QUESTIONS more large, more rich spoils of Hindustan, having momentous, more thrilling, it converted, as by enchantment, a were difficult to imagine, than village of savage shepherds, perch. those which must press upon the ed on the ridge of bleak and barmind of every statesman, philo- ren and inhospitable and almost sopher, philanthropist, and chris. inaccessible mountains, into the tian, in the perusal of such publi- abode of mighty princes and cations as those now before us. conquerors; a city of palaces and India once so distant-nay China, temples; a treasure-house for more distant still—are brought the gold and silver and precious almost to our fire-sides, by the stores, brought back by the rapidity of steam and overland conquerors from softer regions, communication; and the import- to swell the magnificence of the ance of the mighty and agitating Caliphate. events which force themselves In the mean time, while Great upon us—and that not in the ab. Britain, in her India power and straction of Britons separated by prowess, was achieving martial a vast portion of the globe swelrenown, and disposing of thrones ling between us; but in the home and dignities like chessmen, on relationships of our commerce, our the borders of Tartary, she was political interests, our social ties, writhing under

inflic. and let us not forget to add in tion and severer mortification in our most solemn responsibilities. China, from the confiscation and Every month brings before us new destruction brought upon herself and stirring topics. The events by her own nefarious dealings; of the late central Asiatic war to revenge which — for though --would that we could hope the the Chinese have behaved badly word late is not premature--have in many ways, the opium seizure rekindled the embers of national is the real, though not perhaps enthusiasm for tales of tented the diplomatic, cause of hostilities fields and battles, which had been —we are about to commence a smouldering since the days of the fearful, and it may be a protractgreat European strife; and our ed and bloody, warfare with three children talk as familiarly of Ca- hundred millions of the human bool and Affghanistan, as did their race. In short, we touch the fathers of Spain or Germany; East at so many points, that we and glow at the names of Ghiznee cannot think of Russia or Turkey, and Kelat, with emotions like of Egypt or Persia, of India or those excited by the victories of China; of our arts or arms, our Salamanca or Saragossa-we had commerce or manufactures, our almost said of Trafalgar or Wa. political or social relations; withterloo. India, once the easy prey out feeling, as Englishmen, that of the ferocious Mahmoud, has the affairs of Asia press upon carried back, under British rule, us with an importance scarcely the warfare to his own imperial second to those of our home city: the far-famed “second Me- districts. dina," as Gazna (we hardly know But there is another aspect in it under its modern orthography) which Christians ought eminently was wont to be called, surrendered to regard the scenes which are in one short hour its fortresses, passing in the East, What is their which for ages had been deemed aspect upon the eternal interests impregnable, to a more powerful of the many hundreds of inillions arm than that which in the tenth of human beings who are living century had filled them with the without God and without hope in

the world, revelling in the grossest how increasingly these solemn convices; a prey to the direst super- siderations are pressing upon the stitions; wretched in the present minds of British Christians; and world, and utterly unprepared how, by the powerful sway of prefor another; ignorant of that name cept and example, they are beby which alone men can be saved ginning to be acknowledged as no -of that blood which was shed light matters even by many who upon Mount Calvary, for the sin do not profess to enter very deeply of the world—and of that record into religious questions. of salvation which God has given But it is only by comparison to mankind in his holy word? that we speak thus favourably ; And to British Christians the just as we might of a man who, seriousness of this enquiry is fear. after a lengthened lethargy, began fully augmented by her close re- visibly to breathe and move his lationship with many of those limbs; not as considering this an nations, as the mighty mistress indication of perfect health and of India, and as standing pre-emi. vigour, but as rejoicing to see even nent throughout the East in her partial symptoms of approaching cominerce, her arms, and her convalescence. It is something to overwhelming influence. The say that Great Britian is not in people whose ships and colonies that state of spiritual torpor which exceed those of any other nation paralysed her as late as a quarter of ancient or modern times ; of a century ago ; we might spewhose merchants are princes and cify a yet more recent date. She whose traffickers are the honour. has on various occasions publicly able of the earth ; on whose do- acknowledged that she has reliminions the sun never sets, and gious obligations to discharge to whose flag every ocean reflects her colonies and dependencies ; from its bosom ; and who, in addi. though alas! the little she has tion to the extraordinary facilities done but makes the gloom more afforded by their position for in- visible ; and if we are not false va. fluencing the world's population, ticinators, there is a spirit abroad combine the solemn responsibi- which bids foul to frustrate all that lity arising from their own en- has been attempted; and to recede joyment of pre-eminent religious from ground already assumed raprivileges, cannot be innocent, ther than to go on to perfection." or slightly guilty, if they neglect We cannot but feel such an apthe duty incumbent upon them, prehension, when we observe how of doing all in their power to very widely among our statesmen, communicate to the distant re- merchants, and travellers, hints gions of the earth, wherever their are still thrown out as broadly sway or influence extends, as public opinion will allow, that unsearchable riches of Christ." the heathen, especially the Hin

We are not harsh accusers of doos, have after all a very toleraour beloved country ; something ble religion of their own ; that our – let us say much-has been done, interference does them little good and more is in progress, towards and much harm ; that few conrising to the high measure of our verts are made in name, and fewer religious duties to our foreign de- in reality; that the empire of pendencies; and we cannot take India hangs by a thread, which a up such a pile of volumes as that breath of fanaticism or a flame of before us—the cursory gatherings hasty zeal may instantly dissever; of only a few months—without and that it is a matter of grave being much struck with observing inquiry whether we have not al

" the


ready evoked a dangerous spirit tory of Christianity, than that of which it may not be easy to quell. the importance of setting up as The Parsee conversions at Bombay, speedily as possible a local, visible, or any other topic which can be and indigenous church wherever adroitly tortured, is laid hold of- our influence extends. This will as was the mutiny at Vellore, some include either a single or a twofold thirty years ago-to frighten the object, according as the district to timid, to impose upon the credu. be operated upon is Christian or lous, to arm the scoffer with Pagan, or both mixed. sneers, and the dogged opposer of In the case of a Christian coreligion with specious arguments. lony, the mother-land is bound to And thus while all seems fair and see that the national worship of calm, a ground swell is threatening God is implanted with its very first to heave the bark from its moor- settlement ; for we cannot admit ings; or while she rides buoyantly that this essential duty is to be on the surface, an undercurrent is postponed, as some will tell us, thwarting her progress, and coun- till all bodies of Christians learn to teracting the labours of her zealous think alike on all subjects. Se

veral of the English colonies, like It is the bounden duty of every many of our new towns at home, servant of Jesus Christ to oppose are at this moment suffering sethis selfish, sneering, sceptical, and verely in their peace, their chaessentially infidel spirit ; and that racter, and their religion, from the not by timid, wavering arguments, neglect of this primary obligation. as if he were ashamed of his divine The people were left without a Master's cause, or hoped to disarm publicly recognised form of re. opposition by palliations ; but by ligion, till they grew up without setting forth, in all its magnitude, any religion at all; or with so many the spiritual debt due from us to shades of it, that they were too our colonies, and the heathen lands busy in quarreling about what with which we hold intercourse; they differed in, to find time or and our enormous guilt, individual inclination to establish even what and national, if we neglect to dis- they held in common. charge it. The nation has ap- In the case of missions to the pointed a few bishops; and lo. heathen, a national church is not cated here and there a presby- at first attainable. The missiona. ter in its vast foreign domi- ries are strangers; and though nions; (though alas ! of late years they are themselves a standing undoing, by its encouragement of testimony for God, they are not Popery, much of what might be the germ of an indigenous comeffected by such a modicum of munion. But their labours should Protestantism) and societies have be very early directed to form sent out, by the voluntary aid of one : they should teach their conprivate Christians, Bibles, mis- verts as much as possible to de. sionaries, and catechists andschool. pend, under God, upon native masters, to inclose a few barren agency; they should not lead them tracts, and break up the fallow to expect to nestle for ever un. ground for the future vineyard; fledged under the wing of the but all that has yet been done is missionary ; their language should little more than to shew the ex- be,“ When thou art converted, tent of the surrounding desolation. strengthen thy hrcthren." This

There is no one conclusion line of proceeding has been too which seems to us to come out often overlooked thwarted. more clearly from the whole his. The parent has been so fearful


that the child would get into dan- stitution of freedom to the negger, that he has paralysed him with lected population of the slave kindness; he has prevented his colonies; but everything must running alone by keeping him too have a beginning; and the selong in leading-strings, to prevent verance of native pastors from his injuring himself or others. direct dependence upon

inisPerhaps—for even good men are sionaries, among the rest. To send not free from defects—he has been out a minister, is in every case somewhat jealous lest native pas- a serious experiment, as indeed is tors should rival himself, and has every ordination from Oxford or viewed them too much as his own Cambridge ; and a missionary may agents, instead of giving them due be well excused if, seeing the reweight among their countrymen. maining ignorance, weakness, and He has thought rather how the many defects of his native friends, mission could be extended, than the infinite importance of the how it could be superseded; and Gospel, and the danger of mishas thus failed of calling out to takos fatal to souls, he hesitates the utmost the local resources, and long before he encourages the esestablishing churches aided by the tablishment of independent offsets. mutual sympathies of kindred Yet this is the ultimate design of and country. It is indeed true his mission ; and though to prethat young converts need super- cipitate it would be unwise and vision; and that men educated dangerous, it ought to be kept in the ignorance of heathenism, pre-eminently in his eye as the even though brought to the know- desired goal of his efforts. ledge and belief of Christian truth, In the third case, that of a Chris. are often very defective teachers : tian population dwelling in, and yet when we remember that it ruling over, a heathen land—as in was of such men that the early India—the two efforts must be churches were composed; and that conjoined. There ought to be, uninspired believers often became from the first, a visible church faithful and useful pastors with a among the settlers; there ought smaller stock of dogmatic theo- also to be strenuous efforts, with logy, and less perhaps of doctrinal the blessing of God, to establish precision, than many modern mis. churches of native Christians, sionaries would consider requisite with pastors of their own even for a catechist, we fear that speech and kindred; and we the reticent system has been fol- scruple not to add, that all lowed—we will not say with too equitable and peaceful methods much caution, but with too little ought to be used, as Christian faith. It is true that a man can- wisdom may direct, to unite both not swim till he has been in the in one. For a time -perhaps for water; but he will never swim if he a long time--varieties of language never ventures in, or only with and of social relations may keep bladders, or a friend's aid. So in the two classes from thoroughcivil society, it is often urged that ly amalgamating in their ora nation, or a class of persons, is dinary employments and habits, incapable of exercising some public even though they feel themselves duty; and yet if never tried it to be brethren in Christ Jesus ; will never become capable. It is one church before they are one a question of degree; it was so in people; but the uniting process the extension of the experiment ought to be from the first in of trial by native juries to the peo- action, and its final results in ple of India; it was so in the re- contemplation; and towards this

end we enjoy singular advantages afforded to religion; but no in an episcopal communion and sooner do they find a national pre-composed liturgy and offices. ruler willing to promote their deThere may thus be substantial signs than they gladly embrace his union even where for a time di- offer; and like zealous converts vers languages are necessary; as they are perhaps rather inclined our church is the same in Wales to overstrain than to undervalue as in England, though the in- their new doctrine. Witness, for habitants of each could not orally example, the proceedings in some worship together.

of the South Sea Islands, where It is this sort of union which Rome herself might admire, hope. the several Bishops of India less of rivalling, the domination ought, we conceive, to be earnestly with which the church rules the promoting; as indeed they do. state. This influence has been They have to keep up and enlarge hitherto used for the glory of God the fabric of the English national and the good of the people; but church ; they have to employ it is inconsistent, even in its eleevery scriptural instrument for ments, with the anti-establishment gathering the heathen natives in principle ; and it is stretched to to the fold of Christ, and forming a point at which, if a worldlythem as soon as may be into minded priesthood should succeed local pastoral assemblies under after the holy missionaries have indigenous instructors; and they gone the way of all the earth, it have to use every lawful endea. might lead either to pontifical vour to connect the whole into tyranny, or to throwing off the one visible communion; instead yoke by a popular revolution. of allowing them to be dissipated The above views are not new into “the dust of individuality." in their particulars, nor perhaps Hitherto the chief bond of union generally in their connection ; has been the superintendence of but we could wish to see the suba European chaplain or mission. ject set forth and enlarged upon ary; but we wish to see a less with all the detail and argument artificial and more permanent due to its importance. For the tie ; a healthful union of true present we lay it aside ; and will fraternity; not the constrained relieve our readers by quoting, collectiveness of children in a from the works before us, a pas school, or soldiers in a company, sage on each of the two heads of which lasts just so long as the our enumeration. school-master or the captain re- With regard to the first, the tain them in subordination, but duty of Christian nations to plant would vanish as soon as the pres- offsets of their national church sure of control ceased; but the in their colonies, we are glad to union of citizens in one common see a vindication of it in a publiweal; all admiring and living cation which from its title might under the same constitution, and not have led us to expect it. We discharging their various duties refer to a new periodical work, under a well-ordered and univer. No. 6 on our list, under the susally respected national govern- perintendence of Mr. Martin, the ment. And here we must do well known author of an elabo

anti-national-establishment rate “ History of the British Cobrethren the justice to say that lonies." We did not doubt Mr. their practice is better than their Martin's zeal for the promotion principle. They declaim loudly of the Gospel, or his wish to make at home against secular aid being the labours of his pen conducive


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