The advantageous circumstances of the situation of Bristol, taken altogether, may not be readily paralleled. A deep navigable river flows through the middle of it, which will bring a fifty-gun ship of war up to Bristol Bridge. This river flows with such a strong and rapid course, that the largest ships go up or down in one tide. Several ships of war, of from 40 to 70 guns, were built here for Government, during the late contest with America. Its convenience for trade is every way apparent. Its own river is navigable to the spacious, populous, and elegant city of Bath. It stands so near to the confluence of the River Avon with the Severn, that it enjoys the navigation and trade of that great river and adjacent counties; and of a vast extent of sea coasts down the Bristol channel, in Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall, to the Land's End; and of Southern Wales, to Milford-Haven. Ireland is just at the mouth of its channel, whose neighbourhood and trade are undoubtedly very beneficial to it. It enjoys the benefit of three Mineral Springs, two warm and one chalybeate; and of great resort and residence of Nobility and Gentry, especially in the months of summer. Neither London, Dublin, nar Edinburgh, have any coal in their vicinities. Bristol stands in the midst of a coal country, the veins of which run under its streets. It is surrouuded with collieries, not only in Kingswood on the Gloucestershire side of the river, but also on the Somerset side. It has in its environs, quarries of various kinds of stone, for line, building and paving. The quarries of Dundry, Bishport, Brislington, Durdham-Down, Saint Vincent's Rocks, Horfield, Stapleton, Downend, &c. would furnish stone enough to build and pave a city larger than Babylon.-Therefore, fuel, and the materials for building, are less expensive here, than at most other great and populous towns.

Not to enlarge on the great plenty of the necessaries of life in the counties of Glocester, Somerset, and Wilts, which supply the inhabitants of Bristol its vicinity to Wales, and the fruitful counties of Glamorgan and Carmarthen, occasions copious and continual importations of corn, cattle, pigs, poultry, salt butter, eggs and fruit, besides what it receives from the other English counties. With all these advantages Bristol has gradually risen to the rank of the second city in England, for extent, population, trade, opulence, in

crease, and importance to Government and the whole nation. Bristol was one of the most ancient cities of England before it was divided into counties. After that division, it became large and eminent in two counties; it was taken out of both and made independent of either. Thus singularly situated, being neither a county-town, in any county, nor subject to any, but between two, and constituted independent in its state and government, it was termed in its ancient charters, "Villa regalis et libera :" A ROYAL AND FREE CITY.

The Cathedral which is situated in College-Green, was formerly the collegiate church of St. Augustine's monastery, but when dissolved by Henry the eighth and erected into the See of a Bishop, he applied its revenues to the maintenance of a Bishop, Dean, Frebendaries, &c.

There are in this city, eighteen churches, the principal of which is that of St. Mary, at Redcliff, commonly called Redcliff church, built in the reign of Henry the sixth, by William Cannings, Esq. Alderman of the city. There is a very fine monument in it erected to his memory, recording this, and his great munificence to the city in general. The church is a stately, venerable, and beautiful Gothic structure, worthy the attention of the traveller and connoisseur. It stands on the eminence about three furlongs from Bristol Bridge; the church yard is enclosed by a balustrade of freestone, the ascent to it is by a flight of steps of Purbeck stone, many of them 18 feet long; the tower is large and richly ornamented with carved work, niches and statues. The belfrey contains a sonorous, deep peal of eight bells, the heaviest in Bristol. The workmanship of the whole is so exquisite, the roof so artificially vaulted with stone, and the tower so high, that it dignifies the part of the town in which it stands, and the perspective views of the city. The altar is decorated with three fine pictures painted by Hogarth, and one by Freshan, representing Our Saviour raising Jairus's daughter from the dead, presented by Sir Clifton Wintringham, Bart.

Queen's-square, the largest in Bristol, and in England, excepting Lincoln's-Inn, in London, includes seven acres and a quarter. The houses that compose the square, are handsomely and pretty uniformly built of brick, with a few of stone: in the centre is a curious equestrian statue of King William the third, cast in copper, standing on a base and pe

diment of Portland stone; this is reckoned a fine piece of workmanship; on the north side is the Custom-House, and in the area are many pleasant walks, shaded by rows of elms.

Berkeley-square, stands on a gentle slope, on the northeast side of Brandon Hill; this square is lately erected; and elegantly built of freestone. There are many other handsome squares in Bristol, and open places, called by different names, the principal of which is College-Green; this is on a fine, pleasant and healthy elevation, and there is an ascent to it every way, its form is nearly triangular. On the southern side are the Cathedral, St. Augustine's parish church, and the beautiful ancient gate of the monastery. The Green is enclosed by rails, within which a graveled walk, elegantly shaded by lime trees, bounds the whole area; there are two broader walks, between stately eims, the principal runs from east to west, the other from north to south, leading to the door of the cathedral.

The Quay of Bristol is upwards of a mile in extent or circuit, reaching from St. Giles's Bridge, down to the mouth of the Froom, and up the Avon to Bristol Bridge, being one uninterrupted spacious wharf of hewn stone, having sufficient depth of water before it for ships of the greatest burthen and fully laden, to come up close to the walls and discharge their cargoes; it is considered as the most commodious Quay in England.

About a quarter of a mile westward from the boundary of Bristol, in the parish of Clifton, on the Gloucestershire side of the river Avon, lies the HOTWELL, well known for the efficacy of its water. On the eastern side of the river, near to the bottom of the cliffs, at about 26 feet below high-water mark, and 10 feet above low water, this salutary fluid rises forcibly out of an aperture in the solid rock. Such an excellent spring, so warm and so copious as to discharge 60 gallons in a minute, could not escape the notice of our ancestors, of which there are sufficient proofs. William of Worcester, the earliest writer concerning Bristol, in 1480, mentions it twice in his book, page 185: “ Fons ibidem in parte de Ghyston Cliff, in fundo aquæ, et est ita callidus sicut lac, vel aqua Badonis :" i. e. "In the same place is a fountain, on the side of Ghystone Cliff, towards the bottom of the river, and it is so warm as milk, or like the water of

Bath." And again in page 223, "Fons callidus emanat de profundo a quæ Avyn, sicut est Batboniæ:" i. e, "The hot spring flows out of the bottom of the river Avon, and is like the water of Bath."

Thomas Johnson, in his Mercurius Botanicus, about 1634, recommends it for the stone and gravel: also Dr. Venner, in 1650. Thomas Fuller, in his book of Worthies, 1662, relates that St. Vincent's Well is sovereign for sores and sickness. Thomas Guidot, in 1690, praised its virtues in diarrhoeas and diabetes. Dr. Underhill, in 1703, recommends it for the king's evil, cancer, sterility, and impotence. Sir Robert Atkins, and Dr. Mead, the first Pysicians of the age, about 1712, recommended it in diabetes. Dr. Winter, in 1725, recounts its numerous virtues, and recommends it as a sedative. Dr. Keir, in 1739, published his treatise, which is considered as the best on the subject; Mr. Shebbeare, in 1740; Dr. Randolph, in 1745; Dr. Sutherland, in 1758; Dr. Fothergill, in his Medical Observations; Drs. Nott and Willich, in 1797, and 1798, and at former periods, the Drs. Brooks, Lucas, Rutty, Monro, and Berkenhout, have either analyzed, or shewn the virtues and uses of this water.

As to its real temperature, when drank at the Pump, Dr. Willich, observed it to be 72. degrees of Fahrenheit; Dr. Carrick, 74; and Dr. Nott states its highest point at 76; which might have been occasioned by different degrees of heat in the water, or by the thermometers adjusted by different makers..

It is without smell; pleasing and grateful to the stomach, cooling, and quenches thirst.

Dr. Willich observes, respecting this water, "It is evident that the principal part of it are,

"1. An uncommon quantity of carbonic acid gas, or fixed air. 2. A certain portion of magnesia soda, and lime, in various combinations with the muriatic, vitriolic, and carbonic acids."

Dr. Keir observes, that consumptions even in their last stages, have had a stop put to their rapid career, and recovery obtained, by a continued use of this water,, and a strict • milk diet; also, that the water is a specific in diabetes, and its use both innocent and safe,

The season for drinking the water is from March to Sep

tember, when the place is much frequented by the nobility and gentry.

The town called the Howells, has been greatly improved within a few years. The new colonade, and the extension of the parade and trees by the side of the river, have added much to the beauty and convenience of the place. Here and at Clifton above, many handsome piles, mansions, and houses have been lately erected; most of them built with freestone. The dwellings below, which generally receive the noble and polite visitants, are the Hotwell-beuse, the Colonade, St. Vincent's-parade, a range of superb houses of stone fronting the river; Paradise-Row, Dowry-Square, and the paved Purade, Chapel-Row, Albermarle Row, Hope-Square, GranbyPlace, &c. in all of which are good lodging-houses, some of them built in an elegant style.

Here are two sets of public Rooms and three Hotels. That named Glocester-House or Ba ton's Hotel, is the Principal.

The Assembly-Room is 90 feet long, 35 feet feet wide, and 35 high, has glass chandeliers, a music gallery, and presents lovely views of the adjacent paradise, from which the row in which it stands was denominated.

The next Assembly-Room and Hotel, stands on the opposite side of the street, and is called the Lower, or New Long Room: this is built on arches, and fronts the river. At these are public breakfasts during the season, every Monday and Thursday alternately, with cotillions and country dances, for which each person pays 1s. 6d. The Balls are on Tuesdays, subscription to which is one guinea at each Room; and for walking in the rooms and gardens, and reading the papers 5s. Subscribers to the Balls are allowed two tickets, which admit two ladies; non-subscribers pay 5s. each Ball. There is also the New Inn and Hotel, a good house in Dowry-square.

The Master of the Ceremonies at the Wells, is William Pennington, Esq. who is distinguished in the Rooms by wearing a medallion of gold and a ribbon.

Beyond the Wells are tremendous rocks, (known by the name of St. Vincent's Rocks) extending a vast way on each side of the river Avon, where is found in great abundance that beautiful fossil called Bristol Stone.

CLIFTON is, indubitably, one the most pleasant, healthy, and elegant villages, in the kingdom. Its air is so remarkably

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