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the present of fifty thousand pounds, the 3rd of great errors, one of the king, and the other of May, 1660.

I his friends. 14. The same day the parliament passed the 1 Of the king, that when he was in their cusact for recognition of Oliver Cromwell, October | tody, and at their mercy, he did not comply the 13th, 1654, Lambert broke the parliament || with their propositions of peace, before their and set up the army, October the 13th, 1659. army, for want of employment, fell into heats

Some other observations I have made, which, and mutinies; that he did not at first grant the as not so pertinent, I forbear to publish, among Scots their own conditions, which, if he had done, which I have noted the fatality of some days to he had gone into Scotland; and then, if the parties, as,

English would have fought the Scots for him, The 2nd of September, Essex defeated in Corn- | he had a reserve of his loyal friends who would wall ; Oliver died; city works demolished : for have had room to have fallen in with the Scots the king.

U to his assistance, who were afterwards dispersed The 2nd of September, the fight at Dunbar; and destroyed in small parties atternpting to the fight at Worcester ; the oath against a single serve him. person past; Oliver's first parliament called : for While his majesty remained at Newcastle the the enemy

Il queen wrote to him, persuading him to make The 29th of May, Prince Charles born ; Lei | peace upon any terms; and, in politics, her cester taken by storm ; King Charles II restored: majesty's advice was certainly the best : for for the king.

however low he was brought by a peace, it must Fatality of circumstances in this unhappy war, I have been better than the condition he was as

then in. 1. The English parliament called in the Scots The error I mention of the king's friends was to invade their king, and are invaded themselves this, that after they saw all was lost, they could by the same Scots, in defence of the king whose not be content to sit still and reserve themselves case and the design of the parliament the Scots for better fortunes, and wait the happy time had mistaken.

when the divisions of the enemy would bring 2. The Scots, who unjustly assisted the par them to certain ruin ; but must hasten their liament to conquer their lawful sovereign, con own miseries by frequent fruitless risings, in the trary to their oath of allegiance, and without any face of a victorious enemy, in small parties; and pretence on the king's part, are afterwards abso-|| I always found these effects from it :lutely conquered and subdued by the same par First, the enemy, who were always togetber liament they assisted.

by the ears when they were let alone, were 3. The parliament, who raised an army to de united and reconciled when we gave them any pose their king, deposcd by the very army they interruption; as particularly, in the case of the had raised.

first assault the army made upon them, when 4. The army broke three parliaments, and Colonel Pride with his regiment garbled the are at last broken by a free parliament, and all house, as they called it; at that time a fair opthey had done by the military power undone at || portunity offered; but it was omitted till it was once by the civil.

too late : that insult upon the house had been 5. Abundance of the chief men, who, by their attempted the year before, but was hindered by fiery spirits involved the nation in a civil war, the little insurrections of the royal party, and and took up arms against their prince, first or the sooner they had fallen out the better last met with ruin and disgrace from their own Secondly_These risings being desperate, with party.

vast disadvantages, and always suppressed, 1. Sir John Hotham and his son, who struck ruined all our friends; the remnants of the the first stroke, both beheaded or hanged by the cavaliers were lessened, the stoutest and most parliament.

daring were cut off, and the king's interest es. 2. Major-general Massey three times taken ceedingly weakened, there not being less than prisoner by them, and once wounded at Wor. thirty thousand of his best friends cut off in the cester.

several attempts made at Maidstone, Colebester, 3. Major-general Langhorn ; 4. Colonel | Lancashire, Pembroke, Pontefract, Kingston, Poyer ; and 5. Colonel Powell, changed sides, Preston, Warrington, Worcester, and other and at last taken, could obtain no other favour places. Had these men all reserved fortunes to than to draw lots for their lives ; Colonel Poyer a conjunction with the Scots at either of the drew the dead lot, and was shot to death. invasions they made into this kingdom, and

6. Earl of Holland, who, when the house voted | acted with the conduct and courage they were who should be reprieved, Lord Goring, who had known masters of, perhaps neither of those been their worst enemy, or the Earl of Holland, Scotch armies had been defeated. who, excepting one offence, had been their con But the impatience of our friends ruined all; stant servant, voted Goring to be spared, and || for my part, i was as willing to put my hand to the earl to die.

| the ruin of the enemy as any of them, but I 7. The Earl of Essex, their first general. never saw any tolerable appearance of a force 8. Sir William Waller.

able to match the enemy, and I had no mind 9. Lieutenant-general Ludlow.

to be beaten and then banged. Had we let All disgusted and voted out of the army, them alone, they would have fallen into so many though they had stood the first shock of the parties and factions, and so effectually have torn war, to make way for the new model of the one another to pieces, that whichsoever party army, and to introduce a party.

had come to us, we should, with them, have In all these confusions I have observed two ll been too hard for all the rest.

This was plain by the course of things after- | the presbyterians, who began the war, ended wards ; when the independent army had ruffled it; and, to be rid of their enemies, rather than the presbyterian parliament, the soldiery of that for any love to the monarchy, restored King party made no scruple to join us, and would Charles the Second, and brought him in on the have restored the king with all their hearts, and very day that they themselves had formerly many of them did join us at last.

resolved the ruin of his father's government, And the consequence, though late, ended so; /being the 29th of May, the same day twenty for they fell out so many times, army and par- 1 years that the private cabal in London conliament, parliament and army, and alternately cluded their secret league with the Scots to pulled one another down so often, till at last || embroil his father, King Charles the First.

NOTES

(Note 1.) The protestant diet at Leipsic was || which he made 568 shot that same day: his inbegun Feb. 8, 1630, and continued to April 3, || tnt being to cut that passage off, that the town 1631. Four principal reasons were assigned for | by it might send no succours to the foresaid the congress. The first of these four was this: || sconce, or toll-house; but the General Falken. that whereas the Duke of Saxony had, in the || burg conveniently flanking some paces upon the time of the diet of Frankfort, written advice unto toll-house, quite at last dismantled the enemies the emperour, of the King of Sweden's approach cannon. This not succeeding, Tilly falls pellmell ing, the emperour tells him againe, how he hoped at once upon both these places, giving eight sethat himselfe (Saxon) and Brandenburg would | veral assaults unto them: but the Lord Falkenwell abide him. By which answer, Saxony per- || burg, with four whole cannon double charged ceived a new bill of charges comming upon the || with stones, old iron, &c. about 12 o'clocke at protestants next those parts where the King of || night, made them to give over. Some prisoners Sweden was landed. The second was this: The || the next day taken, confesse there were 2,000 round course taken by the emperour for the re- || men that day slain of the assailants. This toll. covery of the church-lands. A third was this : | house was a notable piece of fortification, * built That rigide course (taken by advice of the je- || on the other side the Elbe. To this Tilly now suites) for reformation of the protestant churches || turned all his battery; heere he falls to myning, and schooles, and the forbidding of the libertie of land all to no purpose. On the 15th, both by the Augustane Confession. The fourth was, that || land and water he layes at it; but 300 musketdecree of the emperour's for the continuance of || tiers being by him sent in boates to assaile it on the warres against the King of Sweden.”- The the water's side, were by those of the fort driven Swedish Intelligencer, Part I, London, 1634. ashoare, and either all drownd or slaine by the iv. p. 20.

citizens; 200 also at the same time lost their (Note 2.) Of these levies the Elector of Saxoay lives on the land side. Now was there newes was to raise six regiments; Brandenburgh three; | brought into Tillie's campe, of the King of Swe. each of the circles of Swabia, the Rhine, and || den's being upon his march, for the relieving of Franconia, three; Lower Saxony one. Each the besieged; a council of warre thereupon being regiment of foot was to consist of 3,000, and of called, some troups are sent towards Wittenberg horse 1,000.- 1b. p. 28.

and the Dessau bridge, there to stave off the (Note 3.) The storming of Magdeburg by John king's forces. The newes of his coming againe Tsercla, Count of Tilly, has always been consi- slackning, April 21, to worke he fals againe ; and dered as one of the most horrible butcheries 1 giving on upon the toll-house, that notable piece which occurred in any war, and has only been is forsaken by the Magdeburgers; who, at their paralleled by the conquerors of Ishmael and retreate, offering to fire it, the place was rescued Warsaw in our days. The anniversary is still | by the Imperialists. Upon this, were all the forts commemorated by the inhabitants; and their on that side of the Elbe either taken or given panic, during the late disgraceful siege, was con- || over; the bridge also by Tilly burned, and apsiderably increased by the recollection. The || proaches made unto the city, which was from following is the account of the siege in the 'Swe- || thence immediately battered. Now were the bedish Intelligencer':-“Upon the 12th of April, || sieged forced to burne their own New Towne; Tilly first presents himselfe in full battaglia with. | where 2,000 Imperialists immediately lodging in a mile of the city; at which time believed it | themselves, fell to mining, and shooting of grawas, that he would at least have fallen upon the || nadoes into the city. The 29th, by a sally out great star-sconce, or toll-house, by the old Elbe; || upon these in the New Towne, are some 100 but that day attempted he no more than to beat || slaine. The mynes doe no hurt, until one Fasome guards out of their redoubts into the city. || renback, a notable engineer, takes them in hand; The 13th he laies his siege ; himself, Pappenheim, Savelli, Holstein, and Mansfeldt, round begirting it. This done, twelve pieces of cannon • It is still one of the strongest fortifications belonging are placed against the bridge over the Elbe, upon il to the town, and denominated Stern-Schanze.

who sappes himselfe under the towne-ditches to | Wallons * would give quarter to few; and the the very hard wals, which he much shakes, by || Crabatst never used to give or beg any; so that springing of a mine; in return of which service all were killed. May 12th, came Tilly into the and some others, the emperor makes him a colo. towne, and finding some hundreds of women and nell, granting him commission to raise two new children in the church, he gives them their lives, regiments. May 2. The Imperialists in the new and some bread too; next day he forbids pilcity, having suddenly in the night-time cast up a laging. Upon Sunday, May 15th, because he battery, shrewdly punish the besieged. May 7. || would have his cathedrall as like to Rome as General Tilly comes himselfe into the new towne, might be, that is, dedicated in blood, he causes together with Pappenheim, then generall of the it to be cleansed and new consecrated; masse ordnance, and the count of Schomberg, sergeant. | and Te Deum being sung in it, in thanksgiving major-generall; and a great shew of ladders is || for the victory. Future ages may perhaps commade, as if there were a purpose of a general || pare the destruction of this goodly city unto that scaladoe. Tillie's hope was, that the towne of Troy or of Jerusalem." would presently parly, upon sight of these pre- || (Note 4.) The accession of King James to the parations; but thes, taking the alarme at it, in- | throne of England, and the subsequent pacifice. stantly manne all their bulwarks. The 8th day |tion of the borders and Highlands, had not deis spent in shooting at a certain high tower, from stroyed the restless and impatient valour of the which the townc-cannon much plagued the be- || Scots. When the war in Germany broke out, siegers. This day Tilley sends a trumpet to | several chieftains raised regiments chiefly at their summon the towne; they send another to him to own expense. Among these was Sir Houcheon signify their willingness to yield, might but their || Mackay, who had often been proceeded against administrator still enjoy his bishopricke, and the || for his predatory excursions into Sutherland. towne their priviledges. This not consented to, || | Upon his return from Germany, he was, for his the 9th day Pappenheim attempting to scale the services, created Lord Reay. Various mewals, is by a sally beaten off; in which some of || thods of raising recruits were employed, and the cnemies' mines being discovered, are by the following curious song, printed from an ancountermines in the towne defcated. That day cient MS., contributed probably not a little to is another trumpet sent into the towne. To

increase the number of volunteers : wards evening, was there much bustling observed, and carriages to and againe in the cne All brave lads that would haisard for honour,

Hark! how Bellona her trumpet doth blow; mies' leaguer: yea, they were perceived to rise ||

Mars, with many a warlike banner, with their whole army (as the towne thought), || Bravely displayed invits yow to go! and march to Offensleben, half a mile from Germani, Suedden, Denmarke, are smoking them. All that night was the Lord Falkenburg

With a crew of brave lads others provoking,

All in their armour bright, upon the wals ; who perceiving in the morning

Daisling great Cesar's sight, no danger of assault, cals the city together into Summons you to ane tight! Tan la ra ra. the state-horse, to give answer to the enemies'

0, Viva! Viva! Gustavus we cry! trumpet; yea, so secure they were, that the

Heir we shall either won honour or dye! over-watcht souldiers are suffered to go from Thow that riseth before the day dawing, their courts of guarde to take some sleepe; and Mounted cre Phæbus saluteth the more, some say, that the townesmen are gone to church

Yoffing, crying, youlling, yelling,

Lyk ane citie swyne summonds out with an home. to give God thanks for their deliverance from

What honour canst thou gain by thy conquisht attending, the siege. Thus, the wals being found empty, When thou hes brought a poor baist to their ending! about seven in the morning, May 10th, Pappen Please your yelping hounds, heim having given the word, Jesu-Maria, to his

And hear our martial sounds,

Till all the hills resounds: Tan la ra ra! souldiers, and a white string about their armes, makes towards the Heideker port; whiere, hav Fy, boyes! fy, boyes! leave it not there, ing thrown turfs and faggots into the ditch to fill

For honour is not gotten by hounting the hair,

Thou fyne thing, that still art resorting, it, thorow it, up to the middle, the Imperialists

In princes pallaces deckt up like an ap, runne, with scaling ladders upon their backs. Flattering, fawning, cringing, and courting, The walls are in a trice mounted, the towne

Changing each moment in a new munkish shape;

Thinkest thow that a denti thing, or a fyne galliard, entered, and the souldiers fall to killing. Fal

Or that my ladies glove honours appallart, kenburg now flying in upon them, beates them Or Madams sqwivering voice, back to the wals againe; but a port being by Or such a fidling noice,

Sounding like, Sa Sa boyes! Tan la ra ra! thưs tyme opened, and the enemies' horse let in, the valiant Falkenburg is slayne with a shot; the

Up, lads i up, lads! up and advance, administrator hurt both in the thigh and head, For honour's not gotten by a cringe or a dance. and so taken. Whilst all thus goes to wraike,

Thow that on thy pillow lyes sleiping,

Pampert with pleasures, and pufft up with pride, a mighty fire breakes out (howe, none knowes,)

And in thy armes a wanton keeping, and it being a great windy day, all was on the Thinking ther is no heavns begyd, sudden become one great flame, the whole towne Slave to the womens lust, when thou doeth mount het, being in twelve houres space utterly burnd to

What honour canst thou gain by thy raincounter!

Shame so the shall remain, cinders, excepting 139 houses. Six goodly When we shall honour gain, churches are burnt : the cathedrall, together Where many a hero's slaini Tan ta ra ra. with St. Marie's church and cloister, were by the monkes and souidiers diligently preserved. Twenty thousand people, at least, were killed,

• Soldiers raised in the Netherlands. burned, and smoothered; syxe thousand being |

+ The Croats, who rendered themselves so famous!

6 |the seven years' war, and were by Joseph Il very impode observed to be drowned in the Elbe. Tilly's "ticly formed into regular regiments.

T

Fy, man! fy, man! leave it for shame,

| obstinately contested, and the desperate valour For honour is not gotten by so easie a gain,

of William, first Lord Craven, was such, that, on All brave lads, raise up your spirits!

his coming into the King of Sweden's presence, Honour abydeth you attendit by fame; Men are rewarded according to their merits

his Majesty told him, “he adventured so despeHonour begeteth that winneth the same.

rately, he bid his younger brother fair play for his Vivat, Gustavus! I pray God protekt him,

l, estate.” In 1626 he had been created Lord CraAnd send the devill to the colstreat, for it doth expect him!

ven of Hamstead Marshall, county Berks. In Charge, lads ! fall in a round,

1637 he was, along with Prince Rupert, taken Till Cesar shall give ground.

prisoner, and, on obtaining his liberty, served the Hark, hark! our trumpets sound. Vivat, Gustavus Adolphus! we cry!

States of Holland under the Prince of Orange. Here we shall either wone honour or dy.

The 16th of March, an. 16 Car. II, he was

created Earl Craven of Craven, county Ebor. At Frankfort upon the Oder, Colonels Hep

In 1670 he was appointed Colonel of the Coldburn and Lumsdell, mentioned in the text, per

stream regiment of guards. When King James II formed prodigies of valour. “ The king calling

endeavoured to take it away from him, “ If they the valiant Sir John Hebron (Hepburn) and

took away his regiment, they had as good take Colonell Lunsdell unto him, “ Now, my brave away his life, since he had nothing else to divert Scots (saies he), remember your countrymen | himself with.” He was, however, obliged to give slaine at New Brandenburg.' 'Lumsdell, there

| it up at King William's accession to the crown. fore, with his regiment of English and Scots;

He died April 9, 1597, aged eighty-eight years and Hebron, with his High Duchers, presse upon and ten months. that sally port, and the enemies bullets flying as (Note 7.) This celebrated bridge is described thick as hail, Lumsdell, with his drawne sword at full length in the Swedish Intelligencer. It in his hand, cries, “Let's enter, my hearts !

was framed by the Swedes, who acted as carthrusting himself in amongst the thickest of

penters, and the Fins as pioneers. The following them. His men followes resolutely, the pikes

Il note is singular ; but the extraordinary valour first entring; all knocking down the enemies

of the Swedes, even in the present day, must most pitifully : for the inner port being shut

make us hesitate how far we should believe the behind them, they had no way to escape, but the insinuations against them; though the Fins are little clicket-gate, through which as many as well known to be a pusillanimous people : “ The could crept into the towne. And by this time Swedes, generally one with another, are all carthe greater gate being broke open, Hebron and

penters; and the Fins, being a plain, simple, and Lumsdell entering with their men, make a most droyling kinde of people, are more used for the pittifull slaughter; and when any Imperialist | spade than for the sword; notwithstanding we cryed, · Quarter! • New Brandenburgh ! cries hare heard so much of the great exployts of these the other, and knocks him down. One Scotchman Finlanders. The Swedes and Finlanders, plainly, protested he had killed eighteen men with his are not the best sooldiers of the army; 'tis the owne hand. Here did Lumsdell take eighteen Scots and Germanes that have done it; and yet colours; yea, such testimony shewed he of his

have both the other done their parts also." valour, that the king, after the battell, bade P. II, p. 142, marginal note.- De Foe, in this him aske what he would, and he would give part, as well as in many others, has made great it him. Sir John Hepburn, shewing extraordi use of this interesting work. The account of the nary valour, was here hurt in the legge."- Swe bridge and the battle, as well as of the supposed dish Intelligencer, ut supra, p. 90.

means by which Tilly might have gained the (Note 5.) The account of the siege and battle, correspond together accurately in both surrender of Oppenheim corresponds pretty || works: “ When Cardinall Passman, the emperor's accurately with that given in the work we have ambassadour with the Pope, had the first news had occasion to quote so frequently, excepting | | brought him of this victory, and of the manner in so far as respects the cavalier himself. Dur l of it, he to his friends pronounced, Actum est, ing the storming of the castle, “ fell there out | there is an end of all ;' which some people ina pretty merriment, which some readers may terpreted to be meant of the empire and of the perchance be pleased withall. Whilest the most Romish religion."- " And yet had not the of the Spanish were begging for quarter, a cer king escaped so cheap as with the lives of two taine officer, with some others of his men, not thousand brave men; had not he directed Dadaring to trust the courtesy of an enemy, fairly vid's sling-stone into Goliath's forehead, guided slips away from the Scots that had so ferryted one bullet into Altringer's forehead, and another them, running out of the towne for life, even into Tilly's thigh-bone; had not this brave old close beside the king's army. It chanced that counte beene thus spoyled, the king had found a hare, starting out of the bushes about the but an unfriendly welcome into Bavaria,” &c. ditch, ranne directly before the Spaniards, and, Ib. p. 148. Tilly is one of the numerous list of within a few paces after, two or three other hares | imperial generals, who were frequently unfortualso ranne as directly after them. The Swedish nate, yet still acquired a high reputation, such soldiers laughed heartily to see what a convoy || as Wallenstein, Daun, Melas, &c. the Spaniards had gotten. 'Tis ill lucke (says (Note 8.) The conditions under which the ceone of their souldiers) to have one's way crost llebrated Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland, took with a hare ; and that ill lucke is now ours, for ll the charge of generalissimo of the army, were we are likely to get but little honour by them, | most peremptory. He was to be generalissimo should all their countrimen run away in the like ll for life, and that in the most absolute manner, for manner.”Ib. P. II, p. 47.

the emperor, the King of Spain, and the whole (Note 6.) The siege of Creutznach was most || house of Austria. The emperor should not be present at the army, much less have any com- , Scots, and the superior skill of the Scottish mand over it; the free liberty of confiscating and I general, Lesly. pardoning the countries he conquered was sti- || (Note 13.) The 27th of August, 1640, at night, pulated for by him; the duchy of Mecklenburg, General Lesly arrived within a mile of Newcastle, with other dominions, were promised to him, and finding it garrisoned, marched the next moro&c.

ing to Newburn Ford, where he found the past (Note 9.) “ The king had now 132 ensignes

defended with strong works and six cannon, and of foot, which made up 10,767 in the muster.

guarded with 3,000 horse and 1,200 foot. He booke ; and 152 troops of horse, which came to

placed his own ordinance upon an adjoining hill, 7,676. In all 18,443 men."-Swedish Intelligen

and so harassed the English foot that they filed cer, P. II, p. 240.

in disorder, and abandoned their cannon. The

horse attempted to rescue them, but were put to (Note 10.) The celebrated victory of Lutzen

| flight by Colonel Lesly, with about 1,500 horse. was gained on the 6th of November, 1632, old |

Upon this occasion, the celebrated gentleman. style. In the Swedish Intelligencer, a long ac

troop of Sir John Suckling was routed, and some count of it is introduced, consisting of 48 quarto

of his horses taken. pages. The king previously harangued the

(Note 14.) Robert Bertie, Earl of Lindsay, Swedes and Germans separately, both together

was eldest son of Peregrine Lord Willoughby, of consisting of 17,000 or 18,000 men. The watch

Eresby, a celebrated worthy of Queen Elizabeth's word of his army was, Gott mit uns, God with

reign. He was born in 1582; and, in 1603, sucus; that of the Imperialists, Jesu Maria. Both

ceeded to the office of lord high chamberlain of the armies had had the same in the great battle

England; 1626, he was created Earl of Lindsay; of Leipsic. The king, in the midst of the battle,

in 1635, appointed lord high admiral; and, in had charged a numerous body of cuirassiers, but

1642, general of the king's forces. The same they being too powerful, he was forced to retreat,

vear, 23rd October, he was killed at the battle of and wounded in the left arm. As he was carried

Edge Hill. off the field, a cuirassier, who knew him, came

(Note 15.) Robert, Earl of Essex, was the only behind him, and crying out, “ This is the right

son of the great favourite of Queen Elizabeth, bird,” shot him through the body, but was im

and, when young, was married to Lady Frances mediately killed himself by Luchan, the king's | Howard. His divorce from her is well known; master of the horse. The king's body was forced

and he retired in disgust from the court in conto be abandoned, and he was stript of every

| sequence of it. He died September 14th, 1646. hing about him by the imperial soldiers, who (Note 16.) “ Those of ours (the parliamentary were anxious to have a relic of so renowned a

army) taken by the enemy were, the Lord St commander. It is well known, that afterwards

John, who was mortally wounded, and declared, the body of the king was recovered, and a most l at his death, a full satisfaction and cbeerfulness complete victory gained. One of the best im- ll to lay down his life for so good a cause : Colonel perial commanders, Count Pappenheim, was slain I walio

|| Walton, a member of parliament; and Captain by a bullet from a falconet. He had, previous |

Austin, an eminent merchant in London; of to the battle, taken the sacrament, confessed, and ||

whom the last died through the hard usage be made this short testament: His soul he com

received in the gaol of Oxford, to which he was mended to God; his body (if he were slain) to

committed. It was observed, that the greatest the emperor, and his wife and children to wal. I slaughter on our side was of such as ran away; lenstein. The imperialists vauntingly claimed |

and on the enemy's side, of those that stood; of the victory, but acknowledged that the king whom I saw about threescore lie within the of Sweden was the bravest enemy and the best |

compass of threescore yards, upon the ground captain that ever was in Christendom. A stone

whereon that brigade fought in which the king's pillar, to the north of the town of Lutzen, still ll standard was. We took prisoners the Earl of marks the spot where he fell.

Lindsey, general of the king's army, who died of (Note 11.) In this disastrous battle, the Swe- || his wounds; Sir Edward Stradling, and Colonel dish veteran general, Gustavus Horne, with Field- || Lunsford, whu were sent to Warwick castle." marshal Gratz, and two other generals, were || Memoirs of Lieutenant-general Ludlow. Edin. taken prisoners; and several generals and supe. || 1751, p. 44.- The king published a declaration rior officers killed. The defeat would have been to his subjects after the late victory against the still more complete, if the Rhinegrave Otto | rebels, which was answered by a similar declaraLudwig, with his forces, had not approached, tion of the lords and commons. and prevented the pursuit of the Swedes, by the | (Note 17.) After the parliamentary army had cavalry and Croats.

possessed themselves of Reading, they had several (Note 12.) The Earl of Holland entered Ber skirmishes with the royalists, in one of which wick with the king, May 30, 1639, and the 31st

Hampden, the great patriot, lost his life. Sir he marched with 200 horse to Dunse. “Upon

William Waller engaged the king's western army the coming of our forces into the town, (ibe

at Lansdown. The Cornish men stood their expected Scots army was not to be found, but]

ground till they came to push of pike, but were the people cryed, “ God bless the king," and that

then routed, and their commander, Sir Bevil they were all his majesty's obedient subjects, and

Grenville, killed. General Ludlow, soon after, readily brought forth their Scots ale and what they had, to bid the English welcome.”-Rush • Ludlow's statements, of course, lean towards the side worth's Collections, vol. II, p. 929. June 3, the most favourable to the party he was engaged in; but, for earl again entered into Scotland, with 4,000

this reason, form proper annotations to those in the text, borse, but retired before the numbers of the l faction.

which are put into the mouth of one of the carabe

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