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Monday, June 17th, 1912.-Afternoon, 2.30 to 4.30.

Not more than six questions may be answered. All questions carry equal marks.

1. What do you understand by a Great Circle? Point out all the advantages of Great Circle Sailing for commerce, with special reference to the Atlantic Ocean.

2. Explain carefully the causes of the seasons, and work out the approximate height of the Sun in Newfoundland in the middle of each season.

3. Describe the most marked features in the distribution of land and water on the earth, with special reference to the water-parting between the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific Oceans.

4. State, with a sketch-map, the causes, the precise position and extent, and the chief results of the Gulf Stream.

5. Explain, with rough illustrations, how you would represent mountains

on a map.

6. State the chief causes of heavy rainfall in the tropics, and give examples of areas which illustrate what you say.

7. How far, and for what reasons, is it correct to call land and sea breezes "miniature monsoons," and to call monsoons “magnified land and sea breezes"?

8. Explain the position and the direction of the typical isotherms over the British Isles in (a) winter and (b) summer, and account for the

obvious differences.

9. State precisely what you mean by a watershed, a water-parting, a river-basin, a river-plain, and river-erosion. In each case account for the particular phenomenon, and give two instances of it, both of them from Europe.

10. Distinguish between dew, rain, hail, and snow; and explain exactly where, and when, you would expect to find each.

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SHORTHAND (Intermediate Grade).

Friday, June 21st, 1912.-Afternoon, 12.15 to 1.

Candidates must not use india-rubber or make any erasures.


Ten minutes allowed.

To gain full marks, thirty words a minute must be transcribed neatly and correctly; twenty-five words a minute, fairly well done, will secure a pass.

Transcribe into Shorthand :—

By the Act of 1773, Warren Hastings was named Governor-General of Bengal, with powers of superintendence and control over the other presidencies. Hastings was sprung of a noble family which had long fallen into decay, and poverty had driven him to accept a writership in the Company's service. Clive, whose quick eye discerned his merits, drew him after Plassey into political life; and the administrative ability he showed, during the disturbed period which followed, raised him step by step to the post of Governor of Bengal. No man could have been better fitted to discharge the duties of the new office which the Government at home had created without a thought of its real greatness. Hastings was gifted with rare powers of organization and control. His first measure was to establish the direct rule of the Company over Bengal by abolishing the government of its native princes, which, though it had become nominal, hindered all plans for effective administration. The Nabob sank into a pensionary, and the Company's new province was roughly but efficiently organized. Corruption he put down with as firm a hand as Clive's, but he won the love of the new "civilians "" as he won the love of the Hindoos. Although he raised the revenue of Bengal and was able to send home every year a surplus of half a million to the Company, he did this without laying a fresh burden on the natives or losing their good will. His government was guided by an intimate knowledge of and sympathy with the people. At a time when their tongue was looked on simply as a medium of trade and business, Hastings was skilled in the languages of India; he was versed in native customs and familiar with native feeling. (30)


Take down, in Shorthand, the three passages that will be read by the Presiding Examiner, and transcribe the first two. (70)

Seven minutes for dictation.

Twenty-eight minutes for transcription.

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Seven minutes for dictation. Twenty-eight minutes for transcription. The following passages will be read in a measured flow. The diagonal lines do not indicate any pause in the reading, but merely show the number of words which ought to be read in each half-minute or quarter of a


INSTRUCTIONS TO BE READ TO THE CANDIDATES. Three passages will be dictated: the first at 40 words per minute, the second at 50 words per minute, and the third at 60 words per minute. Candidates are to take down all three passages, and their shorthand notes will be submitted to the Examiner, but only the first two passages are to be transcribed. Accuracy is the matter of most importance. Candidates will find it an advantage if they take down each passage on a separate page and leave the opposite page in each case for the transcription. Candidates must not use india-rubber or make any erasures.


(40 words per minute.)

The fifth annual meeting of the shareholders was held on Thursday in Manchester, Mr. Dawson, the Chairman of the Company,/ presiding. In moving the adoption of the report and accounts the Chairman said the net profits, after allowing for depreciation, / interest on debentures, &c., amounted to £30,068, an increase over 11⁄2 those of last year / of £4,600. The bank overdraft was £2,954


higher than last year, secured by £50,000 first debentures. 21 year he hoped to issue these debentures to the shareholders. /


(50 words per minute.)


Owing to various circumstances outside their control, a favourable opportunity had not presented itself, but on any improvement in the general financial situation the Directors / proposed to take steps to Ideal with these debentures. This would in no way affect their profits, as they had to pay the interest on / money borrowed. The general business of the Company had been most satisfactory. They manufactured almost every type of motor vehicle, for which there 1 had been, and still continued, a steadily increasing demand. As Chairman of the Company, he felt confident-notwithstanding the danger of prophesying a year in advance that they would meet next year with a still better report, both of the year's working and 2 the position they occupied in the motor industry. (Cheers.) /


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(60 words per minute.)

With reference to the goodwill and reserve accounts, he remarked last year that, "If ever / there was a period in the history of the Company when goodwill should figure in the balance sheet, it was at that time." After their experience of the satisfactory working / of the past year, he was stronger in that opinion, but, as the Directors had decided to eliminate this account gradually, they had written it 11 down a further £2,000, / leaving a total of £8,000. Continuing the policy inaugurated last year, the / Directors had placed to the reserve fund the sum of £12,500. There could be no doubt that this was a sound and desirable course to pursue. /





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