Lancashire, to come to his help. The | The modelling the parliament army took them prince, who used to be rather too forward to up all this winter, and we were in great hopes fight than otherwise, could not be persuaded to the divisions which appeared amongst them might make use of this opportunity, but loitered, if I have weakened their party ; but when they voted may be allowed to say so, till the Scots, with a || Sir Thomas Fairfax to be general, I confess I brigade of horse and two thousand foot, had was convinced the king's affairs were desperate, 'oined him; and then it was not thought proper and lost to engage them.
Sir Thomas, abating the zeal of his party, and I took this opportunity to go to Shrewsbury the mistaken opinion of his cause, was the fittest to visit my father, who was a prisoner of war man amongst them to undertake the charge : there, getting a pass from the enemy's governor. || he was a complete general, strict in his disci. He allowed him the liberty of the town, and pline, wary in conduct, fearless in action, unsometimes to go to his own house, upon his pa- || wearied in the fatigue of the war, and, withal, of role; so that his confinement was not very much a modest, noble, generous disposition, to his personal injury: but this, together with | We all apprehended danger from him, and the charges he had been at in raising the regi.' heartily wished him of our own side; and the
king was so sensible of it, that when an account king turned eastward and marched into Leices. was brought him of the choice they had made, | tershire, and having treated the country but very he replied, * I am sorry for it; I had rather it || indifferently, as having deserved no better of us, had been anybody than he."
| laid siege to Leicester. (Note 24.) The first attempts of this new general and U This was but a short siege ; for the king, renew army were at Oxford, which, by the neigh-solving not to lose time, feu on with his great bourhood of a numerous garrison in Abingdon, I guns, and having beaten down their works, our began to be very much straitened for provisions ; || foot entered, after a vigorous resistance, and took and the new forces under Cromwell and Skippon, the town by storm. one lieutenant-general, the other major-general, || There was some blood shed here, the town to Fairfax, approaching with a design to block it being carried by assault; but it was their own up, the king left the place, supposing his absence || faults; for, after the town was taken, the soldiers would draw them away, as it soon did.
and townsmen obstinately fought us in the mar. The king, resolving to leave Oxford, marched ket-place: insomuch that the horse was called from thence with all his forces, the garrison ex- to enter the town to clear the streets. But this cepted, with design to have gone to Bristol ; but was not all; I was commanded to advance with hearing the plague was in that city, altered the these horse, being three regiments, and to enter measures, and changed the course of the king's the town; the foot, who were engaged in the designs, so he marched for Worcester the begin. || streets, crying out, " Horse ! horse pa ning of May, 1645. The foot, with a train of | Immediately I advanced to the gate, for we forty pieces of cannon, marching into Worcester, || were drawn up about musket-shot from the the horse stayed behind some time in Gloucester- l works, to have supported our foot in case of a shire.
sally. Having seized the gate, I placed a guard The first action our army did was to raise the of horse there, with orders to let nobody pass in siege of Chester ; Sir William Brereton had be. | or out, and, dividing my troops, rode up by two sieged it, or rather blocked it up; and when his ways towards the market place. majesty came to Worcester he sent Prince Ru The garrison, defending themselves in the pert, with four thousand horse and dragoons, || market place and in the churchyard with great with orders to join some foot out of Wales, to i obstinacy, killed us a great many men; but, as raise the siege ; but Sir William thought fit to soon as our horse appeared, they demanded withdraw and not stay for them, and the town quarter, which our foot refused them in the first was freed without fighting. The governor took heat, as is frequent in all nations in like cases, care in this interval to furnish himself with all until at last they threw down their arms, and things necessary for another siege; and, as for 1 yielded at discretion ; and then I can testify to ammunition and other necessaries, he was in no the world that fair quarter was given them. want.
I am the more particular in this relation, haI was sent with a party into Staffordshire, with || ving been an eye-witness of the action, because design to intercept a convoy of stores coming the king was reproached in all the public libels, from London for the use of Sir William Brere- || with which those times abounded, for having put ton; but they having some notice of the design, || a great many to death, and hanged the com. stopped, and went out of the road to Burton mittee of the parliament, and some Scots, in upon-Trent, and so I missed them ; but that we cold blood, which was a notorious forgery; and might not come back quite empty, we attacked || as I am sure there was no such thing done, so I Hawkesly House, and took it, where we got good must acknowledge I never saw any inclination booty, and brought eighty prisoners back to | in his majesty to cruelty, or to act anything Worcester. From Worcester the king advanced which was not practised by the general laws of into Shropshire, and took his head-quarters at war, and by men of honour in all nations. Bridgenorth.
But the matter of fact, in respect to the garrison, This was a very happy march of the king's, I was as I have related ; and if they had thrown and had his majesty proceeded, he had certainly | down their arms sooner, they had had mercy cleared the north once more of his enemies, for sooner ; but it was not for a conquering army, the country was generally for him. At his ad- | entering a town by storm, to offer conditions on vancing so far as Bridgenorth, Sir William Brere quarter in the streets. ton filed up into Lancashire; the Scots brigades | Another circumstance was, that a great many who were with him retreated into the north, ll of the inhabitants, both men and women, were while yet the king was about forty miles from || killed, which is most true ; and the case was them, and all things lay open for conquest thus:- The inhabitants, to show their over-for
The new generals, Fairfax and Cromwell, lay llward zeal to defend the town, fought in the about Oxford preparing as if they would besiege | breach ; nay, the very women, to the honour of it, and gave the king's army so much leisure, the Leicester ladies, if they liked it, officiously that his majesty might have been at Newcastle | did their parts; and after the town was taken, before they could be half way to him. But and when, if they had had any discretion with Heaven, when the ruin of a person or party is || their zeal, they would have kept their houses, determined, always so infatuates their councils and been quiet; but they fired upon our men out as to make them instrumental to it themselves.ll of their windows, and from the tops of their
The king let slip this great opportunity, as houses, and threw tiles upon their heads; and I some thought, intending to break into the asso. had several of my men wounded so, and seven or ciated counties of Northampton, Cambridge, and eight killed. Norfolk, where he had some interests forming. This exasperated us to the last degree; and What the design was we knew not; but the finding one house better manned than ordinary,
and many shot fired at us ont of the windows, || Prince Rupert commanded the right wing of the I caused my men to attack it, resolving to make || horse, Sir Marmaduke Langdale the left, and the thern an example for the rest; which they did, Il king the main body. Of the enemy, Fairfax and and breaking open the doors, they killed all they Skippon led the body, Cromwell and Rossiter found there without distinction; and I appeal the right, and Ireton the left. The numbers of to the world if they were to blame.
both armies so equal as not to differ five hundred If the parliament committee, or the Scotch men, save that the king had most horse by about deputies, were here, they ought to have been one thousand, and Fairfax most foot by about quiet, since the town was taken; but they began five hundred. The number was in each army with us, and, I think, brought it upon them. || about eighteen thousand men. selves. This is the whole case, so far as came | The armies coming close up, tne wings engaged within my knowledge, for which hís majesty was first. The prince with his right wing charged so much abused.
with his wonted fury, and drove all the parliaWe took here Colonel Gray and Captain | ment's wirig of horse, one division excepted, Hacker, with about three hundred prisoners, and clear out of the field. Ireton, who cominanded about three hundred more were killed. This was this wing, to give him his due, rallied often, and the last day of May, 1645.
fought like a lion ; but our wing bore down all His majesty, having given over Oxford for before them, and pursued them with a terrible lost, continued here some days, viewed the town, execution. ordered tbe fortifications to be augmented, and Ireton, seeing one division of his horse left, reprepared to make it the seat of war.
1 paired to them, and keeping his ground, fell foul But the parliament, roused at this appearance | of a brigade of our foot, who coming up to the of the king's army, ordered their general to raise head of the line, he, enraged, charged them with the siege of Oxford, where the garrison had, in his horse; but they with their pikes made great a sally, ruined some of their works, and killed havock ; so that this division was entirely routed. them a hundred and fifty men, taking several | Ireton had his horse killed under him, himself prisoners,and carrying them into the city; and or- thrust through the thigh with a pike, wounded dered him to march towards Leicester to observe in the face with a halberd, and was taken prisoner the king.
by a captain of foot. The king bad now a small, but gallant army, Cromwell, who commanded the parliament's all brave tried soldiers, and seemed eager to enright wing, charged Sir Marmaduke Langdale gage the new-modelled army; and his majesty, with extraordinary fury; but he, an old tried hearing that Sir Thomas Fairfax, having raised || soldier, stood firm and received the charge with the siege of Oxford, advanced towards him, equal gallantry, exchanging all their shot, car. fairly saved him the trouble of a long march, and bines, and pistols, and then fell on sword in met him half way.
hand. The army lay at Daventry, and Fairfax at Rositer and Whaley had the better on the Towcester, about eight miles off. Here the king point of the wing, and routed two divisions of sent away six hundred horse, with three thousand | horse, pushing them behind the reserves, where head of cattle, to relieve his people in Oxford ; Il they rallied, and charged again, but were at last the cattle he might have spared better than the defeated; the rest of the horse now charged in men.
the flank retreated fighting, and were pushed The king having thus victualled Oxford, behind the reserves of foot. changed his resolution of fighting Fairfax, to While this was doing, the foot engaged with whom Croinwell was now joined with four thou- equal fierceness, and for two hours there was a sand men, or was within a day's march, and terrible fire. The king's foot, backed with gal. marched northward.
lant officers, and full of rage at the rout of their This was unhappy counsel, because late given ; || horse, bore down the enemy's brigade, led by had we marched northward at first, we had done | Skippon. The old man wounded, retreated it; but thus it was. Now we marched with all bleeding to their reserves. triumphing enemy at our heels, and at Naseby | All the foot, except the general's brigade, were their advanced parties attacked our rear.
thus driven into the reserves, where their officers The king, upon this, altered his resolution Il rallied them, and brought them on to a fresh again, and resolved to fight, and at midnight charge; and here the horse, having driven our called us up at Harborough to come to a council | horse about a quarter of a mile from the foot, of war.
faced about, and fell in on the rear of the foot. Fate and the king's opinion determined the Had our right wing done thus, the day had council, and it was resolved to fight. Accord ll been secured; but Prince Rupert, according to ingly the van, in which was Prince Rupert's bri- | his custom, following the flying enemy, never gade of horse, of which my regiment was a part, Il concerned himself with the safety of those becountermarched early in the morning.
I hind; and yet he returned sooner than he had By five o'clock the whole army, in order of || done in like cases too. battle, began to discover the enemy from the At our return we found all in confusion, our rising grounds, about a mile from Naseby, and foot broken, all but one brigade, which, though moved towards them. They were drawn up on charged in front, flank, and rear, could not be a little ascent in a large common fallow field, in || broken, till Sir Thoinas Fairfax himself came up a line extended from one side of the field to the to the charge with fresh men, and then they other, the field something more than a mile over; || were rather cut in pieces than beaten ; for they our army in the same order, in a line, with the stood with their pikes charged every way to the reserves.
Il last extremity.