70. He that perishes, is one that busies himself beside himself, and whose to-day is worse than his yesterday.

71. He is thy true friend, that takes care of thee as himself, and prefers thee to his riches, children, and wife.

72. He is a wise man who can govern himself both in his anger, desire, and fear.

73. Weeping out of the fear of God, enlighteneth the heart, and fortifieth against the return of sin.

74. Opportunity is swift of flight, slow of return.

75. To make one good action constantly succeed another is the perfection of goodness.

76. Patience in poverty, with a good reputation, is better than a plentiful maintenance with contempt.

77. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.

78. A man's affliction is the forerunner of his prosperity.

79. Men are more like the time they live in than they are like their fathers.

80. A man that knoweth the just value of himself doth not perish.

81. The value of every man is the good which he doth.

82. He that knows himself, knows his Lord.

83. A man is hid under his tongue.

84. No praise with pride.

85. Innocence is incompatible with covetousness.

86. There is no rest where there is envy.

87. It concerns thee more to flee from thyself, than from a lion.

88. He that hath no courage, hath no religion.

89. A wise man is never poor.

90. There is no generosity in a liar.

91. He that is fearful, will be secure at his journey's end.

92. No health with gluttony.

93. No generosity of spirit with a bad education.

94. A man governeth his people by doing them good.

95. The tongue of a wise man lieth behind his heart.

96. The heart of a fool lieth behind his tongue.

97. The complaisance of a fool is like a garden in a dunghill.

98. Impatience is more irksome than patience.

99. He that pursueth that which is not suitable for him, loseth that which is suitable for him.

100. A man that is given to jesting will never fail of hatred nor contempt.

101. Despair is a freeman, hope is a slave.*

102. The opinion of a wise man is as an oracle.

103. Enmity is business enough.

104. A covetous man doth not live.

105. His life is long whose labour is short.

106. The pursuit of good education is better than the pursuit of riches.

107. His grief is long whose hope is short.

108. Happy is he that hath no family.

109. It is better that kings should be unjust, than mean-spirited.

110. The thirst after wealth is greater than the thirst after drink.

111. He cheats you who makes you angry about a trifle.

112. A man's glory from his virtue is greater than the glory of his pedigree.

113. Your victory over your enemy is your forbearance.

114. The freedom of a man consists in speaking truth.+

115. The strength of the heart is from the soundness of the faith.

116. The word of God is the medicine of the heart.

117. Death will rid you of the faults of the world.

118. There is a cure for all enmity but the enmity of the envious man.

119. Being acquainted with bad men is going to sea.

120. He that holdeth his peace doth not repent.

121. He that gives a listening ear to reproach is one of those that deserve reproach.

122. Your being angry is reproachful before God.

123. The praise of a man is under his tongue.

124. The conversation of young men is destructive of religion. 125. A learned conversation is the garden of paradise.

126. The destruction of a man is the vehemency of his temper. 127. The forgetfulness of death is the rust of the heart. 128. The light of thy heart is in prayer in the darkness of the night. 129. The greyness of thy head is the news of thy own death.

So long as a man is in expectation, his thoughts are in suspense, and he is in a slavish condition; but as soon as he gives over his pursuit, he is free and at liberty.

+ Not that a man is obliged to speak every truth that he knows or believes, but that a habit of speaking truth, as it flows from, so it naturally supports, a generosity and freedom of spirit.

That word which is here translated news, is used in a very particularly emphatic manner, for it signifies the report of any person's death.

130. Trust in God is the believer's castle.

131. Holy wars are the pillars of religion, and the highways of the happy and to those that are engaged in them, the gates of heaven shall be open.

132. Repentance purifieth the heart, and washeth away sin.

133. Mankind is divided into two parts or sorts: the one seeketh, and doth not find; another findeth, and is not contented.

134. The good man liveth, though he be translated to the mansions of the dead.

135. The abstinence from evil is better even than doing good.

136. Knowledge is the ornament of the rich, and the riches of the poor. 137. He that omitteth practice hath not sufficient faith in the reward annexed to it.

133. Clemency in power, is a defence against the vengeance of God.

139. The reverence of God blotteth out a great many sins.

140. Resignation to the providence of God makes the greatest afflictions easy.

141. Quarrelling discovereth a man's folly, but addeth nothing to the truth of his cause.

142. Truth is the conformity of speech to the end for which God ordained it.

143. A lie is perverting language from the end for which God ordained it.

144. Adversity makes no impression upon a brave soul.

145. Trust in God is a castle of defence to him that fleeth to it.

146. Impatience under affliction is worse than the affliction.

147. That man hath a brave soul who abstaineth from things unlawful, and keepeth at a distance from what is criminal.

148. Covetousness is the head of poverty, and the foundation of wickedness.

149. A deceiver's tongue is sweet, and his heart bitter.

150. Perfection consists in three things; patience in affliction; moderation in our pursuits; and assisting him that asketh.

151. A wise man knoweth a fool, because he hath formerly been ignorant himself; but a fool doth not know a wise man, because he never was wise himself.

152. The believer is always cautious of his sins: he dreads temptation, and hopes for the mercy of his Lord.

153. Religion is a tree, the root of which is faith; the branch, the fear of God; the flower, modesty ;† and the fruit, generosity of spirit.

That is, wars undertaken for the support of religion, i. e. Mohammedan. Modesty is not here to be understood in opposition to unchasteness; but as proper deportment.


154. Anger is a fire kindled he that restraineth it, putteth it out; but he that letteth it loose, is the first that is consumed by it.

155. Folly is an incurable disease.

156. They whose friendship is fixed on the Most High, their love remaineth as long as the cause of it: but as for the friends of this present world, their love is broken off as soon as the causes of it cease.

157. A fool doth not know what maketh him look little; neither will he hearken to him that adviseth him.

158. Riches, without God, are the greatest poverty and misery.

159. Liberality and fortitude are noble things; which God, giveth to him whom he loveth and maketh trial of.

160. That man travels the longest journey, that undertakes the search of a sincere friend.

161. He is the greatest of all fools, that doth no good, and would yet be respected; and doth that which is evil, and yet expecteth the reward of the good.

162. The most odious of men to the most high God is he whose thoughts are fixed upon his belly and his lust.

163. The most happy man, as to this life, is he to whom God hath given wherewithal to be content, and a good wife.

164. He is the most just man that doth justice upon himself without any one else to judge him.

165. That man best deserveth a kindness who, when he is put off, beareth it patiently; when he is refused, excuseth it; and when he receiveth it, is thankful.

166. The diligence of the world, is idleness; the honour of it, vileness; the height of it, lowness.

167. He that walketh upon the back of the earth,* is going into its belly. 168. A believer should be ashamed, when any action passeth him which his religion doth not oblige him to do.

169. Justice is the balance of God, which he hath set for men ; wherefore do not contradict him in his balance, nor oppose him in his dominion.

By the back of the earth, he means the outside; by the belly, the




Hejirah 40, 41. A.D. 660, 661.

AFTER Ali had received his mortal wound, and there was no room left for any hopes of recovery; his friends inquired his wishes as to his successor. He told them, that with regard to that affair, he intended to follow the example of the apostle of God, who did not nominate any successor. That if it did please God to favour the people, he would undoubtedly unite their judgments, and enable them to make a good choice. So the election fell of course without any scruple upon Ali's eldest son Hasan, a man who inherited more of his father's piety than his courage; and was reverenced not only upon the account of his near relationship to Ali, but also because he was very studious of the practical part of religion, and accounted by all a very good man.

As soon as his father Ali was dead, Hasan performed the office which belonged properly to him as the eldest son. Standing up he pronounced his father's eulogy, and said to the people; "You have killed a man (meaning his father) on that same night in which the Koran came down from heaven, and Isa (Jesus), upon whom be peace, was lifted up to heaven, and in which Joshua the son of Nun was killed; by God, none of his predecessors exceeded him, nor will any of his successors ever be equal to him."* After this they proceeded to Hasan's inauguration, which was begun by Kais, addressing him in this form:-" Stretch out your hand, as a token that you will stand by the book of God and the tradition of the apostle, and make war against all opposers."† Hasan answered, "As to the book of God and the tradition of the apostle, they will stand." Then the rest came in, with whom he stipulated, that they should be subject and obedient to him, and be at peace with his friends, and at war with his enemies. This they generally did, but some of the Irakians, who were quite weary of the Syrian war, hesitated

Ebn Al Athir.

+ Abulfeda.

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