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with the knowledge and consent of their hus- 1 Dutch holland, worth in London about seven bands or parents, without any evil design, or shillings an ell, and thirty-six ells in length, and without giving any offence, but that I knew it worth in Chili, to be sure, fifteen pieces of eight was not so among the Spaniards; that I had not per ell, at least; or it was rather likely that all had the honour yet either to sec his lady or his | the kingdom of Chili had not such another. daughter, but that I had heard he had a lady Then I gave her two pieces of China damask, and a daughter also ; however, that if he pleased and two pieces of China silks, called atlasses, to be the messenger of a trifle I had caused my || flowered with gold ; two pieces of fine muslin, man to bring, and would present it for me, and one flowered, the other plain, and a piece of very not take it as an offence, he should see before- || fine chintz, or printed calico; also a large parcel hand what it was, and I should content myself of spices, made up in blue papers, being about with his accepting it in their behalf.
six pounds of nutmegs, and about twice as many He told me, smiling, he did not bring me thi. cloves. ther to take any presents of me; I had already And, lastly, to the young lady I gave one piece done enough, in that I had given him his liberty, of damask, two pieces of China taflity, and a which was the most valuable gift in the world; piece of fine striped muslin. and as to his wife, I had already made her the After all this was delivered, and the ladies had best present I was able, having given her back received them, and given them their women to her husband; that it is true it was not the cus hold, I pulled out a little box, in which I had two tom of the Spaniards to let their wives appear in couple of large pearls, oi that pearl which I menany public entertainment of friends, but that he tioned we found at the Pearl Islands, very well had resolved to break through that custom, and matched for ear-rings, and gave the lady one that he had told his wife what a friend I had pair and the daughter the other; and now, I been to her family, and that she should thank me think, I had made a present fit for an ambassador for it in public; and that then, what present I to carry to a prince. had designed for her, since I would be a maker The ladies made all possible acknowledgment, of presents, she should do herself the honour to and we had the honour that day to dine with take it with her own hands, and he would be them in public. My landlord the Spaniard toid very far from mistaking them, or taking it ill me I had given them such a present as the Vice. from his wife.
roy of Mexico's lady would have gone fifty As this was the highest compliment he was leagues to have received. able to make me, the more he was obliging in But I had not done with my host, for, after the manner, for he returned in about two hours, 1 dinner, I took him into the same room, and told leading his wife into the room by the hand, and him I hoped he did not think I had made all my his daughter following
presents to the ladies, and had nothing left to I must confess I was surprised, for I did not show my respect to him; and, therefore, first I expect to have seen such a sight in America. presented him with three negro men, which I The lady's dress, indeed, I cannot describe, but had bought at Callao for my own use, but knew she was really a charming woman in her person, I could supply myself again in my way home, at of about forty years of age, and covered over a moderate price; in the next place I gave him with emeralds and diamonds, I mean as to her three pieces of black Colchester bays, which, head. She was veiled till she came into the though they are coarse ordinary things in Eng. room, but gave her veil to her woman when her land, that a footman would scarce wear, are a husband took her by the hand. Her daughter I habit for a prince in that country. I then gave took to be about twelve years old, which the him a piece of very fine scarlet English serge, Spaniards count marriageable; she was pretty, which was really very valuable in England, but but not so handsome as her mother.
much more there ; and another piece of crimson After the compliments on both sides, my land. broad-cloth, and six pieces of fine silk druggets jord, as I now called him, told her very hand. for his two sons, and thus I finished my presents. somely what a benefactor I had been to her The Spaniard stood still, and looked on all the family, by redeeming him from the hands of vil while I was laying out my presents to him, as lains; and she, turning to me, thanked me in one in a transport, and said not one word till all the most obliging manner, and with a modest, was over; but then he told me very gravely that graceful way of speech, such as I cannot repre it was now time for him to turn me out of his sent, and which, indeed, I did not think the Spa. || house; “For, seignior," says he, “no man ought niards, who are said to be so haughty, had been to suffer himself to be obliged beyond his power acquainted with.
of return, and I have no possible way of making I then desired the doctor to tell the Spaniard any return to you equal to such things as these.” her husband that I desired his lady to accept a It is true the present I had made him, if it small present which my midshipman had brought I was to be rated by the value of things in the for her from the ship, and which, with his words, country where it then was, would have been I took in my hand, and the Spaniard led his wife valued at six or seven hundred pounds sterling, on to take it ; and I must needs say it was not but to reckon them as they might cost me, did a mean present, besides, its being of ten times not altogether amount to above one hundred the value in that place as it would have been at pounds, except the three negroes, which, indeed, London, and I was now very glad that, as I men cost me at Lima one thousand two hundred tioned above, I always reserved a small quantity 1 pieces of eight. of all sorts of goods unsold, that I might have He was as sensible of the price of those nethem to dispose of as occasion should offer. groes as I was of the occasion he had of them,
First, I presented her with a very fine piece of land of the work he had to do for them; and he
came to me about an hour after, and told me he || a particular fertility, which hot climates are not had looked over all the particulars of the noble | blessed with, especially as to corn, the most necespresents which I had made them; and, though , sary of all productions, such as wheat, I mean Eu. the value was too great for him to accept, or for ropean wheat, or English wheat, which grew any man to offer him, yet, since I had been at so here as well and as kindly as in England, which much trouble to send for the things, and that I in Peru, and the Isthmus of America, will by Do thought him worthy such a bounty, he was come means thrive for want of moisture and cold. back to tell me that he accepted, thankfully, all | Here were, also, an excellent middling breed my presents, both to himself and to his wife and of black cattle, which they fed under the shade daughter, except only the three negroes, and as of the mountains, and on the banks of the rivers, they were bought in the country, and were the till they came to be very fat. In a word, bere particular traffic of the place, he could not take were, or might be produced, all the plants, fruits them as a present, but would be equally obliged, and grain, of a temperate climate ; at the same and take it for as much a favour, if I would allow time, the orange, lemon, citron, pomegranate, him to pay for them.
and figs, with a moderate care, would come to a I smiled, and told him be and I would agree | very tolerable perfection in their gardens, and upon that; for he did not yet know what favours even sugar-canes, in some places, though these I had to ask of him, and what expense I should last but rarely, and not without great art in the put him to; that I had a great design in my cultivation, and chiefly in gardens, view, which I was to crave his assistance in, and They assured me, that further southward be. which I had not yet communicated to him, in yond Baldivia, and to the latitude of forty-seven which he might perhaps find that he would pay to forty-nine, the lands were esteemed richer dear enough for all the little presents I had than where we now were; the grass more made him; and, in the mean time, to make him strengthening and nourishing for the cattle, and easy as to the three negro men, I gave him my that, consequently, the black cattle, horses, and word that he should pay for them ; only not yet. hogs, were all of a larger breed; but that as the
He could have nothing to object against an Spaniards had no settlement beyond Baldivia to offer of this kind, because he could not guess the south, so they did not find the natives so what I meant, but gave me all the assurances tractable as where we then were ; where, though of service and assistance that lay in his power, the Spaniards were but few, and the strength in anything that I might have to do in that they had, was but small, yet, as upon any occacountry.
sion they had always been assisted with forces But here, by the way, you are to understand, sufficient from St Jago, and if need were, even that all this was carried on with a supposition, || from Peru, so the natives had always been sube that we acted under a commission from the king | dued, and had found themselves obliged to subof France ; and though he knew many of us mit, and that now they were entirely reduced, were English, and that I was an Englishman, in and were, and had been, for several years, very particular, yet, as we had such a commission and Jeasy and quiet. Besides the plentiful harvest produced it, we were Frenchmen, in that sense, which they made of gold from the mountains, to him, nor did he entertain us upon any other I (which appeared to be the great allurement of i footing
the Spaniards), had drawn them rather to settle The sequel of the story will also make it suf here, than further southward, being naturally ficiently appear, that I did not make such pre addicted, as my new landlord confessed to me, to sents as these in mere ostentation, or only upon reap the harvest which had the least labour and the compliment of a visit to a Spanish gentleman, || hazard attending it, and the most profit any more than I would leave my ship, and a | Not but that at the same time he confessed, that cargo of such value, in the manner I had done, he believed, and had heard, that there was as to make a tour into the country, if, had not views | much gold to be found further to the south, as sufficient to justify such beginnings, and the con- far as the mountains continued ; but that, as I sequence of these things will be the best apology have said, the natives were more troublesome, for me, to those who shall have patience to put and more dangerous, than where they now lived, them all together.
and that the king of Spain did not allow troops We had now spent a fortnight, and something sufficient to civilize and reduce them. more, in ceremony and civilities, and in now and I asked him concerning the natives in the then taking a little tour about the fields, and | country where we were ;-he told me they were towards the mountains. However, even in this the most quiet and inoffensive people, since the way of living, I was not so idle as I seemed to be Spaniards had reduced them by force, that for I had not only made due observations of all could be desired,- that they were not, indeed, the country which I saw, but informed myself numerous or warlike, the warlike and obstinate sufficiently of the parts which I did not see. I part of them having fled farther off to the south, found the country not only fruitful in the soil, as they were overpowered by the Spaniards; but wonderfully temperate and agreeable in its that for those that were left, they lived secure climate. The air, though hot, according to its under the protection of the Spanish governor :- " proper latitude, yet that heat so moderated by that they fed cattle and planted the country, and ihe cool breezes from the mountains, that it was sold the product of their lands very much to the rather equal to the plain countries in other parts | Spaniards, but that they did not covet to be rich of the world, in the latitude of fifty, than to a only to obtain clothes, arms, powder and shof, climate in thirty-eight to forty degrees.
which however, they let them have but sparingły This gave the inhabitants the advantages, not and with good assurance of their adelity. T only of pleasant and agreeable living, but also of ll asked him if they were not treacherous and per.
fidious, and if it was not dangerous trusting them- | take time to see every thing wbich I might think selves among them in the mountains, and among worth seeing, and not be in so much haste, as if the retired places where they dwelt ;-he told I was sent express. I told him, he was very me that it was quite the contrary, that they were much in the right; that I did not desire to make so honest, and so harmless, that he would at any | a thing, which I expected so much pleasure in, time venture to send his two sons into the moun. be a toil to me more than needs must; and above tains a hunting, with each of them a Chilian for all, that, as I supposed, I should not return into his guide, and let them stay with the said natives these parts very soon, I would not take a cursory two or three nights and days at a time, and be view of a place, which I expected would be so in no uneasiness about them; and that none of well worth seeing, and let it be known to all, I them were ever known to do any foul or treach should speak of it to, that I wanted to see it erous thing by the Spaniards, since he had been again, before I could give a full account of it. in that country.
* Well, seignior," says he, “we will not be in Having thus fully informed myself of things, || haste, or view it by halves; for if wild and un. I began now to think it was high time to see the couth places will be a diversion to you, I promise main sight which I came to enquire after, (viz.) myself your curiosity shall be fully gratified; but the passages of the inountains, and the wonders | as to extraordinary things, rarities in nature, and that were to be discovered on the other side ; surprising incidents which foreigners expect, I and accordingly I took my patron the Spaniard cannot say much to that. However, what think by himself, and told him, that as I was a traveller, ll you, seignior, says he, if we should take a tour and was now in such a remote part of the world, a little way into the entrance of the hills, which he could not but think I should be glad to see I showed you the other day, and look upon the everything extraordinary, that was to be seen ; gate of this gulph? perhaps your curiosity may that I might be able to give some account of the be satisfied with the first day's prospect, which I world when I came into Europe, better, and dif assure you, will be none of the most pleasant, and fering from what others had done, who had been you may find yourself sick of the enterprize." there before me; and that I had a great mind, if | I told him, no; I was so resolved upon the at. he would give me his assistance, to enter into the tempt, since he, who, I was satisfied, would not passages and valleys which he had told me so deceive me, had represented it as so feasible, and much of in the mountains, and, if it was possible, especially since he had offered to conduct me which, indeed, I had always thought it was not, through it, that I would not, for all the gold that to take a prospect of the world on the other was in the mountains, lay it aside. He shook side.
his head at that expression, and smiling at the He told me, it was not a light piece of work, doctor, says he, “this gentleman little thinks that and, perhaps, the discoveries might not answer there is more gold in these mountains, nay, even my trouble, there being little to be seen but in this part where we are, than there is now above steep precipices, inhospitable rocks, and unpas ground in the whole world : partly understanding sable mountains, immuring us on every side, what he said, I answered, my meaning was, to innumerable rills and brooks of water falling let him see, that nothing could divert me from from the clifts, making a barbarous and unplea the purpose of viewing the place, unless he himsant sound; and that sound echoed and reverbe self forbid me, which, I hoped he would not; and rated from innumerable cavities and hollows that as for looking a little way into the passage, among the rocks, and these all pouring down to try if the horror of the place would put a into one middle stream, which we should always check to my curiosity, I would not give him that find on one side or other of us as we went, and trouble, seeing the inore terrible and frightful, that sometimes, we should be obliged to pass the more difficult and impractible it was, provided those middle streams, as well as the rills and it could be mastered at last, the more it would brooks on the sides, without a bridge, and at the please me to attempt and overcome it. expence of pulling off our clothes.
“Nay, nay, seignior," said he pleasantly, “there He told us, that we should meet, indeed, with is nothing difficult or impracticable in it, nor is it provisions enough, and with an innocent, harmless any thing but what the country people, and even people, who, according to their ability, would some of our nation, perform every day; and that, entertain us very willingly; but that I who was not only by themselves, either for sport in pursuit a stranger, would be sorely put to it for lodging, of game, but even with droves of cattle, which especially for so many of us.
they go with from place to place, as to a market, However, he said, as he had, perhaps, at first, or a fair; and, therefore, if the horror of the raised this curiosity in me, by giving me a favour clefts and precipices, the noises of the volcanos, able account of the place, he would be very far the fire, and such things as you may see and bear from discouraging me now; and that if I resolved || above you, will not put a stop to your curiosity, to go, he would not only endeavour to make | I assure you, you shall not meet with any thing every thing as pleasant to me as he could, but unpassable or impracticable below, nor any thing that he and his major domo would go along with || but what, with the assistance of God, and the me, and see us safe through, and safe home blessed virgin (and then he crossed himself, and again ; but desired me, not to be in too much so we did all) we shall go cheerfully over." haste, for that he must make some little prepara. Finding, therefore, that I was thus resolutely tion for the journey, which, as he told us, might, bent upon the enterprize, but not in the least perhaps, take us up fourteen or sixteen days guessing at my design, he gave order to have forward, and as much back again; not, he said, servants and mules provided, for mules are much that it was necessary that we should be so long fitter to travel among the hills than horses; and going and coming, as that he supposed I would || in four days he promised to be ready for a march, I had nothing to do in all these four days, but || little rain for some time; the water ran very to walk abroad, and, as we say, look about me; rapid, and, as the Spaniard told me, was some. but I took this opportunity to give instructions times exceeding fierce; the entrance lay inclinto my two midshipmen, who were called my ser. ing a little south, and was so straight that we vants, in what they were to do.
could see near a mile before us, but the prodigious First, I charged them to make land-marks, height of the hills on both sides and before us, bearings, and beacons, as we might call them, appearing one over another, gave such a pros upon the points of the rocks above them, and at pect of horror, that I confess it was frightful every turning in the way below them, also at the at first to look on the stupendous height of the reaches and windings of the rivers or brooks, rocks. Everything before us looking one higher falls of water, and every thing remarkable ; and than another was amazing, and to see how, in to keep each of them separate and distinct jour some places, they hung over the river and over nals of these things ; not only to find the way the passage, it threatened a man with being some back again by the same steps ; but that they time or other swallowed up. might be able to find that way afterwards by The rocks and precipices on our right hand themselves, and without guides, which was the had here and there vast clefts and entrances, bottom and true intent of all the rest of my under- || which looked as if they had been different takings ; and as I knew these were both capable thoroughfares, but when we came to look full to do it, and had courage and fidelity to under into them we could see them close up at the tako it, I had singled them out for the attempt further end, and go off in slopes, and with gul. and bad made them fully acquainted with my lies made by the water which, in hasty rains, whole scheme, and, consequently, they knew the came pouring down from the hills, and which at meaning, and reason of my present discourse a distance made such noises as it is impossible with them: they promised not to fail to shew to conceive, unless by having seen and heard the me'a plan of the hills, with the bearings of every I like, for the water falling sometimes from a height point, one with another, where every step was twenty times as high as the Monument, and to be taken, and every turning to the right hand, perhaps much more, and meeting in the passage or to the left, and such a journal, I believe, was with many dashes and interruptions, it is imposnever seen before, or since; but it is too long sible to describe how, the sound crossing and for this place. I shall, however, take out the interfering, mingled with itself, and the several heads of it as I go along, which may serve as a noises sunk one into another, increasing the general description of the place.
whole, as the many waters joining increased the The evening of the fourth day, as he had ap- || main stream. pointed, my friend the Spaniard let me know We entered this passage about two miles the that he was ready to set out, and accordingly wo first night: after the first length which, as I began our cavalcade: my retinue consisted of said, held about three-quarters of a mile, we six, as before, and we had mules provided for turned away to the south, short on the right uz; my two midshipmen, as servants, had two hand; the river leaving us, seemed to come mules given them also for their baggage; the through a very narrow but deep hollow of the Spaniard had six also, viz. his gentleman, or, as mountains, where there was little more breadth | I called him before, his major domo, on horse. at the bottom than the channel took up, though back, that is to say, on mule-back, with mules the rocks gave back as they ascended, as placed for his baggage, and four servants on foot. Just in several stages, though all horrid and irregular, before we set out, his gentleman brought every ard we could see nothing but blackness and one of us a fuzee, and our two servants, each a terror all the way. I was glad our way did not harquebush, or short musket, with cartouches, turn on that side, but wondered that we should powder and ball, and adjoined a pouch with small leave the river, and the more when I found that, shot, such as we call swan shot, for fowls, or deer, in the way we went, having first mounted gently as we saw occasion.
a green pleasant slope ; when it declined again I was as well pleased with this, as with any we found, as it were, a new rivulet began in the thing, because I had not so entire a confidence middle, and the water ran S.E., or thereabouts. in the native Chilians as he had; but I saw This made me begin to ask if the water went plainly, some time after, that I was wrong in away into the Net World beyond the hills? My ihat, for nothing could be more honest, quiet, patron smiled, and said, “ No, seignior, not yet ; and free from design, than those people, except we shall meet with the other river again very the poor honest people where we dressed up the quickly;" and so we found it the next morning. I king and queen, as above.
When we came a little further we found the We were late in the morning before we got passage open, and we came to a very pleasant out, having all this equipage to furnish, and tra. plain, which declined a little gradually, widening velling very gently, it was about two hours before to the left or east side. On the right side of this sun-sct when we came to the entrance of the we saw another vast opening like the first, which mountains, where, to my surprise, I found we went in about half a mile, aud then closed up were to go in upon a level, without any ascent, as the first had done, sloping up to the top of the at least, that was considerable : we had, indeed, || hiils a most monstrous inconceivable height. gone up upon a pretty sharp ascent for near two My patron stopping here, and getting down or miles before we came to the place.
alighting from his mule gave him to his man, and The entrance was agrecable enough, the pas. | asking me to alight, told me, this was the first sage being near half a mile broad. On the left | night's entertainment I was to meet with in the || hand was a small river, whose channel was deep | Andes, and hoped I was prepared for it. I told but the water shallow, there having been butll him, that I might very well consent to accept
of such entertainment in a journey of my own |, and when they came quite up, one of my mid" contriving, as he was content to take up with shipmen showed me three or four small bits of in compliment to me.
clean perfect gold, which they had picked up in I looked around me to see if there were any the hill or gullet where the water trickled down huts or cots of the mountaineers thereabouts, from the rocks, and the Spaniards told them, but I perceived none; only I observed something that had they had time they should have found like a house, and it was really a house of some much more, the water being quite down, and of the said mountaineers upon the top of a pre nobody having been there since the last hard cipice as high from where we stood as the top of rain. One of the Spaniards had three small bits the cupola of St Paul's, and I saw some living | in his hand also; I said nothing for the present, creature, whether men or women I could not but charged my midshipmen to mark the place, tell, looking from thence down upon us. How and so we went on. ever, I understood afterwards that they had ways We followed up the stream of this water for to come at their dwelling, which were very easy three days more, encamping every night as beand agreeable, and had lanes and plains where fore; in which time we passed by several such they fed their cattle, and had everything growing openings into the rocks on either side. On the that they desired.
fourth day we had the prospect of a very pleasant My patron making a kind of invitation to me || valley and river below us on the north side, keepto walk, took me up that dark chasm or opening | ing its course almost in the middle, the valley on the right hand, which I have just mentioned, reaching near four miles in length, and in some “ Here, sir," said he, “ if you will venture to places near two miles broad. walk a few steps 'tis likely we may show you This sight was perfectly surprising, because some of the product of this country;" but as it here we found the vale fruitful, level, and ingrew towards night, he added, “But I see it is habited, there being several small villages or too dark, perhaps we may do it in the morning." clusters of houses such as the Chilians live in, And with this we walked back towards the place which are low houses covered with a kind of where we left our mules and servants, and when | sedge, and sheltered with little rows of thick we came thither there was a complete camp grown trees, of what kind we knew not. fixed. Three very handsome tents raised and a We saw no way through, nor which way we bar set up at a distance where the mules were | were to go out; but saw it everywhere bounded tied one to another to graze, and the servants with prodigious mountains, look to which side and the baggage lay together with an open tent of the valley we would. We kept still on the over them.
right, which was now the south-east side of the My patron led me into the first tent, and told river, and as we followed it up the stream it was me lie was obliged to let me know that I must still less than at first, and lessened every step make shift with that lodging, the place not afford we went, because of the number of rills we left ing any better.
behind us. And here we encamped the fifth Here we had quilts laid very artificially and cle. time, and all this while the Spanish gentleman ver for me and my three comrades, and we lodged | victualled us. Then we turned again to the very comfortably; but before we came to that | right, where we had a new and beautiful prospect we had the third tent to go to, in which there of another valley as broad as the other, but not was a very handsome table covered with all con. | above a mile in length. veniences, and, in a word, with a cold treat, that After we were through this valley my patron is to say, cold roasted mutton and beef, very well | rides up to a poor little cottage of a Chilian dressed, and after that, some potted or baked Indian without any ceremony, and calling us all venison, with pickles, conserves, and very fine about him, told us that there we would go to sweetmeats.
dinner. We saw a smoke indeed in the house, Here we ate very freely, but he bid us depend rather than come out of it, and it smothered upon it that we should not fare so well the next through a hole in the roof instead of a chimney. night, and so it would be worse every night, till | However, to this house, as to an inn, my patron we came to lie entirely at a mountaineer's ; but had sent away his major domo and another serhe was better to us than he pretended.
vant, and there they were as busy as two cooks, In the morning we had our chocolate as regu. | boiling and stewing goat's flesh and fowls, making larly as we used to have it in his own house, and us soup, broth, and such hodge-podge, as it we were up and ready to travel in a moment. seems they were used to provide, and which, We went winding now from the S. E. to the left, however homely the cottage was, we found very till our course looked E. by N., when we came savoury and good. again to have the river in view. But I should Immediately a loose tent was pitched, and we have observed here that my two midshipmen and | had our table set up and dinner served in, and two of my patron's servants had, by his direction, within about two hours we had eaten it, reposed been very early in the morning clambering up the ourselves after it (as the custom there is) and rocks in the opening on the right hand, and had | were ready to travel again. come back again about a quarter of an hour after l I had room all this while to observe and won. we set out, when missing my two men, I inquired der at the admirable structure of this place, for them, and my patron said they were coming, which may serve, in my opinion, for the eighth for, it seems, he saw them at a distance, and so wonder of the world, that is to say, supposing we halted for them.
there were but seven before. We had in the When they were come almost up to us, he middle of the day, indeed, a very hot sun, and called to his men in Spanish to ask if they had the reflection from the mountains made it still had una bon vejo? They answered, Poco, Poco:ll hotter, but the height of the rocks on every side