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GADBURY (JOHN) a writer of consider- have been a man of great reading and subtle able notoriety on the fanciful science of astro- genius, but very credulous. The followlogy, in the latter part of the seventeenth ing are the principal:- Unheard-of Curiosicentury. He was a native of Oxfordshire, and ties," translated into English by Chilmead ; probably of low origin, as he served an appren-" Rabbi Elea de fine mundi, Latine versus, ticeship to a tailor. He afterwards became cum notis ;" "Un traité de la Poudre de the pupil or assistant of William Lilly the Sympathies et des Talismans ;" " De musica fortune-teller, the Sidrophel of Butler; and in Hebreorum stuvenda libellus," &c. &c.-imitation of his master, he published astrologi- Moreri. cal almanacks and other works relating to similar subjects, one of which is entitled "A Discourse of the Natures and Effects of Comets, as they are philosophically, historically, and astrologically considered," London, 1665. Being a Roman catholic, he was arrested during the commotions excited by Titus Oates and his accomplices, in the reign of Charles II, on account of some observations in his almanacks. The period of his death is uncertain; but he is said to have perished by shipwreck, in a voyage to Jamaica. Partridge, a brother astrologer, published in 1693, a work entitled "The Black Life of John Gadbury.-Granger's Biog. Hist. of Eng.

GADDESDEŇ or GATESDEN (JOHN OF) an English physician, in high repute in the beginning of the fourteenth century. He was an ecclesiastic, and was physician to king Edward II. His treatise on medicine, entitled "Rosa Anglica," is curious for the information it affords relative to the state of science and practice at the period when it was written. Gaddesden says that he cured one of the royal children of the small-pox, by wrapping him in scarlet cloth, and hanging scarlet curtains round the bed. As a remedy for epilepsy, he advises the patient to be carried to church to hear mass four times during the ember weeks, and afterwards to suspend round his neck a scroll inscribed with a verse from the gospel of the day. Yet it appears that this superstitious practitioner was acquainted with the method of rendering salt water fresh by distillation; a process supposed to have been a modern discovery.-Hutchinson's Biog. Med. Clutterbuck's Hist. of Hertfordshire, vol. i.

GAFORY or GAFFURIUS (FRANCHINUS) an eminent Italian composer and writer on the science of music, who flourished in the fifteenth century. He was born at Lodi in the Milanese, about the year 1451, and became professor of music successively at Verona, Genoa, Naples, and Milan, in which latter capital especially he was held in high esteem. He published in 1480 an abridgment of Boethius, under the title of "Theorum Opus Musica Disciplinæ,' printed at Naples; a treatise on the management of the voice, called " Practica Musica utriusque Cantus," Milan, 1496; a series of lectures read by him at Cremona, Lodi, and other Italian towns, under the title of " Angelicum et Divinum Opus Musica," Milan, 1508; and "De Harmonia Musicorum Instrumentorum," Milan, 1518, in which latter work he gives a synopsis of the doctrines of such of the Greek musical writers as had come to his hands. His works made their way over the whole of Europe, and most of the compositions of the sixteenth century are formed according to the rules therein laid down. His death took place about the year 1521.-Burney's Hist. of Mus.

GAGE (THOMAS) an ecclesiastic, said by some to have been a native of Ireland, while by others the county of Surrey has been assigned as the place of his nativity. Travelling into Spain, he assumed the tonsure in a convent of Dominican monks, whence he was sent in the capacity of a missionary to the Philippines in 1625. He however went to Mexico, and remained in that country till 1637, when he came to England, and settled in this country in the enjoyment of considerable property GAFFARELL (JAMES) a learned rabbi- which he had acquired in his travels. Having nical writer, was born at Mannes in Provence abjured the Romish church, he obtained the about 1601, and was educated at the university living of Deal in Kent, and in 1642 published of Apt. He applied himself to studying the his recantation sermon. He was also the auHebrew language and rabbinical learning, and thor of a controversial tract, entitled " A Duel being much pleased with the mysterious doc- between a Jesuit and a Dominican," 4to; and trines of the Cabala, at the age of twenty-two "A Survey of the West Indies." This last he wrote a volume in their defence, entitled work, which was first printed in 1651, was in "Abdita divinæ Cabala mysteria," &c. He 1676 translated into the French language by was appointed by cardinal Richelieu his libra-order of Colbert. The time of Gage's death rian, and sent into Italy to collect the best is uncertain.-Aikin's G. Biog. Dict. printed books and manuscripts that could be found. In 1633 he was at Venice, being at that time doctor of divinity and canon law, prothonotary of the apostolic see, and commendatory prior of St Giles's. On his return home, he was employed by the cardinal in his project for bringing back all the protestants to the Romish church, and to that end was authorized to preach in Dauphiné against the doctrine of purgatory. He died at Sigonce, of which place he was then abbot, in 1681. His works are very numerous, and show him to

GAGER (WILLIAM) a dramatist of the six teenth century, author of two Latin tragedies, entitled " Ulysses redux," and "Meleager," and a comedy, called "Rivales." He was educated at Westminster, whence he removed to Christchurch, Oxford, on the foundation, in 1574. Here he applied himself to the study of the civil law, in which he graduated, and afterwards obtained the vicar-generalship to the diocese of Ely. A curious controversy was carried on between him and a writer named Heale, on the subject of the right of husbands

to beat their wives. He also wrote against Dr Reynolds, respecting the lawfulness of theatrical amusements.-Biog. Dram.

his royal patron with queen Anne, he followed in his suite to England, where he succeeded Battista Draghi as chapel-master to the queen GAGNIER (JOHN) an eminent orientalist, dowager Catherine. The whole musical world who was a native of Paris, where he was edu- being at this ume occupied with the rivalry cated, and entering into holy orders, became a between Handel and Buononcini, the merits of canon in the church of St. Genevieve. Enter- Gaillard, though great, were comparatively taining doubts relative to the Roman catholic unnoticed. He therefore entered into an endoctrines, he emigrated to England, where his gagement with Rich, then manager of the learning procured him the countenance of theatre in Lincoln's-inn Fields, and composed the archbishop Sharp, the lord chancellor Maccles- music to most of those mixed pieces, half opera field, and others. He was admitted MA. at half pantomime, with which he entertained the Cambridge, and subsequently at Oxford, in town. Among these, the greatest notice was which latter university he took up his abode, attracted by the "Necromancer, or Harlequin supporting himself chiefly by teaching Hebrew. Faustus," and "The Royal Chace, or Merlin's In 1706 he published Joseph Ben Gorion's Cave;" in which Beard first recommended himHistory of the Jews, in Hebrew, with a Latin self to the public by singing, for some hundred translation and notes, 4to. In 1717 he began nights, a favourite song by Gaillard, comto give lectures on the Arabic language, and mencing "With early horn." This, which he published a treatise on the small-pox, trans- was the most popular, was also one of the lated from the works of Rhazes, an Arabian latest of his compositions, as he died early in physician. He also produced two valuable the year 1749, leaving behind him an unfiworks relative to the early history of Maho- nished opera on the story of Orestes and Pymetism, "Ismael Abulfeda de Vita et Rebus lades, and a valuable collection of scores, &c. gestis Mohammedis, &c. Latine vertit, Pre-in his own hand-writing. His music to the fatione et Notis illustravit Joh. Gagnier," tragedy of Edipus (which had before been set Oxon. 1723, folio; and "La Vie de Mahomet, by Purcel) was never printed, but is now in traduite et compilée de l'Alcoran, des Tradi- the library of the Academy of Ancient Music. tions authentiques de la Sonna, et des meil--Biog. Dict. of Mus. leurs Auteurs Arabes," 1735, three volumes, GAIMAR or GAIMARD (GEOFFREY) an 12mo. Gagnier died in 1740.-Chalmers's Anglo-Norman troubadour or minstrel, of the Biog. Dict. Aikin's Gen. Biog. Nouv. Dict. twelfth century. He is supposed to have been Hist. a native of Lower Normandy; and between the years 1142 and 1145, he composed in octo-syllabic verse, a romantic chronicle of the Anglo-Saxon kings, founded on. Saxon and Welsh documents. This curious poem is still extant among the MSS. in the British Museum M. de la Rue, professor of history at Caen, has published an interesting extract from this piece, describing the feats of dexterity, by the exhibition of which, before the two armies at the battle of Hastings, Taillefer, the bard or jongeleur of William the Norman, astonished and perhaps daunted the English soldiers, who, as the poet informs us, ascribed the juggler's skill to enchantment.-Archæologia, vol. xii.

GAGUIN (ROBERT) a native of Colines, near Amiens, eminent as a diplomatist under Charles VIII and Louis XII; both which monarchs employed him on various missions to different European courts. He received the principal part of his education at Paris, where he was appointed keeper of the Royal Library, and published a history, "De Gestis Francorum," in eleven books, printed at Lyons in 1524, folio. This work contains the history of affairs from the commencement of the thirteenth to the close of the fifteenth century. His death took place in 1501 at an advanced age.-Nouv. Dict. Hist.

GAILLARD (GABRIEL HENRY) a French GAINSBOROUGH (THOMAS) a celebrated historian, member of the old French academy, English landscape painter. He was born in of that of inscriptions, and belles-lettres, and 1737, at Sudbury in Suffolk, where his father of the third class of the institute, was born at was a clothier, but in such circumstances as Ostel near Soissons, in 1728, and died at St prevented him from bestowing on his son the Firmin near Chantilly in 1806. He was the advantages of education. He consequently author of "Poetique Françoise," 2 vols.; owed to native genius and spontaneous st idy Histoire de François I, 7 vols. 12mo; "His- that great eminence which he attained in his toire de Marie de Bourgogne," 12mo; "His-art. He used to ramble in the woods, and toire des Rivalités de la France et de l'Angle- employ himself in sketching the scenery around terre;" "Histoire de Charlemagne ;" "Rheto- him. At length his talents having attracted rique Françoise;" "Parallele des quatre Elec-observation, he was sent to London for imtre de Sophocle, d'Euripide, de Crebillon, et provement. There he is said to have practised de Voltaire ;" Eloge historique sur M. Ma- modelling figures of animals with great success. lesherbes ;"" Observations sur l'Histoire de He also made ornamental drawings for an enFrance, de Messrs. Velly, Villaret, et Gar-graver, and painted small landscapes for sale. nier," 4 vols. 12mo.-Dict. Hist. Prudence however, rather than inclination, inGAILLARD (JOHN ERNEST) the son of a duced him to engage in portrait painting, by barber of Zell, born in 1687. He was a pupil which means he supported himself for some first of Marichal and afterwards of the cele-time in the metropolis, and then married and brated Farinelli. Entering the service of removed to Ipswich. Thence he went to Bath, George Prince of Denmark, on the marriage of where he attained high reputation; and at



tist congregation in the metropolis, in which situation he continued till his death in 1721. Dr Gale was preparing an answer to Wall's Defence of his History of Infant Baptism at the time of his decease; and he is also said to have contemplated the publication of an English Translation of the Septuagint, according to the edition of Dr. Grabe and other literary labours; for which he appears to have been well qualified by his talents and acquirements. Four volumes of his sermons likewise appeared in a posthumous publication.—Biog. Brit. Aikin's G. Biog

length, in 1774, he settled in London, and supported till his death the character of almost unrivalled excellence in the department of his profession, which he chiefly cultivated. He was also much employed as a painter of portraits; and those of the king and others of the royal family were among the works which he executed. He died of a cancer in the neck, August 2, 1788, and was interred in the churchyard of Kew. The landscapes of Gainsborough are distinguished for a portrait-like representation of nature," uniting the brilliancy of Claude with the precision and simplicity of Ruysdael and others of the Flemish school. GALE (THEOPHILUS) a learned divine, who This artist was much esteemed by sir Joshua was a native of King's Teignton in DevonReynolds, who thus notices him in one of his shire, of which place his father was vicar. In Academical Discourses: "If ever this nation 1647 he became a student of Magdalen colshould produce genius sufficient to acquire to lege, Oxford, where he took the degree of us the honourable distinction of the English MA. in 1652, having previously been chosen school, the name of Gainsborough will be to a fellowship. While at the university he transmitted to posterity, in the history of the formed the plan of his work, entitled "The art, among the very first of that rising name.' "Court of the Gentiles," intended to demonHe had also extraordinary talents for music, strate that not only the theology, but also the though accompanied by a capricious love of philosophy and philology of the Pagans were change in the instruments on which he prac-derived from the Bible. In 1657 he became a tised and he displayed, both in his letters and preacher at Winchester, among the independconversation, considerable taste and ability, ents; from which situation he was ejected in though uncultivated.-One of his brothers, a consequence of the Act of Uniformity in 1661. dissenting minister at Henley-upon-Thames, He was then received into the family of lord was an ingenious mechanic; and his nephew, Wharton, as tutor to his two sons, whom he GAINSBOROUGH DUPONT, distinguished him- accompanied to Caen in Normandy, where he self as an artist, but died in 1797, at the early became intimate with Bochart and other age of thirty.-Ann. Reg. Life of Gainsborough learned foreigners. In 1665 he returned with by Thickness. his pupils to England, and soon after removed to London, where he narrowly escaped suffering an irreparable loss, through the great fire in the city, which destroyed the house of a friend, in whose custody he had left his manuscript collections, previously to his journey to France. These however were accidentally preserved from the conflagration; and in 1659 he published the first part of his "Court of the Gentiles ;" the second appeared in 1671, and the third and fourth in 1677. The whole was speedily translated into Latin, and the work became known and valued, not only in England but on the continent. Mr Gale became minister of a dissenting congregation in Holborn; but he resided chiefly at Newington, where he conducted a seminary for the education of youth. He died in 1678, in the fiftieth year of his age. Besides his great work, he was the author of " Philosophia Generalis, in duas partes disterminata," 8vo; "Idea Theologiæ tam contemplativæ quam GALE (JOHN) an eminent nonconformist activæ, ad formam S. Scripturæ delineata,' divine of the anti-pædobaptist persuasion, in 8vo; "The Anatomy of Infidelity," 8vo; &c. the eighteenth century. He was born in Lon--Ibid.

GALATEO (ANTHONY) an Italian physician and miscellaneous writer of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He was a native of the territory of Otranto, and studied medicine at Ferrara, where he took his doctor's degree in that faculty. He settled at Naples, and was appointed physician to the king. The air of that city proving prejudicial to his health, he removed to Gallipoli, and afterwards to Lecce, at which place he founded an academy, on the model of that of Naples, to which he belonged. He died in 1516, aged seventy-two. His principal work is a treatise, "De Situ Iapygie, to which is added a description of the city of Gallipoli, containing much curious information relating to geography and civil and and natural history. Among his other productions are "De Situ Elementorum;" De Situ Terrarum ;""De Mari et Aquis ;" and a tract on the Expedition of the Turks against Otranto in 1480.-Moreri. Tiraboschi.

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don, and pursued his studies at Leyden, where GALE (THOMAS) an English divine, critic, he took the degrees of master of arts and doc- and antiquary of distinguished erudition in the tor of philosophy at the age of nineteen. He seventeenth century. He was born at Scruton then went to Amsterdam, and formed an ac-in Yorkshire, in 1636, and received his educaquaintance with Limborch and Le Clerc. Re-tion at Westminster school and King's college, turning to London, he distinguished himself Cambridge. He took the degree of BA. in by writing" Reflectious on Wall's History of 1658, and that of MA. in 1662. His reputaInfant Baptism, in several Letters to a Friend," tion as a classical scholar procured him the which, after being circulated for some time in regius professorship of the Greek language in manuscript, were at length published in 1711, the university in 1666; and in 1671 he pubAbout 1715 he became pastor of a bap-lished a collection of the ancient mythological


attention particularly to medicine and surgery. In pursuit of knowledge, he visited Smyrna, Corinth, Alexandria, and in his thirty-eighth year returned to Pergamus, where he under took the care of the public gladiators; an occupation which furnished him with opportunities for making many surgical experiments, and adding to the stock of his professional knowledge. He first went to Rome about his thirtythird year, and obtained great reputation. A pestilence induced him to return to his native country, whence he was recalled by an especial mandate of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus; the former of whom, on quitting Rome to make war on the Germans, confided to Galen the care of the health of his

life of this famous practitioner nothing certain is known; but it is probable that he died at Rome, in the reign of Severus. The writings of Galen were exceedingly numerous, and though many are lost, those which are extant compose a voluminous body of practical and theoretical medicine. Though he attended more to anatomy than most of his predecessors, it does not appear that he ever dissected human bodies, his anatomical descriptions being often obviously drawn from the inspection of brute animals. One of his best works is his "De Usu Partium," in seventeen books. Several editions of his works have appeared in a Latin translation; but the only complete collection in the original language is that of Chartier, Greek and Latin, Paris, 1660.—Moreri. Aikin's G. Biog. Hutchinson's Biog. Med.

writers, entitled " Opuscula Mythologica, | After studying philosophy, astronomy, geoEthica et Physica, Græcè et Latinè," 8vo. He metry, and general literature, he turned his was chosen head-master of St Paul's school in London, in 1672; and in 1676 he obtained a prebend in the cathedral of the metropolis, having the preceding year accumulated the degrees of BD. and DD. at Cambridge. In 1677 he was elected FRS. and afterwards became one of the council, and in 1685 was chosen honorary secretary. About 1697 he presented to the library of Trinity college, Cambridge, a number of curious Arabic manuscripts; and the same year he was preferred to the deanery of York. He died in that city in 1702. Among his publications are editions of the works of Herodotus, Cicero, and several other ancient writers; of some of the English monastic historians; and the Psalter, in Greek and Latin, from the Alex-son Commodus. Of the remaining part of the andrine MS. A volume of his Sermons was published by his son, after his death; and also an edition of the British Itinerary of Antoninus, with a Commentary. Dr Gale carried on a literary correspondence with Mabillon, Baluze, Grævius, Huet, and other eminent scholars abroad, by whom his learning and abilities were highly estimated. He contributed to the Philosophical Transactions some papers on archæology.-GALE (ROGER) a learned antiquary, eldest son of the preceding. He was born in 1672, and studied at Trinity college, Cambridge; of which he was chosen a fellow in 1697. He had an estate at Scruton in Yorkshire, and served in three parliaments as member for the borough of North Allerton; and he was also a commissioner of stamps, and subsequently a commissionerof excise, which lat ter situation he lost in 1735. He belonged to the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries, and was a vice-president and treasurer of the last-mentioned learned association. He died in 1744. He published "The Knowledge of Medals," 8vo, a translation from the French of Joubert; Registrum Honoris de Richmond," 1722, folio; "A Discourse on the four Roman Ways in Britain," printed in the sixth volume of Leland's History; papers in the Archæologia, &c. His manuscripts, and a cabinet of Roman coins which he collected, are preserved at Trinity college, Cambridge, to which he left them at his death.-GALE (SAMUEL) brother of the foregoing, was born in London in 1682, and educated at St Paul's" Theatrum Pontificale," or a history of the school, under his father. He held a situation in the Custom-house; and having a taste for archæological researches, he became one of the fellows of the Society of Antiquaries on its incorporation. Besides ossays in the Archæologia and Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, he published "A History of Winchester Cathedral," begun by Henry earl of Clarendon. He died in 1754.-Biog. Brit. Nichols's Lit.


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GALEN or CLAUDIUS GALENUS, one of the most celebrated physicians of antiquity. He was born at Pergamus in Asia, AD. 131, and was the son of Nicon, an architect, who was possessed of an ample fortune. The education of Galen was liberal and extensive.

GALESINI (PETER) in Latin Galesinius, apostolical prothonotary under popes Gregory XIII and Sixtus V, was a native of Milan. He took great pains in illustrating and correcting the Roman Martyrology, which was published in 1577, under the patronage of St Charles Borromeo, with this title, "A Martyrology adapted to the use of the Church of Rome, for all the Days in the Year." The work however was not approved by the Roman censors, who thought it too long to be recited in the canonical office. He was also the author of The Lives of the Saints that are mentioned in the Church of Milan," 1582; "A Commentary upon the Pentateuch," 1587;


popes; "Notes upon the Greek Text of the LXX," 1567; translations from the Greek into Latin of some "Discourses of St Gregory Nyssen," and "Theodoret ;" the histories o “ Sulpitius Severus," and of " Aimon of Halberstadt," &c. &c.-Dupin. Moreri.

GALIANI (FERDINAND) an Italian abbé, celebrated for his wit and writings, was born in the year 1728, at Chieti in the kingdom of Naples, where his father, a nobleman, was assessor of the royal court of justice. He was educated under the care of his uncle, the archbishop of Tarento, and applied to the study of the law. A humorous collection of verses on the death of the public executioner, in ridicule of the custom of thus celebrating the death of

the two greatest Systems of the world, the Ptolemaic and Copernican." In this work he adduces the best arguments in favour of each system, without deciding the superiority, not so cautiously however, but that his opinion in favour of that of Copernicus was very obvious. Scarcely had this work appeared when the cry of heresy was again loudly raised, and in 1633 he was once more cited before the inquisitors at Rome, and committed into custody. Being subsequently brought to trial, he was ordered to take an oath no longer to teach or support his system; to remain in prison during the pleasure of the cardinal inquisitors; and to repeat the penitential psalms once a week for three years; his dialogues were also censured, prohibited, and ordered to be burnt. Pope Urban

eminent persons by the academy Degli Emuli, first made him known as a writer. This was not long after followed by his celebrated work, "Trattata della Moneta," which was published in the year 1750. He soon after, by the desire of pope Benedict XIV, undertook a collection of specimens of the various matter thrown up by Mount Vesuvius; a catalogue of which was published in 1772. This collection he sent to the pope, and on one of the boxes was inscribed, "Beatissime Pater fac ut lapides isti panes fiant."-"Holy father, command that these stones be made bread;" which the pope virtually attended to, by giving him a living of 400 ducats per annum. In 1759 he was appointed secretary to the French embassy, and soon took a lead among the wits and eminent men of Paris. During his residence in France, he composed-VIII mitigated this sentence, by confining him "Annotations upon Horace," and "Dialogues only in the palace of the Medici at Rome, and on the Corn Trade," written in opposition to the finally to his own country-house in the vicinity policy of the free exportation of corn, then re- of Florence, where he spent the remainder of cently adopted with a view to encourage agricul- his days, visited and esteemed by the most ture. On his return to Naples in 1779, he distinguished of his countrymen. He surkept up a correspondence with the most distin-vived eight years in this retreat, devoting himguished men of France; and their manuscript self to the perfecting of his telescope; but letters form nine thick volumes in 4to. He died, by continual application, and the effects of the loaded with honours and offices, and possessed night air, he became blind three years before of very general esteem, on the 30th Oct. 1787, his death, which took place in Jan. 1642, in in his fifty-ninth year. Besides the works the seventy-eighth year of his age. To Galilei already mentioned, he is the author of treatises the world is indebted for the discovery of the "On the innate propensities or inclinations of rotation of the sun upon its axis. He also, by men; or, the principles of the Laws of Nature ascertaining the changing of the spots upon and Nations, deduced from the Poems of the disk of that orb, and the hills and caviHorace;" "On the Duties of Princes to other ties in the moon, showed that there was not belligerent powers," and "On the Neapolitan so great a difference between celestial and subdialect."-Nouv. Dict. Hist. lunary bodies as had been imagined. He rendered no less a service to science by his investigation of the theory of motion; and in geometry he invented the trochoid, and in mechanics the pendulum, the application of which to clocks was reserved for his ingenious natural son, Vicenzio. He also invented a machine by means of which the Venetians rendered their Laguna fluid and navigable; and the principles which he laid down in regard to gravitation, produced the barometer. The works of Galilei were published after his death, in 2 vols. 4to; to which is to be added a quarto volume of his letters, subsequently published at Bologna in 1674; and a tract on the fifth book of Euclid, 4to, published by his disciple, Viviani, at Florence. It is to be lamented, that many of the papers left behind him were burnt, owing to the superstition of an ignorant nephew, who deemed them heretical because their illustrious author died a prisoner to the inquisition, although allowed to reside in his own house.-Fabroni, Vitæ Italorum. Hutton's Math. Dict. There were two French

GALILEI (GALILEO) a celebrated philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer, was the son of Vincenzo Galilei, a Florentine noble and a man of letters, not unskilled in the mathematics, but better known by his writings on music. Galileo was born at Pisa in 1564, and was intended by his father, whose fortune was small, to be brought up to physic, but exhibiting a great dislike to that profession, he betook himself to the study of mathematics with such unwearied diligence, that, in 1689, he was chosen mathematical professor in the university of Pisa. Having heard of the invention of the telescope by Jansen, he made one for himself, and in consequence was led to the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter and many other astronomical phenomena; which exciting the jealousy and annoyance of the violent Aristotelians, he resigned the chair of Pisa in disgust, and accepted that of Padua, where he remained for eighteen years. In 1611 his countrymen becoming more sensible of his great merit, the grand duke of Tuscany, Cosmo, recalled him to Pisa, and reappointed him professor, with a considerable stipend. He after-authors of this name in the seventeenth cenwards invited him to Florence, where he fell tury. AUGUSTUSs, the elder, was a counsellor under the censure of the inquisitors, for of state and proctor-general, for the kingdom asserting the motion of the earth round the of Navarre. He collected materials for a hissun. It will prove an eternal satire both on this tribunal, and the principles on which it was instituted, that Galileo was imprisoned until he abjured his opinion. In 1632 he however ventured to publish his " Dialogues on


tory of France and Navarre, which were published in one folio volume. He also wrote a history of Rochelle; a work on the standards and ensigns used by the French monarchs from the carliest ages; and a legal treatise on

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