4. Give the gist of the following remarks (by Bacon), arranging your précis in paragraphs to make the argument more easily perceived:

It is a miserable solitude to want true friends, without whom the world is but a wilderness. A principal fruit of friendship is the ease and discharge of the fullness and swellings of the heart. We know diseases of stoppings and suffocations are the most dangerous in the body; and it is not much otherwise with the mind. No receipt openeth the heart but a true friend, to whom you may impart griefs, joys, fears, hopes, and whatsoever lieth upon the heart to oppress it. It is a strange thing to observe how high a rate great monarchs do set upon this fruit of friendship whereof we speak so great as they purchase it many times at the hazard of their own safety. For princes cannot gather this fruit, except they raise some persons to be, as it were, companions, and almost equals to themselves; which many times sorteth to inconvenience. The parable of Pythagoras is dark but true-Eat not the heart. Certainly, those that want friends to open themselves unto are cannibals of their own hearts. This communicating of a man's self to his friend redoubleth joys, and cutteth grief in halves; for there is no man that imparteth his joys to his friend but he joyeth the more, and no man that imparteth his griefs but he grieveth the less. The second fruit of friendship is healthful for the understanding, as the first is for the affections. Friendship maketh daylight in the understanding out of darkness and confusion of thoughts. Whosoever hath his mind fraught with many thoughts, his wits do clarify in discoursing with another; he marshalleth his thoughts more orderly; he seeth how they look when they are turned into words; he waxeth wiser than himself, and that more by an hour's discourse than by a day's meditation. Add now, to make this second fruit of friendship complete, that other point which lieth more open, and falleth within vulgar observation-faithful counsel from a friend. There is as much difference between the counsel that a friend giveth and that a man giveth himself as there is between the counsel of a friend and of a flatterer. For there is no such flatterer as a man's self; and there is no such remedy against flattery of a man's self as the liberty of a friend.


5. Correct or approve these sentences, in each case giving your reason :— (a) Neither you nor I are infallible.

Having shivered motionless for an hour, the fog suddenly lifted and set us free.

(c) He kept on trying to maliciously interrupt the speaker. Judging from his hair, he might be seventy.

(e) The baby commences to take notice.

(f) Men of to-day care for themselves as well as women.
"Full fathom five thy father lies;

Of his bones are coral made."


6. (a) Examine the meanings of the following words: - aggravate, exasperate; efficacious, efficient; elicit, eliminate; impertinent, irrelevant; impudent, insolent; ill-timed, untimely.

(6) State what prepositions are used with these words :-acquit, confer, differ, eager, expert, immune. (36)

7. Comment on these remarks:

(a) In an early age verse is handed down, while prose perishes. (b) An expert writer needs few italics.

(c) The Latin element in a man's style will vary according to

his subject.


8. Give the meaning of these words and phrases:-ad captandum argument, dramatic irony, ex parte statement, oblique narration, solecism. Illustrate your answer by examples.


9. Define a metaphor; and show that, although a good metaphor is necessarily false, it has advantages over a simile, though a simile is always true. Point out the metaphors in the following passage and convert one of them into a simile: "His words certainly struck me; but I was especially impressed by the personality of the man. He must be a very rock amid the storms and currents of party strife."



Monday, June 17th, 1912.-Morning, 10 to 12.

Questions 1 and 3, and either 4 or 7, must be taken by all candidates; three, but not more than three, other questions should also be attempted (six altogether).

1. Give the connexion in which the following passages occur,

the authors :

and name

(a) "The stars came out in the heavens, and the fireflies mimicked them in the lower air; the long dusty roads and the interminable plains were in repose; and so deep a hush was on the sea that it scarcely whispered of the time when it shall give up its dead."



"Much can they praise the trees so straight and high, The sailing pine; the cedar proud and tall;

The vine-prop elm; the poplar never dry;

The builder oak, sole king of forests all;

The aspen, good for staves; the cypress funeral."

"What are you doing, you strange people? My chief reason
for sending away the women was that we might be
spared such discordance as this, for I have heard that a
man ought to die in solemn stillness."

(d) "Soon as the evening shades prevail
The Moon takes up the wondrous tale,
And nightly, to the listening Earth,
Repeats the story of her birth."

(e) "The small boys and girls approached her slowly, with
cautious movement and steady gaze, like little dogs
face to face with one of their own kind, till attraction
had reached the point at which the soft lips were put
out for a kiss."

(ƒ) "When to her organ vocal breath was given,

An angel heard, and straight appeared,
Mistaking earth for heaven."

"All true Work is sacred; in all true Work, were it but
true hand-labour, there is something of divineness.
Labour, wide as the Earth, has its summit in Heaven."



"Had I but served my God with half the zeal
I served my king, He would not in mine age
Have left me naked to mine enemies."


2. Explain how the destruction of Pompeii became an event of unique interest to us.

(25) 3. The Relief of Leyden; The Battle of Plassey; Sir Patrick Spens; The Great Dismal Swamp; The Last of the Incas; Escape from the Bastille. Write a short account of one of the above, and name the authors of the six narratives. (30)

4. Select those authors in the "Reader " whose style you consider conspicuous for any of the following characteristics:-(a) tenderness, (b) dignity, (e) precision, (d) weightiness of manner, (e) minute observation, (f) general mastery of expression.

Give references to illustrate your answer.


5. How was it that in "Utopia every one was well-off, yet no one needed to work more than six hours a day? (30) 6. In the "Compleat Angler" Piscator speaks of "a handsome milkmaid," who "cast away all care, and sang like a nightingale." What did she sing? and what was sung back to her in reply? Who wrote the two songs here referred to?

(30) 7. You are shown five passages which you never saw before, written by five different men-Dickens, Milton, Pope, Shakespeare, and Wordsworth: what distinguishing features of style might help you to guess the author of each passage ?


8. Give the pith of what Bacon says in praise of Queen Elizabeth, or of what Sir F. Head says about the Red Indian. (25)

9. Name the authors of these lines, and write short notes explaining what is meant :

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"All his men

'Though I am always serious, I do not know what it is to be melancholy."

"As good almost kill a man as kill a good book."

Look at each other with a wild surmise-
Silent, upon a peak in Darien."


10. State in what connexion the following are introduced :-the Bayeux tapestry, Blackmail, the Flapper, Knights Templars, Portland stone.


HISTORY (Associateship).

A.D. 1485-1901.

Tuesday, June 18th, 1912.-Morning, 9 to 12.

No candidate is allowed to answer more than EIGHT of the twelve questions. The questions are of equal value.

1. For what reasons are the reigns of William III, William IV, and Victoria to be regarded as epochs in the development of our Constitutional History?

2. Describe the relations of England with Spain from the reign of Henry VII to that of Elizabeth inclusive.

3. Discuss the policy of religious persecution, illustrating your answer specially by reference to the Puritans in England and the Huguenots in France.

4. Give a general account of the causes that led to (a) the establishment of the Commonwealth in England, (b) the Restoration of the Monarchy.

5. Explain three of the following phrases, and write notes on their historical connexion:-The Rights of Man, Church and State, Free Trade, the Continental System.

6. Trace the political and military events that led to the establishment of the United States of America as a separate country.

7. Trace the causes, and give particulars, of (a) the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745 and (b) the Irish Rebellion of 1798.

8. Write a brief sketch of the social and economic changes progressing in England from about 1780 to 1820.

9. Give a brief account of the principal events with which Louis XVI of France and the Emperor William I of Germany were respectively connected.

10. Describe the principal political events in the government of Canada between 1763 and 1841.

11. Trace the political career, and describe the policy, of two of the following statesmen :-Clarendon, Walpole, the Younger Pitt, Disraeli. 12. What extensions of the British Empire resulted from (a) the War of the Spanish Succession, (b) the Wars with the French Republic and with Napoleon?

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