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was erected, wide enough for carriages to pass, until the other was repaired. The other has five arches, with a balustrade of stone on each side; is called St. Laurence's-Bridge, but more commonly the Old Bridge, and divides the city from the parishes of Widcombe and Lyncombe.
On the western side of this Bridge is the Quay, with Warehouses for goods; whence the river is navigable to Bristol; so that Bath is a proper inland port. Barges that have one mast and sail, and carry from 40 to 120 tons, bring heavy goods from Bristol; iron, copper, wine, deals, and many other articles, and generally return with large blocks of freestone, &c.
The river, though quite fresh, is deep, of a good width, beautifully winds on towards Bristol, in an exquisitely delightful and happy vale, between verdant hills, rural scenes and villages; and swarms with fine fish, namely trout, roche, dace, peich, eels, and others. About two miles and a half from Bath it runs under a noble bridge of stone of several arches, the principal of which is 100 feet in diameter, and for height and expansion seems to rival the Rialto at Venice. A little farther on is a lofty eminence, beautifully impending over its northern back; on which are pleasantly situated the elegant mansion and park of Sir Cæsar Hawkins, Bart. Seven miles from Bristol, between Saltford and Bitton, at Swineford, it becomes the boundary between Gloucestershire and Somerset, and so continues till it falls into the Bristol Chan- · nel. On the eastern side of the town of Keynsham it receives the river Chew, over which is a bridge on the Bath-road ; and below the bridge are considerable mills and manufactories for copper. Keynsham-bridge has nine arches over the Avon, and near it is a lock, to facilitate the navigation to Bath: at the highest tides, the salt sea flows up to this town, At Brislington, the Avon receives another salt stream; and flowing on by two works for smelting copper, at Crew's-hole, it euters the eastern suburbs of Bristol, between the glass-houses, iron-founderies, distilleries, breweries, and sugar-hou: es, goes on the to city, and runs under its last and most eminent bridge. Here the Avon is clear and shallow at low water; deep and muddy at high water; but one of the deepest, safest, and most convenient for navigation in England,
The Market-Place, situated behind the Guildhall, is judiciously contrived, and assumes a theatrical form. Here may generally be found a good supply of fish, flesh and fowl, and every other kind of provision, at moderate prices; fresh butter, equal to any in England, is brought in from the country every morning; and the butchers who live in the city, supply the inhabitants with the best of meat every day in the week. The principal market-days are Wednesday's and Saturday's, when the variety and arrangement of the different necessaries and delicacies of Life are equally great and beautiful. The markets for fish, are on Monday's, Wednesday's, and Friday's, and are thought to excel those of any inland town in the kingdom, as well in the quality as the quantity of the sea-tish brought to it, and the fresh-water fish daily taken from the
Two Fairs are annually held here, viz. one on the 14th, of February, and the other on the 10th of July; each of which lasts but one day. Temporary booths are erected in front of the Christopher Inn, ranging from the White Lion to the bottom of the market-place. These fairs are of but little importance, being only for the sale of toys and other small wares.
On Lansdown, famous for the number of sheep fattened by its delicate herbage, is annually held a very large fair, on the 10th. of August, noted for selling great quantities of fine cheese, horses, &c.
The advantages arising to the inhabitants from having plenty of Coal near the city is very great, as well from its use to families who burn it profusely, and to poor people who are rendered warm and comfortable by it in winter, as the Porter Breweries, &c. in which there is a great consumption of it. Bath is chiefly supplied from the mines to the south and southwest of the city, which has hitherto been brought in waggons, carts, and on the backs of that miserable race of beings, the collier's horses and asses. But the Sonierset Coal Canal, which is now made navigable to Bath, superscedes ʼn a great measure the other modes of carraige; and will at least relieve humanity from the pain of witnessing the repeated instances of cruelty which the barbarity of the collier inflicts on his wretched animals.
The principal Coal-works are those of Radstock, Camerton, Dunkerton, Timsbury, High-Littleton, Paulton, Wel
ton, and Writhlington. There are others about Midsummer Norton, Stratton on the Fosse, and Kilmersdon, besides about ten more on the northern or Timsbury line of the canal. The coal is good and in general large. The price at the pit's mouth is five-pence per bushel, or three quarters of a hundred.
Of the Improvements in the Od Town; Division into Parishes; Number of Houses and Inhabitants; Pour-Rates; Circulating Libraries; Newspapers, and Arms of Bath.
N Act of Parliament passed in the year 1789, for the improvement of the old town of Bath; enabling the corporation to erect five new streets; the first from Burtonstreet to Stall-street, which is now finished and called Unionstreet; the second, called Bath-street leads from the great Pump Room, in Stall-street, to the Cross-bath, and is finished with a handsome colonade on each side, of the Ionic order; the third is to lead from the north side of the Crossbath to Westgate street, the fourth from the south side of the Cross bath to Westgate-buildings, which is almost finished; and the fifth from the west side of Stall-street, near Belltree-lane to the Borough-wall; and for rendering more convenient and commodious, several other streets, ways, passages, and for improving the Pump Rooms, and making areas for preserving the baths.
In pursuance of this Act, the houses in Cheap-street have been rebuilt in a neat and elegant style, and the street made commodious for carriages, &c. The houses at the corner of the old Bridge, which inade the entrance into the city at that part very dangerous, is now taken down, by which means it is rendered very safe and easy.
To defray the charges of these improvements, the corporation are empowed to raise upon the security of their estates, and on the credit of an additional half toll on all carriages and horses, (except loaded waggons, carts, and horses coining to market,) and a double Sunday toll at the turnpikegates, the sum of 80,0001.
The city of Bath has so considerably increased in size and
number of inhabitants within the last thirty years, that it is now become one of the most agreeable, as well as the most polite places in the kingdom; owing chiefly to the elegance of its buildings, and the accommodations for strangers, which are superior to any other city in England. The city is divided into four parishes, viz. 1. St. Peter and Paul; 2. St. James; 3. St. Michael; and 4. the out-parish of Walcot. The three former of these were, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, consolidated into one rectory, and the patronage granted to the corporation, which they still hold with the vicarage of Widcombe and Lyncombe annexed. The Rev. Dr. Phillott, Archdeacon of Bath, is the present incumbent.
The number of rateable houses within the above four parishes in the year 1811, amounted to 3,800, and upon a fair calculation, about 38,200 inhabitants. When there is a full season, it may contain, reckoning the hospitals and suburbs, about 45,000 souls. The poor-rates, upon an average, amount latterly to 5,0001. a year.
The literary taste of this city is not a little promoted by the establishment of so many Circulatiug Libraries in different parts of it, where books on either side of every question, whether of religion or politics, are freely admitted, as well as a great variety of public papers, reviews, magazines, &c. The terms are liberal, only 30s. per year; 15s. a quarter, and 7s. 6d. per month.
There are four Newspapers published here weekly: the Bath Journal, on Sunday evening, by Messrs. Keene, in Kingsmead-street; the Bath and Cheltenham Gazette, by Messrs. Wood and Co. on Tuesday evening, in Union-street; the Bath Chronicle, by Mr. Cruttwell, on Wednesday evening, St. James's-street; and the Bath Herald, by Messrs. Meyler, on Friday evening, in the Abbey church-yard.
Small parcels are conveyed by their respective Newsmen to the various towns and villages encircling the city.
The Arms of Bath are, per fesse embattled azure and gules, the base masoned crenellè sable; in chief of the first two bars wavy argent; over all in pale a sword of the last, hilted and pomelled or; on the blade a key.
Regulations which the Chairmen of Bath are subject to by Act of Parliament; Fares, and Tables of Distances.
restricting and regulating the conduct of the chairmen, and protecting them in their rights, and subsequent regulations of the city Magistrates, to ensure their good behaviour,decrees, That the Mayor and two Justices shall licence persons who carry any glass or bath chair; the charge of such licence not to exceed 3s. to be paid by every chairman, & 59. stamp-duty; the number of chairs not to be under 70 (there are at present upwards of 200). The licence to be granted for one year only.
The licenced chairs to have a figure marked on the most conspicuous part of it: and any person carrying any glass or bath chair within the city or liberties, without such licence, to forfeit 13s. 4d. The chairmen to keep such stands as the Mayor and Justices shall appoint; and if any refuse to obey such orders, he or they shall forfeit 10s.: upon complaint, the Justices may suspend any chairman for any time not exceeding 40 days. Every chairman to give his residence to the Town Clerk, and also to give notice in case of removal, or on neglect to forfeit 20s.
If any person shall refuse to pay, or shall wilfully cut or de face any chair, the Mayor and Justices may grant a warrant to bring before them the offending person, and upon proof by one or more witnesses, on oath, to award satisfaction to the parties aggrieved; and on refusal, to levy the same on the offender's goods, or to commit the parties to prison for one month, or until such satisfaction be made: the penalty to be applied to the use of the poor of the parish.
Any gentleman may have his own chair and chairmen, but must enter the same; and none to be carried in it but himself or family, on pain of forfeiting 10s.
Prosecutions to be commenced within 3 months. Disputes to be determined by the Mayor, &c. at the Guildhall, every Monday, at 11 o'clock.