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execution, that the plot had been revealed to him in confession, but that thus obtained, he thought it his duty to conceal it. He died with great magnanimity and fortitude, and was probably a conscientious enthusiast. He was the author of some religious tracts. As some difference of opinion existed as to the propriety of the steps taken against him, many works were written in defence of them by the writers of the day.-Hume's Hist. of England. Dodd's Church Hist.
at Thoulouse, for the purpose of devoting himself wholly to the service of the muses. His works, which are now become obsolete, were collected and printed at Lyons in Paris 1597, 12mo. There is also a lacer edition, 1607. His death took place in 1590.-There was also a learned Benedictine of this name, known as the editor of St Basil's works, who died in the year 1725.-Moreri. Nouv. Dic!. Hist.
GARRICK (DAVID) the most eminent actor ever produced by the English stage, was GARNET (THOMAS) an ingenious physician born at Hereford in 1706. His grandfather and natural philosopher, who was a native of was a French refugee on account of the edict of Casterton in Westmoreland. After having Nantz; and his father, a captain in the army on served an apprenticeship to a surgeon, he half pay, usually resided at Lichfield, where went and studied at Edinburgh and took the he married the daughter of one of the vicars of degree of MD. He commenced professional the cathedral. He was educated at the grampractice at Bradford in Yorkshire, where he mar-school of Lichfield, but was more distindelivered chemical and philosophical lectures. guished for his sprightliness than attachment He then removed to Knaresborough and after- to literature; and he gave an early proof of wards to Harrowgate. In 1795 he went to his dramatic tendency by inducing his schoolLiverpool, intending to embark for America, fellows to act the Recruiting Officer, in which but while waiting to take his passage, he com- he himself took the part of serjeant Kite, menced lectures, which met with so much ap- being then only twelve years of age. As the probation, that he relinquished his design of circumstances of his father were narrow, he emigrating, and in 1796 he obtained the pro-was sent to Lisbon upon the invitation of fessorship of chemistry at Anderson's Institution, Glasgow. On the foundation of the Royal Institution in 1800 he was invited to become lecturer on chemistry, which offer he was obliged to resign through ill health, and he died in 1802 at the age of thirty-six. Dr Garnet was the author of A Tour through the Highlands and part of the Western Isles of Scotland," 2 vols. 4to; "Outlines of Chemistry," 8vo; and "Zoonomia, or the Laws of Animal Life, in Health and Disease," 4to; which last was a posthumous publication.Preface to Zoonomia.
his uncle, a considerable wine-merchant in that capital. His stay at Lisbon was very short, and returning to Lichfield, he was placed under the celebrated Samuel Johnson, who had then undertaken to instruct a few youths in the belles-lettres. A love for the stage had however become firmly rooted in the mind of Garrick, and singular to say, his grave tutor was induced to accompany him in a speculative journey to the metropolis. This remarkable event took place in the years 1736-7, and at the recommendation of Mr Gilbert Walmsley, Garrick was placed under the care GARNIER. There were three French au- of an eminent mathematician at Rochester, thors of this name. JEAN GARNIER, a native with a view of cultivating his general powers of Paris, born 1612, entered into the order of previously to his admission at the Temple. The jesuits, and became professor of eloquence and death of his father however disturbed this arphilosophy at Bologna, where he died in 1681. rangement, and having been left a legacy of a He published a folio edition of Mercator 1673; thousand pounds by his uncle, he joined his "A Supplement to Theodoret," in 4to; and brother, Peter Garrick, in the wine trade. This "Systema Bibliothecæ Collegii Parisiensis Soc. connexion was however soon dissolved, and in Jes." He also edited the "Breviary of Libera- the summer of 1741 he gave entire sway to his tus," and the Journal of the Popes.-JEAN long-repressed inclination, by joining Giffard's JACQUES GARNIER was born in 1729 at Goron- company at Ipswich, where, under the assumed sur-Maine, and at the breaking out of the Revo- name of Lyddal, he played a great variety of lution filled the chair of Hebrew professor at parts with uniform success. At this time the Paris. He published a Continuation of the stages of the metropolis were but indifferently History of France by Velly and Villaret; an supplied with leading performers, so that when essay On the Origin of the Government of Giffard, who was manager of a theatre in France," 12mo; two treatises, "De l'Educa- Goodman's-fields, introduced his accomplished tion Civile," 12mo; and "D Commerce re-recruit there on the 19th of October, 1741, the mis a sa place;" and a work in two small effect was immediate and decisive. He judivolumes, entitled "The Man of Letters." ciously chose the part of Richard III, which During the reign of terror he fled from the required not that dignity of person which he capital to Boujival, where he died in 1795.- did not possess, while it gave him a scope for ROBERT GARNIER, a dramatic writer of some all the strong marking of character and changes note, was much anterior in point of time to of passion, in which his principal excellence the other two. He was a native of Ferté Ber consisted. He at the same time adopted a nard in Maine, born about the year 1534, and natural mode of recitation, which was a daring was so successful in the composition of trage-innovation on the part of a new performer, dies and elegies, that he acquired great reputation as a poet, and was induced to abandon the study of the law, which he had commenced
before audiences accustomed to the artificial declamation of the school which preceded him; but so favourably did this return to nature
In his com
aid his facility of expression, that the effect well to the audience. The general feeling was irresistible. The part of Richard was with which this was delivered and received, repeated for many successive nights, and the rendered it truly impressive, and few persons established theatres were deserted, and strings ever quitted the stage with plaudits so loud of carriages from the west end of the town and unanimous. He did not long enjoy his thronged the streets of the city. The proprie- opulent and well-earned repose, dying under a tors of the old theatres, alarmed at his suc- suppression of urine, the effects of which process, threatened Giffard with a prosecution, duced a stupor, on the 20th of January, 1779. as an infringer upon their patents, and Fleet- His remains were interred with great pomp in wood drew Garrick over to Drury-lane. After Westminster abbey, his funeral being attended finishing the winter season of 1742 at this by a numerous assemblage of rank and talent. theatre, he visited Dublin, where his reception His large fortune, after an ample provision for his was equally flattering. On his return he va- widow, leaving no children, was divided among As an actor David Garrick ried his characters by parts in genteel comedy, his relations. and even descended to the representation of al- seems never to have been surpassed for truth, most absolute stupidity in that of Abel Drug-nature, and variety and facility of expression, ger. Stage quarrels and a second visit to for which his countenance appears to have Dublin engrossed the interval until he became been admirably adapted. Expression, indeed, a manager in his own right; an event which and the language of passion, formed his great took place in the spring of 1747. By acting strength, being equalled by many of his conat Covent-garden he had reduced Drury-lane temporaries in the enunciation of calm, sentito such a state of inferiority that Lacy, the mental, and poetical declamation. As a man patentee, was glad to admit him a partner upon his predominant fault was vanity, and a spirit equal terms, Lacy assuming the care of the of economy bordering on parsimony, a censure property and general economy, and Garrick which Dr Johnson would however occasionally the management of the stage. Under these dispute. His excessive love of praise necesauspices Drury-lane opened in 1747; on sarily made him unwilling to share it, and he which occasion his old and constant friend, is charged with endeavouring to keep down Samuel Johnson, furnished the new manager rising talents on this account. with a celebrated prologue, one of the few merce with the great he was exceedingly which merit lasting preservation. This pe- happy, preserving sufficient freedom to make riod formed an era in the English stage, him a pleasing companion, without encroachfrom which may be dated a comparative re- ment on either side; and his attention to devival of Shakspeare, and a reform both in the corum secured him the society of the most conduct and licence of the drama, which is grave and dignified characters. His literary very honourable to the genius of the actor who talents were respectable, but not superior: beeffected it. In 1749 Garrick married Made- sides the pieces already mentioned, he is aumoiselle Violette, (see ensuing article,) and thor of some smart epigrams and jeux d'esprit ; the remainder of his theatrical career was a great number of pleasant prologues and epia long and uninterrupted series of success logues; a few dramatic interludes; and many and prosperity until its close. Although par- judicious alterations of old plays.-Davies's simonious, and occasionally too hasty in his Life of Garrick. Ann. Reg. GARRICK (EVA MARIA) wife and relict of intercourse with authors, he managed to keep on terms with the majority of the most respect- the celebrated David Garrick, was born at able, and received from many of them an Vienna, February 29, 1725. Her maiden name excess of incense which was but too acceptable. was Viegel, under which appellation she atIn 1763 he visited the continent, and on his tracted the notice of the empress-queen, Maria return, after an absence of a year and a half, Theresa, as a dancer, and by her command was received with excessive applause. He changed it to that of Violette, a translation of had written while an actor his farces of "The the German word vielge, the anagram of her Lying Valet," "Lethe," and "Miss in her name. In 1744 she arrived in England, bringTeens," and in 1766 he composed, jointly ing with her a recommendation from the counThe tess of Stahremberg to the countess of Burlwith Colman, the excellent comedy of Clandestine Marriage." The year 1769 was ington, who received her, on her obtaining an signalized by the famous Stratford Jubilee, a engagement at the Opera, as an inmate of striking proof of his enthusiasm for Shakspeare. Burlington-house, and ever after treated her It occupied three days at Stratford, and its re- with maternal affection. This circumstance presentation at the theatre lasted for ninety- gave rise to a very general but erroneous idea, two nights. After the death of Lacy in 1773, that she was a natural daughter of the earl's, the sole management of the theatre devolved born before his marriage with the countess; upon Garrick, who continued to fulfil the duties but the dates of the respective events prove of that office until 1776, when he determined the inaccuracy of the supposition. While under upon his final retreat, and sold his moiety of the protection of this noble family, mademoithe theatre for £37,000. The last part which selle Violette formed an attachment with David he performed was Don Felix in "The Won- Garrick, and on the 22d of June, 1749, the der," for the benefit of the Theatrical Fund, nuptials were celebrated, with the sanction of an institution for the relief of decayed actors, the earl and countess, a marriage portion of the plan of which he perfected. At the con- £6000 being bestowed upon the bride by the clusion of the play he addressed a brief fare- former. In 1751 and in 1763 she accompa
nied her husband to the continent, and in 1769 | heartedness, to call him one who was "a good the journals of the day speak highly of the Christian, without knowing himself to be so." grace and elegance displayed by her at the ball His principal poem, "The Dispensary," is an of the Stratford jubilee. After the death of evident imitation, as to plan, of the "Luher husband, though strongly solicited by se- trin" of Boileau. It is enlivened by much veral persons of rank and fortune (among digressional observation, which is animated and others by the learned lord Monboddo)to re-enter poetical; but the subject afforded no sufficient the marriage state, she continued a widow, ground for distinction of character or felicity residing in her house on the Adelphi terrace, of humour. His " Claremont," a complimenwhere she died suddenly in her chair, October tary poem on the seat of the duke of Newcas16, 1822, and was buried in the same vault tle, is his next most elaborate production, and with her husband, near the cenotaph of Shak- is not without merit and Ovidian graces. His speare in Westminster abbey, on the 25th day occasional pieces are sprightly and elegant ; of October in the same year.-Ann. Biog. and his last literary labour was to superintend a translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, to which he supplied a preface, which is not very highly esteemed.-Biog. Brit. Johnson's Life of Gurth.
GARSAULT (FRANCIS ALEXANDER DE) a native of Paris, who became captain of the royal stables, and was the author of several treatises on horsemanship. He died at an advanced age in 1771. Among his works are -"Le Nouveau parfait Maréchal," 4to; "Traité des Voitures," 4to; "Le Guide du Cavalier," 12mo; "Le Notionnaire de ce qu'il y a de plus utile dans les Connoissances acquises," 8vo; and Descriptive Accounts of several Arts, in the Collection of the Academy. -Nouv. Dict. Hist.
GARTHSHORE (MAXWELL) an eminent physician and accoucheur, who was a native of Kirkudbright in Scotland, where his father was minister. After serving an apprenticeship to a surgeon and apothecary at Edinburgh, he entered into the army, but left it in 1756, and settled at Uppingham in Rutlandshire. Thence he removed to London about 1763, and conGARTH (SAMUEL) a physician and poet, tinued during nearly half a century the pracwas descended from a respectable family in tice of those branches of the profession to Yorkshire. He received his academical edu- which he had devoted himself. He was a felcation at Peter house, Cambridge, where it is low of the Royal Society and of the Society of said he resided until he took his degree of Antiquaries, and physician to the British MD. in 1691. He was admitted a fellow of Lying-in-hospital. Though Dr Garthshore enthe college of physicians the next year, and joyed a high reputation for skill and learning, soon attained the first rank in his profession. he was not much distinguished for his literary He was a zealous whig, and his companionable productions, which consisted of medical and talents, and proficiency in polite literature, physiological papers in the Philosophical Transacquired him patrons of great rank and in-actions, the London Medical Journal, &c. His fluence. A division which arose among the death took place in 1812, at the age of eighty. medical profession, on the subject of the esta--Gent. Mag.
blishment of a dispensary for the poor of the GARVE (CHRISTIAN) a German metaphymetropolis, induced Dr Garth, who espoused sician, was born in 1742 at Breslau in Silesia. the measure, to compose his mock-heroic He studied at Frankfort, Halle, and Leipsic, poem, "The Dispensary." It was first pub- at which latter place he was professor of philished in 1699, and being widely read and ad-losophy. He died in 1798. His works aremired, materially contributed to the fame of a translation of Cicero De Officiis, with a philothe author. In 1697 he composed and printed sophical commentary; "Remarks on the Writhis "Harveian Oration," which was much ings of Gellert;"" Essays on various Subjects;" extolled for its latinity. Although a party" Observations on the general Principles of man, he was always ready to benefit men of Morals;" "Dissertatio de ratione scribendi merit on every side, and hence was an early historiam philosophicæ;" "On the Inclinaencourager of Pope. In 1710 he addressed a tions," a prize essay crowned by the Academy copy of verses to lord Godolphin, on his dis- of Berlin in 1769; "Dissertatio de nonnullis missal, and displayed his attachment to the quæ pertinent ad logicam probabilium;" "A house of Hanover by an elegant Latin dedica- Sketch of the most remarkable Principles of tion of an intended version of Lucretius to the Moral Philosophy, from the time of Aristotle elector, afterwards George I. On the acces- to the present Day." Garve also translated sion of the latter, he received the honour of some of our best authors into German, as knighthood, and was appointed physician in Smith's Wealth of Nations, Paley's Moral and ordinary to the king, and physician-general to Political Philosophy, and Burke on the Subthe army. He died in the height both of me-lime and Beautiful.-Biog. Univ. dical and literary reputation, in June, 1718. Sir GARZI (Louis) an Italian painter, was Samuel Garth has left no work behind him di- born at Rome in 1640, and was a disciple of rectly professional, and indeed appears to have Andrea Sacchi. His works are not much been too much addicted to conviviality and ele-known here, but in Italy are celebrated for gant literature, to pay any very close attention their design, execution, and colouring. At the to science. He was a distinguished member of age of eighty, by order of Clement XI, he the famous Kit-Kat Club; and was deemed a painted his most excellent work, the dome of latitudinarian as to religion, which induced the church of Degli Stigmati, which he lived Pope, in allusion to his benevolence and kind- to finish, dying in 1721. He is considered by
many as equal, if not superior, to Carlo Maratti. -D'Argenville. Pilkington.
late civil wars, he had not only devised an instrument of as great power as M. Auzout's, GARZONI (THOMAS) an Italian writer, but had also for some years made use of it, not was born at Bagnacavallo near Ferrara, in only for taking the diameters of the planets and 1549, and was a regular canon lateran. His distances upon land, but had farther endeaprincipal work is entitled "La Piazza univer-voured to gather many certainties in the heasale di tutte le professioni del Mondo;" a vens. The very instrument he first made I work of great labour and infinite utility at the time at which it was written, as there was no model then existing on so large a scale. He was almost a self-educated man, and it is truly said by Niceron, "that his works prove him to have dipped into all the sciences, and sufficiently manifest the extent of his knowledge, and of what he would have been capable with a regular education and a longer life. Gar-Transactions, vol. i. p. 161.-Gascoigne was a zoni died in 1589.-Niceron. Moreri.
have now by me, and two more perfected by him; which doubtless he would have greatly improved, had he not been unfortunately slain in his late majesty's service. He had a treatise on Optics nearly ready for the press, but though I have used my utmost endeavours to retrieve it, it has not been with success."Hutton's Abridgment of the Philosophical
native of Lancashire, and was probably a volunteer in the royal army during the civil war, as he was killed, while fighting for Charles I, at Marston Moor, July 2, 1644, at the age of twenty-three.-Ann. Reg.
GASCOIGNE (GEORGE) an English poet of celebrity in the reign of queen Elizabeth. He was a native of Walthamstow in Essex, and was the son of sir John Gascoigne, by whom he was disinherited. He studied at GASPARINI (FRANCESCO) a native of Cambridge, and afterwards at Gray's-inn. Lucca, born in 1650. He was one of the He then entered into the army, and served in ablest musical composers of the last century; the Low Countries, under the prince of Orange, and besides the opera of Engelberta, written who gave him a captain's commission, which in conjunction with Albinoni, was the author of he soon resigned, in consequence of a quarrel" Cantate da Camera a Voce Sola," Lucca, with his colonel. Returning to England he became a courtier, and employed his talents in writing masques for the entertainment of the queen. Four dramatic pieces and several poems, including a satire, entitled "The Steel Glass," were the productions of his pen. He died at Stamford in Lincolnshire, in 1577. His works, which display harmony and elegance of versification, have of late years, in common with those of several of his contemporaries, attracted that attention to which they are entitled.-Chalmers's Biog. Dict.
1697; and a treatise, entitled "L'Armonico prattico al Cimbola," &c. Venice, 1708. He died about the year 1724.-Biog. Dict. of Mus.
GASSENDI (PETER) an eminent philosopher and mathematician, was born in the year 1592 at Chantersier, near Digne in Provence. He early displayed a lively and inquisitive genius, which determined his parents, although in moderate circumstances, to bestow upon him the best education in their power. Under the instruction of an able master at Digne, he made a rapid progress in the Latin language, GASCOIGNE (sir WILLIAM) chief-justice and was afterwards put to philosophy at the of the court of king's bench, in the reign of university of Aix. At the age of nineteen he was Henry IV. He was a native of Gawthorp in appointed to fill the vacant chair of philosophy Yorkshire, and after completing his legal stu- at Aix, and notwithstanding that the authority dies, he was called to the bar. In 1398 he of Aristotle was still warmly maintained, after was made a serjeant, and the following year the example of Vives, Ramus, and others, he was raised to the bench of Common Pleas, ventured publicly to expose the defects of his whence in 1401 he was removed to the chief system. His lectures on this subject, which justiceship of the King's Bench. In this high were delivered in the indirect form of paoffice he is said to have distinguished himself radoxical problems, and published under by committing to prison the heir-apparent to the title of "Exercitationes Paradoxicæ adthe crown, afterwards king Henry V, for an versus Aristotelem," gave great offence to the assault on the person of the judge, and an at- votaries of the declining philosophy, but obtempt to rescue from the arm of the law one of tained him no small reputation with Peiresc his dissolute companions. Several abstracts of and other learned men, through whose intethe opinions of this judge on legal questions, rest, after being induced to take orders, he as well as his official arguments and decisions, was presented to a canonry in the cathedral occur in old law-books. He died in 1413.- church of Digne, and made doctor of divinity. Biog. Brit. Thus enabled to apply closely to philosophical GASCOIGNE (WILLIAM) an ingenious and astronomical pursuits, he composed a senatural philosopher of the seventeenth cen-cond book of Exercitationes," which excited tury, who appears to have had the best title to so much enmity, that he ceased all direct atbe considered as the first inventor of the mi- tacks on Aristotle, although he still maincrometer. On the publication of a similar dis-tained the predilection he had formed for the covery by M. Auzout, in the first volume of doctrines of Epicurus, which he defended with Philosophical Transactions, Mr Townley addressed to the Royal Society a communication, in which he says, "I think it right to inform the world that I have found, by some scattered papers of one Mr Gascoigne, that, before the
great learning and ability. He strenuously maintained the atomic theory in opposition to the fictions of the Cartesians, and in particular asserted the doctrine of a vacuum. On the subject of morals he also explained the plea
mediato successor, entitled "The Supper of Moliere." On the death of his father, who was himself a man of scientific pursuits, and the personal friend of Buffon, Bailly, Lalande, and Condorcet, he seems to have diverted his attention in a great degree, if not altoge
sure or indolence of Epicurus, in a sense the most favourable to morality. In 1628 he visited Holland, and being some time after called to Paris by a law-suit, secured the countenance of persons of the first rank and talents, and among the rest that of cardinal Richelieu, by whose interest he was appointed in 1645 re-ther, from the stormy track of politics, and to gius-professor of mathematics at Paris. Here he delivered lectures on astronomy to crowded audiences, and by his great application so injured his health, that he was obliged to return to Digne in 1647, from which place he did not return until 1653, when h published the lives of Tycho Brahe, Copernicus, Purbach, and Regiomontanus. He also resumed his astronomical labours with an intensity to which his state of health not being adequate, his former disorder returned, and terminated his life in 1655, in the sixty-third year of his age. He is ranked by Barrow among the most eminent mathematicians of the age, and mentioned with Galileo, Gilbert, and Descartes. Gassendi was the first person who observed the transit of Mercury over the sun. It is to the credit of both philosophers, that although mutually warm in their scientific controversies, Gassendi and Descartes became friends in the sequel. The MSS. which the former left behind him, and the treatises published during his life, were in 1658 collected by Sorbiere, in six volumes, folio. They consist of the philosophy of Epicurus; the author's own philosophy; the lives of Epicurus, Peiresc, Muller, and others, in addition to those already men tioned; refutations of Descartes's Epistles, and other treatises.-Enfield's Hist. of Phil. Nouv. Dict. Hist. Hutton's Math. Dict.
GASSICOURT (CHARLES LEWIS CADET DE) an acute French philosopher of the present age, the son of a Parisian apothecary, by whom he was educated for the bar, and even practised with much reputation and intrepidity during that sanguinary period of the Revolution so fatal to many of his brethren, whose exertions in behalf of the accused not unfrequently involved the advocate in the fate he vainly strove to avert from his client. M. Cadet Gassicourt being, however, fortunate enough to escape the dangers of the times to the politics of which he entered, published in 1797 a pamphlet which attracted some attention, on the "Theory of Elections." This was his first production, with the exception of a "Memoir on Natural History," written at the early age of fifteen. Several other essays, on political and other subjects, followed, among which was one "On the Private Life of Mirabeau," "St Geran, a critique on the New Modes of Thinking, Writing, and Speaking, introduced into France by the Changes of the Times;" and others on the "Influence of the Masonic Societies in the Process of the Revolution," and the "Four Ages of the National Guard." Among his more miscellaneous writings, which appeared about the same period, were a volume of "Travels in Normandy," and a Dramatic Sketch, pourtraying the principal characters who flourished under Louis XIV and his im
have devoted his time principally to the study
GASETLIER (RENE GEORGES) a physician, was born at Ferrières in Gâtinais, in 1741. He early devoted himself to the study of physic, which he practised at the epoch of the Revolution. In 1787 he was chosen a member of the provincial assembly of Orleans, and was elected mayor of Montargis in 1788, according to the new popular forms. In 1791 he was deputed by the Loiret to the Legislative Assembly. The sincerity of his principles could not secure him from the fury of the ultra-revolutionary party, and in 1793 he was declared a traitor to his country, and arrested. The fall of Robespierre and of his principal accomplices, happily rescued him from the fate which awaited him; but still being pursued by the hatred of his enemies, he was obliged to continue concealed for five years. In the promotion of 1817, the king decorated him with the order of St Michael. He was the author of numerous