token of simple truth: the serpents betokened wisdom: both sexes, as also the Copia-cornu, betokened fruitful increase and plenty, the companions of peace. They were sent to redeem captives, to treat of peace, to procure safe conducts for embassadors, to require the dead bodies to be buried. Inviolable they were in the greatest rage of war, and reputed men of a divine original; as first descended from Knpuxos, the son of Mercury, of whom they were named Knpuxes, and hereupon Homer calleth Eumedes Θείον Κήρυκα. It were needless, here, to mention their rites in making peace; how they brought two lambs, fruits in a bottle of goat-skin, golden chargers, and other vessels, &C., as it is noted by Homer.



The Romans likewise had their Faciales, so called à fide et fædere faciendo, first instituted in Italy by Hessus, and brought to Rome first by Ancus Martius: their college consisted of twenty. The principal was called 'Pater Patratus,' because it was requisite that he should be Patrimus, that is, have his father alive, and he himself have children. The second was called Verbenaceus,' because when the Faciales were sent clarigatum, that is to challenge goods taken away clara voce,' he carried the herb verbena with flint-stones et vivax è cespite gramen, as Ovid calleth it, which he received of the Prætor. Dionysius Halicarnass. recordeth, that six especial points were incident to their office. First, That they should have a care, lest the people of Rome should wage war against any of their confederates. Secondly, That they should challenge, and require again, goods injuriously taken away by enemies. Thirdly, That they should proclaim war against such as refused to

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make restitution. Fourthly, That they should take notice of injuries done contrary to covenants. Fifthly, That they should carefully provide, that conditions should be faithfully observed. Sixthly, That they should treat and compound peace, and take notice what generals and commanders had done contrary to their oath. When they required restitution, they wore on their head a hood of yarn, and used these words: Audi Jupiter, audite Fines, audiat Fas; ego sum publicus nuncius populi Romani, justè pièque legatus venio, verbisque meis fides sit, &c. Like wise, when they proclaimed war, they did cast into the enemies' country a bloody spear burned at the upper end, uttering these words, as Au. Gellius re porteth: Quòd populus [Hermundulus] hominesque populi [Hermunduli] adversus populum Romanum bellum fecere deliquéreque; Quòdque populus Romanus cum populo[Hermundulo]hominibusque[Hermundulis] bellum jussit, ob eam rem ego populusque Romanus populo [Hermundulo] populisque [Hermundulis] bellum indico facioque. But this was, stante republicâ. Under the emperors, as I find no mention of the Faciales, yet it seemed they continued: for, when Ammianus Marcellinus maketh mention of the siege of Amidas under Julian, he reported that a Persian did cast into the town a bloody lance, ut moris est nostri. After the decay of the Roman empire, and erection of kingdoms, the heralds of the old Franks carried virgas consecratas, when they were employed in messages, that they might not be touched or troubled by any: and this was juxta ritum Francorum, as Gregorius Turonensis writeth, VII. 32.

But in the time of Carolus Magnus began both


the reputation, honour, and name of Heralds, as Eneas Sylvius reporteth out of an old library-book of St. Paul, the author whereof derived their name from Heros; but others, to whom most incline, from the German word Herald, which signifieth old and ancient master.' Yet he which writeth notes upon Willeram saith, that Herald signifieth, faithful to the army;' and I have found, in some Saxon treatise, Heold interpreted Summus Præpositus. Nevertheless, this name is rare, or not found in the history of Charles the Great, nor in the times ensuing for a long space, either by our writers or French writers. The first mention, that I remember of them in England, was about the time of King Edward I. For in the statute of arms or weapons, [it was ordained] that the Kings of Heralds should wear no armour but their swords, pointless; and that they should only have their Houses des Armes, and no more, which as I conceive are their coats of arms.' The name and honour of them was never greater, in this realm, than in the time of King Ed ward III.; in whose times there were Kings of Arms, Heralds, and Poursevants by patent, not only peculiar to the King, but to others of the principal nobility and Froissart writeth, that King Edward III. made a Poursevant of Arms, which brought him speedy tidings of happy success in the battle of Auroye in Britanny, immediately upon the receipt of the news an herald, giving him the name of Windesore;' and at that time were liveries of coats of arms first given unto heralds, with the King's arms embroidered thereon, as the King himself had his robe royal set with lions of gold. In France also, as the said Froissart writeth, the same time Philip


de Valois increased greatly the state royal of France with jousts, tourneys, and heralds. As for the privileges of heralds, I refer you to the treatise thereof purposely written by Paul, Bishop of Burgos in Spain.'





FRANCIS BACON, one of the most illustrious of mankind, was the younger son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper in the reign of Elizabeth, † and Anne second daughter of Sir Antony Cooke. ‡

* AUTHORITIES. Rawley's, and Mallet's Lives of Lord Bacon; Tenison's Baconiana; Birch's Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth; and British Biography.

See the Life of Lord Burghley, in this Volume, p. 183, Note t.

His mother, a woman of exemplary piety, born in 1528, from her eminent attainments in literature is said to have been appointed Governess to Edward VI. She translated from the Italian into English twenty-five sermons, written by Barn. Ochinus on The Predestination and Election of God,' which were published about 1550. Her version of Bishop Jewel's invaluable Apology for the Church of England' from the Latin, made for the use of the common people, she sent to that Prelate accompanied by an epistle in Greek, which he answered in the same language. It was praised likewise, in a very delicate stile of compliment, by Archbishop Parker. He returned it to her printed, knowing (as he observed in his letter) that he had thereby done for the best, and in this point used a reasonable policy; that is, to prevent such excuses as ber modesty would have made in stay of publishing it.'


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