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from thence to Grenoble to meet the cardinal, but || share, so I suppose she had the less concern the queens were both at Lyons.
upon her. The French affairs seemed just at this time to However, she came into the court of the have but an indifferent aspect; there was no life castle, and showed herself to the people, gave in anything but where the cardinal was, and he money amongst them, and spoke in a courtly pushed on everything with extraordinary con manner; and, by her endearing behaviour, paci. duct, and generally with success. He had taken fied the mob, gradually sent them home with Suza and Pignerol from the Duke of Savoy, and promises of redress, and the like; and se apwas preparing to push the duke even out of all peased this great tumult in two days by her pru. his dominions.
dence, which the guards in the castle had no But, at the same time, everywhere else things mind to meddle with, and, if they had, would in looked ill; the troops were badly paid, the maga all probability have made the better side the zincs empty, the people mutinous, and a general worse. disorder seized the minds of the court; and the There had been several seditions of the like cardinal, who was the soul of everything, desired nature in sundry other parts of France; and the an interview at Grenoble, in order to put affairs very army began to murmur, though not to be into some better method.
mutinous, for want of provisions. This politic minister always ordered matters This sedition at Lyons was not quite over so, that if there was success in anything, the when we left the place; for, finding the city all glory was his; but if things miscarried, it was all in uproar, we thought we had no business there; laid upon the king.
and what the consequence of a popular tumult This conduct was so much the more nice, as it might be we did not see, so we prepared to be is the direct contrary to the custom in like cases, || gone. where kings assume the glory of all the success We had not rode above three miles out of the in an action, and when it miscarries make them- || city, but we were taken and brought as prisoners selves easy by sacrificing their ministers and fa- ll of war by a party of mutineers, who had been vourites to the complaints and resentments of sent upon the scout, and were charged with the people ; but this accurate, refined statesman | being messengers sent to the cardinal for forces got over this point.
to reduce the citizens : with these pretences they While we were at Lyons, and, as I remember, || brought us back in triumph, and the queen the third day after our coming thither, we had li mother being by this time grown something familike to have been involved in a state broil, with liar to them, they carried us before her. out knowing where we were.
When they inquired of us who we were, we It was on a Sunday evening: the people of called ourselves Scots; for as the English were Lyons, who had been sorely oppressed with very much out of favour in France at this time, taxes, and the war in Italy pinching their trade, ll the peace not having been made many months, began to be very tumultuous. We found the ll and not supposed to be very durable, because day before the mob got together in great crowds, | particularly displeasing to the people of Eng. and talked oddly: the king was everywhere re || land, so the Scots were on the other extreme viled, and spoken disrespectfully of, and the | with the French. Nothing was so much camagistrates of the city either winked at, or durst ressed as they; and a man had no more to do in not attempt to meddle, lest they should provoke France, if he would be well received there, than the people.
to say he was a Scotchman. But on Sunday, about midnight, we were When we came before the queen-mother, she waked by a prodigious noise in the street. I seemed to receive us with some stiffness at first, jumped out of bed, and running to the window, and caused her guards to take us into custody; I saw the street as full as it could hold; some, but as she was a lady of most exquisito politics, armed' with muskets and halberds, marching she did this to amuse the mob, and we were imin good order; others in disorderly crowds; all mediately after dismissed; and the queen herself shouting and crying out,“ Du bain, le Roi!” and | made a handsome excuse to us for the rudeness the like.
we had suffered, alleging the troubles of the One that led a great party of this rabble car times; and the next morning we had three draried a loaf of bread on the top of a pike, and ll goons of the guards to convov us out of the jurisother lesser loaves, signifying the smallness of diction of Lyons. their bread, occasioned by the very high price of
I confess this little adventure gave me an aver. corn.
| sion to popular tumults all my life after; and if In the morning the crowd was gathered to a
| nothing else had been in the cause, would have great height :- they ran over the whole city, shut
biassed me to espouse the king's party in Engup all the shops, and forced all the people to
land, when our popular heats carried all before join with them; from thence they went up to
them at home. the castle, and, renewing the clamour, a strange
But I must say, that, when I called to mind
since the address, the management, the comconsternation seized all the princes.
| pliance in show, and, in general, the whole conThey broke open the doors of the officers, duct of the queen-mother with the mutinous collectors of the new taxes, and plundered their
| people of Lyons, and compared it with the conhouses; and had not the persons themselves fled
1) duct of my unhappy master the King of England, in time, they would have been very ill treated.
|| I could not but think that the queen understood The queen-mother, as she was very much much better than King Charles the management displeased to see such consequences of the go- ll of politics and the clamours of the people. vernment, in whose management she had no ll Had this princess been at the helni in EngSavoy.
land, she would have prevented all the calamities | it, by which it has obtained the name of the right of the civil war here, and yet not have parted | hand of France : they had begun a new line with what that good prince yielded in order to || below the hill, and some works were marked out peace neither : she would have yielded gradually, on the side of the town next the fort ; but the and then gained upon them in the same manner: cardinal afterwards drew the plan of the works she would have managed them to the point she with his own hand, by which it was made one had designed them, as she did all parties in of the strongest fortresses in Europe. France; neither could any effectually subject While I was at Pignerol, the governor of her but the very man she had raised to be her Milan, for the Spaniards, came with an army and principal support I mean the cardinal.
sat down before Casal. The grand quarrel, for We went from hence to Grenoble, and arrived which the war in this part of Italy was begun, there the same day that the king and the cardi was this :-the Spaniards and Germans claimed nal, with the whole court, went out to view a the duchy of Mantua; the Duke of Nevers, a body of six thousand Swiss foot, which the car Frenchman, had not only a title to it, but had dinal had wheedled the cantons to grant to the || got possession ; but, being ill supported by the king, to help to ruin their neighbour the Duke of 1 French, was beat out by the Imperialists, and
after a long siege the Germans took Mantua The troops were exceedingly fine, well ac itself, and drove the poor duke quite out of the coutred, brave, clean limbed, stout fellows in country. deed.
The taking of Mantua elevated the spirits of Here I saw the cardinal: he had an air of the Duke of Savoy; and the Germans and church gravity in his habit, but all the vigour of Spaniards being now at more leisure, with a a general, and the sprightliness in his face of a complete army came to his assistance, and vast genius; he affected a little stiffness in his formed the siege of Montferrat. behaviour, but managed all his affairs with such || For as the Spaniards pushed the Duke o! clearness, such steadiness, and such application, || Mantua, so the French, by way of diversion, lay that it was no wonder he had such success in || hard upon the Duke of Savoy : they had seized every undertaking.
Montferrat, and held it for the Duke of Mantua, Here I saw also the king, whose figure was || and had a strong French garrison under Thoiras, mean, his countenance was hollow, and always a brave and experienced commander; and thus seemed dejected, and every way discovered that 1l affairs stood when we came into the French weakness in his countenance that appeared in army. his actions.
I had no business there as a soldier ; but If he was ever sprightly and vigorous, it was having passed as a Scotch gentleman with the when the cardinal was with him ; for he de mob at Lyons, and after with her Majesty the pended so much on everything he did, that he queen-mother when we obtained the guard of her was at the utmost dilemma when he was absent, dragoons, we had also her Majesty's pass, with being always timorous, jealous, and irresolute. which we came and went where we pleased; and
After the review the cardinal was absent for the cardinal, who was then not on very good terms some days, having been to wait on the queen with the queen, but willing to keep smooth water mother at Lyons, where, as it was discoursed, there, when two or three times our passes came they were at least seemingly reconciled.
to be examined, showed a more than ordinary I observed, while the cardinal was gone, there | respect to us on that very account, our passes was no court, the king was seldom to be seen, being from the queen. very small attendance given, and no bustle at Casal being besieged, as I have observed, the castle; but as soon as the cardinal returned. || began to be in danger, for the cardinal, who," the great councils were assembled, the coaches ll was thought, had formed a design to ruin davo), of the ambassadors went every day to the castle, 11 was more intent upon that than upon the suc. and a face of business appeared upon the whole || cour of the Duke of Mantua; but necessity calcourt.
ing upon him to relieve so great a captain as Here the measures of the Duke of Savoy's ruin Thoiras, and not to let such a place as Casas were concerted; and, in order to it, the king | fall into the hands of the enemy, the king, or and the cardinal put themselves at the head of Il rather cardinal, ordered the Duke of Montmothe army, with which they immediately reduced | rency and the Mareschal d'Effiat, wit all Savoy, took Chamberry, and the whole ll sand foot and two thousand horse, to marcha duchy, except Montmelian.
join the Mareschals de la Force and Schombert: The army that did this was not above twenty who lay already with an army on the frontiers a two thousand men, including the Swiss, and but Genoa, but too weak to attempt the raising the indifferent troops neither, especially the French siege of Casal. foot, who, compared to the infantry I have since il As all men thought there would be a battle seen in the German and Swedish armies, were between the French and the Spaniards, I could not fit to be called soldiers. On the other hand, I not prevail with myself to lose the opportunus, considering the Savoyards and Italian troops, and therefore, by the help of the passes above they were good; but the cardinal's conduct mentioned, I came to the French army under the made amends for all these deficiencies.
Duke of Montmorency. We marched through From hence I went to Pignerol, which was H the enemy's country with great boldness and no then little more than a single fortification on the ll small hazard, for the Duke of Savoy appe hill near the town called St Bride's; but the si- || frequently with great bodies of horse tuation of that was very strong. I mention this, ll rear of the army, and frequently skirmi because of the prodigious works since added to " our troops ; in one of which I had the
quently skirmished with
can call it no better, for I had no business there || with honour, and might have called it a victory; -to go out and see the sport, as the French but endeavouring to break the whole party, and gentlemen called it.
carry off some cannon, the obstinate resistance I was but a raw soldier, and did not like the of these few dragoons lost him his advantages, sport at all; for this party was surrounded by and held him in play till so many fresh troops the Duke of Savoy, and almost all killed, for got through the pass again as made us too strong they neither asked nor gave quarter.
for him ; and had not night parted them, he had I ran away very fairly one of the first, and my been entirely defeated. companion with me, and by the swiftness of our At last, finding our troops increase and spread horses got out of the fray; and not being much themselves on his flank, he retired and gave over: known in the army, we came into the camp an we had no great mind to pursue him, though hour or two after, as if we had been only riding some horse were ordered to follow a little way. about for the air.
The duke lost above a thousand men, and we This little rout made the general very cau almost twice as many; and, but for those dratious; for the Savoyards were stronger in horse goons, should have lost the whole rear-guard by three or four thousand, and the army always and half our cannon. marched in a body, and kept their parties in or I was in a very sorry case in this action too, very near hand.
being with the rear in the regiment of horse of I escaped another rub in this French army Perigoort, with a captain of which regiment I about five days after, which had like to have had contracted some acquaintance. I would made me pay dear for my curiosity.
have rode off at first, as the captain desired me, The Duke de Montmorency and the Mareschal | but there was po doing it, for the cannon was in Schomberg joined their army about four or five the lane, and the horse and dragoons of the van days after, and immediately, according to the eagerly pressing back through it, must have run cardinal's instructions, put themselves on the | me down, or carried me with them. The wood march for the relief of Casal.
was a good shelter for saving one's life, but was The army had marched over a great plain, so thick there was no passing it on horseback. with some marshy grounds on the right, and the | Our regiment was one of the first that was Po on the left; and as the country was so well || broke ; and being all in confusion, with the Duke discovered that it was thought impossible any | of Savoy's men at our heels, away we ran into mischief should happen, the generals observed the wood. Never was there so much disorder the less caution. At the end of this plain was a imong a parcel of runaways; as the wood was so long wood, and a lane or narrow defile through exceeding bushy and thick at the bottom, there the middle of it.
was no entering it; and a volley of small shot Through this pass the army was to march, and from a regiment of Savoy's dragoons, pouring in the van began to file through it about four o'clock ; || upon us at our breaking into the wood, made in three hours all the army was got through, or || terrible work among our horses. into the pass, and the artillery was just entered, || For my part, I was got into the wood, but was when the Duke of Savoy appeared, with four thou forced to quit my horse, and by that means, with sand horse and fifteen hundred dragoons, with a great deal of difficulty, got a little further in, every horseman a footman behind him; whether he |where there was a little open place, and, being had swam the Po, or passed it above at a bridge, quite spent with labouring among the bushes, I and made a long march after, was not examined; | sat down, resolving to take my fate there, let it but he came boldly up the plain, and charged | be what it would, for I was not able to go any our rear with a great deal of fury.
further. I had twenty or thirty more, in the Our artillery was in the lane, and as it was same condition, came to me in less than half an impossible to turn them about, and make way | hour; and here we waited very securely the for the army, the rear were obliged to support | success of the battle, which was as before. themselves, and maintain the fight for above an It was no small relief to those with me to hear hour and a half.
the Savoyards were beaten, for otherwise they In this time we lost abundance of men, and had all been lost: and for myself, I confess I was had it not been for two accidents, all that line 1 glad as it was, because of the danger; but other. would certainly have been cut off : one was, that || wise I cared not much which had the better, for the wood was so near, that those regiments which || I designed no service among them. were disordered presently sheltered themselves | One kindness it did me; I began to consider therein ; the other was, that by this time Mar- | what I had to do here; and as I could give but shal Schomberg, with the horse of the van, began a very slender account for what it was I ran all to get back through the lane, and to make good these risks, I resolved they should fight it out the ground from whence the other had been beat, | themselves, for I would come among them no till at last, by this means, it came to almost a more. pitched battle.
The captain, with whom, as I noted above, I There were two regiments of French dragoons || had contracted some acquaintance in this regiwho did excellent service in this action, and ment, was killed in the action, and the French maintained their ground till they were nearly all had really a great blow here, though they took killed.
care to conceal it all they could ; and I cannot, Had the Duke of Savoy contented himself without smiling, read some of the histories of with the defeat of five régiments on the right, I this action, which they are not ashamed to call a which he quite broke and drove into the wood, || victory. and with the slaughter and havoc which he had | We marched on to Saluces, and the next day made among the rest, he would have come off ll the Duke of Savoy presented himself in battalia
on the other side of a small river, giving us a fair | quickly: his man had the plague also, and died challenge to pass and engage him. We always in two days : my man held it out well. said in our camp that the orders were to fight 1 At this time we heard of a truce concluded bethe Duke of Savoy wherever we met him ; but tween all parties; and being unwilling to winter though he braved us in our view, we did not care at Villa Franca, I got passes, and, though we to engage him, but we brought Saluces to sur. were both but weak, began to travel in litters for render upon articles, which the duke could not Milan. relieve without attacking our camp, and that he And here I experienced the truth of the old did not care to do.
English proverb, “ That standers-by see more The next morning we had news of the sur- | than the gamesters." render of Mantua to the Imperial army: We The French, Savoyards, and Spaniards, made heard of it first from the Duke of Savoy's cannon, | this peace or truce all for separate and several which he fired by way of rejoicing, and which grounds, and every one as mistaken. seemed to make him amends for the loss of Sa | The French yielded to it because they had luces.
given over the relief of Casal, and were very As this was a mortification to the French, it much afraid it would fall into the hands of the quite damped the success of the campaign, for Marquis Spinola. the Duke de Montmorency imagining that the The Savoyards yielded to it because they were Imperial general would send immediate assistance | afraid the French would winter in Piedmont. to the Marquis Spinola, who besieged Casal, they | The Spaniards yielded to it because the duke called frequent councils of war what course to || being dead, and the Count de Colalto, the Imtake, and at last resolved to halt in Piedmont. perial general, giving no assistance, and his arby
A few days after their resolutions were changed weakened by sickness and the fatigues of the again by the news of the death of the Duke of siege, he foresaw he should never take the town, Savoy, Charles Emanuel, who died, as some say, || and wanted but to come off with honour. agitated with the extremes of joy and grief.
The French were mistaken, because realy This put our generals upon considering again | Spinola was so weak, that, had they marched ca whether they should march to the relief of Casal ; into Montferrat, the Spaniards must have raised but the chimera of the Germans put them by, the siege. and so they took up quarters in Piedmont : they | The Duke of Savoy was mistaken, because the took several small places from the Duke of Sa- plague had so weakened the French, that they voy, taking advantage of the consternation the durst not have stayed to winter in Piedmont; duke's subjects were in on the death of their | and prince, and spread themselves from the sea-side Spino. was mistaken ; for though he was very to the banks of the Po.
slow, if he had stayed before the town one fortnight But here an enemy did that for them which longer, Thoiras, the governor, must have sorthe Savoyards could not, for the plague got into | rendered, being brought to the last extremity. their quarters, and destroyed abundance of peo- l Of all these mistakes the French had the adple, both of the army and of the country. vantage, for Casal was relieved, the army had
I thought then it was time for me to be gone, | time to be recruited, and the French had the for I had no manner of courage for that attack; best of it by an early campaign. and I think verily I was more afraid of being ta I passed through Montferrat in my way to ken sick in a strange country than ever I was of Milan just as the truce was declared, and saw the being killed in battle.
miserable remains of the Spanish army, wbo by Upon this resolution I procured a pass to go || sickness, fatigue, hard duty, the sallies of the for Genoa, and accordingly began my journey, garrison, and such like consequences, were têbut was arrested at Villa Franca by a slow lin-|| | duced to less than two thousand men, and of gering fever, which held me about five days, and them above one thousand lay wounded and sick in then turned to a burning malignancy, and at last the camp. to the plague. My friend, the captain, never Here were several regiments which I saw drawn left me night or day; and though for four days out to their arms that could not muster above more I knew nobody, nor was capable of so mucb seventy or eighty men, officers and all, and those as thinking for myself, yet it pleased God that half starved with hunger, almost naked, and in a the distemper gathered in my neck, swelled, and lamentable condition. broke. During the swelling I was raging mad From thence I went into the town, and there with the violence of pain, which, being so near || things were still in a worse condition; the houses my head, swelled that also in proportion, that my beat down ; the walls and works ruined ; the eyes were swelled up, and for twenty hours my U garrison, by continual duty, reduced from four tongue and mouth : then, as my servant since thousand five hundred men to less than eight told me, all the physicians gave me over as past I hundred, without clothes, money, or provisions ; all remedy, but by the good providence of God the brave governor weak with continual fatigue, the swelling broke.
and the whole face of things in a miserable case. The prodigious collection of matter which this The French generals had just sent them thirty swelling discharged gave me immediate relief, || thousand crowns for present supply, which heart and I became sensible in less than an hour's time; ened them a little; but had nos ibe truce beet and in two hours, or thereabouts, fell into a little made as it was, they must have surrendered slumber, which recovered my spirits, and sensibly upon what terms the Spaniards had pleased to revived me.
make. Here I lay by till the middle of September. Never were two armies in such fear of one an. My captain fell sick after me, but recovered ll other with so little cause; the Spaniards 1"
of the French whom the plague had devoured, little to recommend a country when the people and the French afraid of the Spaniards whom the disgrace it, that all the beauties of the creation siege had almost ruined.
cannot make up for the want of those excellencies The grief of this mistake, together with the which agreeable society affords, and this made sense of his master, the Spaniard, leaving him Italy a very unpleasant country to me. The without supplies to complete the siege of Casal, | people were the foil to the place, all manner of hateso affected the Marquis Spinola, that he died of || ful vices reigning in their general way of living. grief, and in him fell the last of that rare breed l I confess I was not very religious myself, and, of Low-Country soldiers who gave the world so || being come abroad into the world young enough, great and just a character of the Spanish in might easily have been drawn into evils that had fantry as the best soldiers in the world; a cha recommended themselves with any tolerable racter which we see now so very much dege. agreeableness to nature and common manners; nerated, that they hardly deserve the name of I but when wickedness presents itself full grown soldiers.
| in its grossest freedoms and liberties, it quite I remained at Milan the rest of the winter for took all away that agreeableness to vice that the the recovery of my health, and also for supplies | devil had furnished me with; and illustrative to from England.
this I cannot but relate a scene which passed beHere it was I first heard the name of Gustavus twixt that infernal spirit and myself. Adolphus, the King of Sweden, who now began || At a certain town in Italy, which shall be his war with the Emperor : and while the King of nameless, because I will not celebrate the profiFrance was at Lyons the league with Sweden was || ciency of one place more than another when I made, in which the French contributed one mil. || believe the whole country equally wicked, I was lion two hundred thousand crowns in money, and | prevailed upon, rather than tempted, à la coursix hundred thousand per annum, to the attempt | iezan. If I should describe the women, I must of Gustavus Adolphus. About this time he give a very mean character of my own virtue, landed in Pomerania, took the towns of Stettin || to say I was allured by any but an extraorand Stralsund, and from thence proceeded in dinary figure; her face, shape, mien, and dress that prodigious manner, of which I shall have || I may, without vanity, say were the finest that occasion to be very particular in the prosecution | ever I saw. When I had admittance into her of this work.
apartments, the riches and magnificence of them I had indeed no intention of seeing that king || astonished me; the cupboard, or cabinet of plate, or his armies, having been so roughly handled || the jewels, the tapestry, and everything in proalready, that I had given over all thoughts of portion, made me question whether I was not in appearing among the fighting people, and resolved | | the chamber of some lady of the best quality; in the spring to pursue my journey to Venice, but when, after some conversation, I found that and so for the rest of Italy.
she was really nothing but a courtezan,-in EngYet I cannot deny that as every Gazette gave lish, a common street whore, a punk of the trace, us some accounts of the conquests and victories -I was amazed, and my inclination to her person
of this glorious prince, it prepossessed ine with began to cool. Her conversation exceeded, if | secret wishes of seeing him; but these were so possible, the best of quality, and was, I must
young and unsettled, chat I drew no resolutions own, exceeding agreeable; she sang to her lute, rom them for a long while.
and danced as fine as ever I saw, and thus diAbout the middle of January I left Milan and verted me two hours before anything else was came to Genoa, from thence by sea to Leghorn ; | discoursed of; but when the vicious part came Den to Naples, Rome, and Venice; but saw upon the stage, I blush to relate the confusion I nothing in Italy that afforded me any diversion. was in; and when she made a certain motion, by
As for their manners, I saw nothing but lewd which I understood she might be made use of, ness, private murders, stabbing men at the corner either as a lady or as — , I was quite thunof a sirect or in the dark, hiring of bravoes, and derstruck; all the vicious parts of my thoughts the like; all the diversions here ended in whore vanished, the place filled me with horror, and I ing, gaming, and debauchery; these were to me was all over disorder and distraction. the modern excellencies of Italy, and I had no I began, however, to recollect where I was, gust for antiquities.
and that in this country there were people not It was pleasant indeed, when I was at Rome, to bc affronted. She easily perceived the disorder to say, here stood the Capitol ; there the colossus I was in, and turned it off with admirable dexte. of Nero; here the amphitheatre of Titus; there rity, began to talk again à la gallant, received the aqueduct; here the forum; there the cata me as a visitant, and offered me sweetmeats and combs; here the Temple of Venus; there of Ju some wine. piter ; here the Pantheon, &c.; but as I never Here I was in more confusion than before, for
signed to write this book, what was useful I kept | I concluded she would neither offer me to eat or in my head, and everything else I left to others. drink now withont poison, and I was very shy
served the people were degenerated from of tasting her treat; but she scattered this fear the ancient glorious inhabitants, who were gene
rious inhabitants, who were gene- l immediately by readily, and of her own accord. Drave, and the most valiant of all nations, not only tasting, but eating freely of everything to a vicious baseness of soul, barbarous, treache she gave me. Whether she perceived my wari
Jealous, and revengeful; lewd and cowardly; ness, or the reason of it, I know not, I could not ably proud and haughty ; bigoted to blind, help banishing my suspicion; the obliging car
devotion, and the grossest of idolatry. iriage and strange charm of her conversation had
ink the unsuitableness of the people so much power of me, that I both ate and drank the place unpleasant to me ; for there is so i with her at all hazards.
I observed the ?
Indeed, I think the unsuital