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was all but repulsed from office to may any Christian be, who sees office as a troublesome meddler; how reckless are too many of our and went back disappointed, and public men of the best temporal almost broken-hearted. We might interests, because reckless of the add many such facts ; but the religious welfare, of those commatter is too notorious to require mitted to their charge ; for both it. While we are writing, the in. are united by Him who has given defatigable Mr. Poynder is re- to godliness the promise of the newing his oft repeated supplica. world that now is, as well as of tion to the administrators of India that which is to come. --not entreating them to spend We ought to add, as we have one rupee or one thought for the no wish to render to worldlyspiritual welfare of her Majesty's mindedness any excuse for the subjects subjected to their sway, neglect of duty, that we are not but only just to refrain from mak- · asking the mother-land for pecuing merchandise of the souls of niary sacrifices to promote the men by continuing partners in the spiritual welfare of her colonies. polluted and sacrilegious gains of Worldly-minded men walk so heathen obscenity and idolatry; daintily where money is concerned, not asking them to build Christian that we would not willingly throw a churches, but merely not to go on straw in their way to stumble over; adding a pittance to their divi- we would not without necessity ask dends from the detestable wicked them for a single dollar, if its weight ness of pagodas. Yet even this would turn the balance of their inmodest request he has been press- clinations against their duty. Nor ing for many a weary year with do we believe that any sacrifice is little but fair words-and not al. requisite. All that is wanting is ways those — in exchange for the will, and a way will be found. weighty arguments; and unless What prevents, in a new country, to-day's success is much more reserving a due portion of the solid than that of former flattering lands, while they are of no asoccasions, it will only minister to signable value, as a provision for hope deferred which makes the the clergy when the increase of heart sick.* And sick at heart population shall have made them
available ? The mother-land is • Our foreboding has been realized ;
not bound to maintain her colonial Mr. Poynder's motion was rejected. It children, either in body or soul; seems to us that the court of Directors
nor is it necessary. She has but have very decidedly made up their minds to “ advance backwards” in the matter.
to originate wise plans, and to set They resisted as long as they could; but them in operation ; if she has oc. being at length forced by strongly ex- casion to advance immediate aid pressed public remonstrance, as well as for colonial objects, she may justly by the opinion and wishes of Lord Glenelg at the Board of Controul, and their
do so on the credit of colonial exown Governor-General, Lord William pectancies; and she has a good Bentinck in India, they sent out their right to say, that religious instruccelebrated make-believe dispatch, which tion is for the benefit of the setthey have spent seven years in countenancing their own agents in secretly un
tlers, and that they must themdermining ; till now, Lord William being dead, and Lord Glenelg buried, and the are wrong however in saying that the enormity being an old tale which they question does not touch the rupees. It hope the public has forgotten, they are does not in the way of payment; but it resolved to adhere to the repudiated does in the way of revenue ; and here practice, if they find they can decently after all is the hitch : it is a question of and without too much peril hush up the £. s. d.: and the more paltry the gain the matter. It is a very mournful business. We more clear the moral apathy.
selves provide for its reasonable or perhaps practicable, in some of cost.
them, to give the Sacred Scriptures Thus far we have spoken of in a perfectly correct and intelliChristian colonies, shewing that, gible form. We admit the diffiwe ought to extend to them a culty; and we go with Dr. Duff national church establishment; to the full extent of his wish to and the second branch of the see as many as convenient of the question is akin to it, for the duty natives of India—and, by a parity of endeavouring to raise up and of circumstances, those of other employ native agency in the case heathen lands-instructed in Euof missionary labours among the ropean literature. But to expect heathen, rests upon the duty of eventually to supersede the inditerritorially localising churches. genous dialects, would be to inThe very first convert ought to be dulge a vain anticipation; and regarded as the germ of a future this being the case, the native national communion. Whether agency must operate through the the work will prosper till such a native tongues; nor are we very communion is eventually formed; desponding as to the alleged inwhether the single convert shall capability of the Indian languages swell into a church, and one to convey religious truth. It must church be added to another till not be forgotten that the Bible the whole land is, nominally at itself is an Eastern book ; that least, Christian-a nation of bap- the older portion of it is written tized persons,- is in the disposal in a language not more copious, of Infinite Wisdom ; but we may or fitter in itself for intellectual lawfully, in faith and hope, look communication, than many other forward to that issue; and begin oriental dialects; and that the from the very first to provide for principles of Christianity do not it. And here we are justly re- necessarily require an elaborate minded of the invaluable labours vocabulary, though they furnish and counsels of Dr. Duff, than ample matter to exercise it. Our whom no man has more zealously notion of the importance of teachurged the promotion of native ing as many as practicable of the agency. His other favourite pro- natives of India to speak and ject, on which we are not now called think in English, is not in order to pass a judgment, of making the to render their own tongues obsoEnglish tongue as much as possi- lete, but to enable them to enlarge ble the medium of instruction to and improve them, as our own the natives of India, is not meant was enlarged and improved by to be inconsistent with the prin- conquest and international interciple in question, though we are course. The curse of Babel is not sure that it does not in some not intended soon to cease, and measure interfere with it. The all we can do is to mitigate its rude speech of savages, and even direful results. the more polished dialects of Asia, It being the problem, to raise up, it is true, are not in their present by the blessing of God, a native state adequate vehicles of elevated ministry, it is very important to Christian communication. They consider how that end may be best are too scanty as an intellectual attained ; and Dr. Duff has done vehicle, and too debased by vile much good in impressing the neassociations even where not scan- cessity of high training, and not ty, to admit of the transmission being content with spreading by their means of all the ideas widely a film of superficial eduwhich a European missionary cation. We honour his zeal in wishes to convey; nor is it easy, this matter ; even though in urging his favourite plan he may seem Bishop's College, Dr. Mill, stated to have too much disparaged vil- as long back as 1821: “From the lage schools ; but we cannot allow very limited experience I have mythat he was the originator of the self acquired in this country, I can system, or admit the accuracy of his speak with confidence to the fact statement that “the experiment that the Scriptures and other of making Christianity an essential Christian books, even in places the part of superior English education most contradictory to the whole had been as yet unattempted.” It system of idolatry, may be read in had not indeed been attempted in heathen schools, where Bramin the government scheme for native pundits are the hearers and teachcollegiate training; and it was ers, without exciting any alarm or generally deemed chimerical by offence whatsoever.” Bishop's Col. those who called themselves prac. lege was intended to embrace the tical men ; for though the ordinary education of natives as well as mission schools had abundantly Europeans; and one of its primary shewn that the lower castes and regulations was that “the disci. poorer classes would consent to pline, and studies established in read the Bible or listen to Chris. our English universities with so tian exhortations for the sake of much benefit to the cause of true procuring for their children a religion and sound learning, shall smattering of English which might be the basis of its constitution." better their fortunes; yet the high There was nothing which Dr. Duff castes, and the rich, it was asserted, instituted or proposed in this rewould never thus degrade them- spect that was not essentially selves. Indeed so far was the embraced in the foundation of notion carried of the necessity of Bishop's college. not offending the feelings of the Still we admit-and we have aristocratic part of the natives, by ourselves already stated—that the bringing before the pupils anything various missionary societies, in connected with Christianity, that establishing schools, and in their Sanskrit, not English, was made general system of operations, had the vehicle of instruction in the not perhaps kept in view so promihigher branches of literature. Now nently as was desirable, the necesDr. Duff deserves much gratitude sity of forthwith planting native for avowedly and resolutely mak. churches under native pastors. ing the use of the English language, They of course did not lose sight and direct Christian instruction of this important object; they also, essential features of his col- looked forward with glowing antilegiate plan; and great was the suc- cipation to its ultimate accomplishcess of the experiment. But with ment; they rejoiced when a native out derogating from his services, we appeared fitted by suitable talents, cannot admit that the scheme was character, and piety, for the mioriginal. We need go no farther in nisterial office ; and the ordination proof of our remark, than to Bic of an Abdool Messeeh was hailed shop's College, Calcutta, a primary as a first-fruit of an abundant hardesign of which was to train vest. But notwithstanding these well-instructed native Christian right impressions, the general mateachers; and so far from its not chinery might not be sufficiently being ascertained, till the Scottish adapted to the great design ; and mission was set on foot, that the it strikes us as having been an higher classes of natives would be error in judgment, that when a willing to receive literature in con- native was approved of, and ornexion with Christianity, we well dained, instead of being localized remember that the Principal of as the pastor of a stationary flock,
he was frequently attached to the it is; or at least used to be. No European mission as an itinerant doubt inconveniences would arise; preacher among his brethren ; so some might err, or go back, or that golden opportunities were fall; and the mournful experience lost of establishing such native of missions shews that confidence churches as grew up in the apostolic must indeed be a plant of slow times, and which might have fur- growth ; nevertheless, as the relanished both models and incentives. tion of pastor and flock is ScripThere might be exceptions, but tural, we may lawfully, in faith, we speak of the habit. We admit hope for the marked blessing of also the difficulties arising from God in seeking to promote it. the inexperience of the teachers, But we must pass on to other the paucity of converts in any par- topics which occur to us. We ticular place, their unsteadiness, will not however lay down Dr. and other causes ; and we impute Duff's earnest and eloquent vono blame to any one; but we think lume, without extracting a few there was not sufficient concentra- passages; and cannot do tion of effort towards this import- better than choose some which ant point of beginning as early as relate to the important subjects possible to found local flocks under which we have been considering. native teachers. When a catechist We will only premise that though was well-tried, we would even have we agree with Dr. Duff as to the risked something to make him a necessity of imparting a higher settled minister, instead of keep- kind of instruction than that which ing him as an appendage to a the ordinary mission schools afEuropean mission. The error was ford, in order to raise up, through analagous to that which frequently divine grace, suitable native teachoccurred in our own church, when ers, yet we think he has not done in some overgrown parish, for full justice to the popular scheme. which it was proposed to have The secular knowledge thereby additional pastoral aid, the added imparted, we admit, may not be clergyman was made a sort of always of a very elevated characmissionary for fifty thousand souls, ter, measured by the standard of instead of assigning him a manage- European attainment ; but it is a able portion of the district as his high advance upon oriental literaown parish, and which he might ture; and both in its direct and rendera model for the surrounding its remote effects it saps
the founwild. We have a great advantage dations of paganism, and prepares under episcopal government, in the way for the reception of a following out the plan of early more enlightened as well as holocalizing native presbyters; that lier system—if we may use such they are not emancipated from diminutive words in speaking of control, but are subject to the the glorious gospel of the grace Scriptural anthority of a father in of God. And it must also be the church ; so that if their life remembered, that though a wellor doctrine became exceptionable qualified race of teachers cannot there would be a salutary check be “finished” in these schools, and power of removal. Subject their education may be comthen to this wholesome discipline, menced ; and that pupils thus we could wish to see the experi. far taught are better qualified, and ment of trusting native teachers probably more inclined, to proceed with flocks—not as helpers to upon the loftier course, than Europeans, but as settled respon- natives whose first prejudices have sible pastors-carried farther than not been surmounted. To all
which it must be added that courage and support the adoption of any scholars are wanted as well as measures that may have for their object teachers; flocks as well as pas.
the diffusion of sound and enlarged sen
timents. tors; and that the children trained
“ Were the friends of missions, therein these elementary schools are fore, regularly to inquire how many far better prepared to appreciate young men are engaged in a course of and receive the lessons of their study in the higher departments of know
ledge ?—instead of, How many children more highly-instructed country- are receiving instructions in the elemen. men, than those who are still tary schools ?--they would undoubtedly grovelling in the grossest mire of find in the answer to the former inquiry, heathen ignorance and supersti- and prospective advancement of the
by much the surer test of the present tion. In none of these points Hindus. Indeed so strong is our condoes Dr. Duff, we believe, differ viction on this subject, that we do not from us in principle ; nor have hesitate to say, that it would augur we said that he disapproves of ten privileged to receive the higher in
more for the real welfare of India, were the elementary scheme in itself; struction, rather than a thousand adindeed we shall shew the con- mitted to the elementary schools. Do trary; all that we mean is, that we then disapprove of the organization
of schools of the latter description ? taking his statements in their
Quite the contrary. In the face of all totality, an impression is left upon opposition, we would again and again the mind of the reader more un- reiterate the statement, that, in the first favourable than truth warrants, instance, such schools must be instior than we believe he himself in.
tuted. But it is one thing to assert the
necessity of preparatory measures, and tends. With these preliminary quite another to rest in these as an remarks, we proceed to quote a few ultimate end.” of his statements and reasonings. “ In the present condition of the
people of India, one central seminary, “ From the whole train of the preced- of a higher grade, with its attendant ing remarks, what conclusion ought to retinue of preparatory gymnasia, would be drawn? Is it not this,- That in pre- do more towards impressing the intellect sent circumstances, all efforts which may and heart of the people, and consebe confined to the direct method of quently towards furthering the great diffusing mere elementary knowledge cause of national regeneration, than any among the dense mass of the heathen number of elementary schools, however youth of India must be very inadequate; indefinitely multiplied !" and if extensively pursued, can entail “ Instead of any longer looking solely little else than expense, failure, and dis- or chiefly to the British and other appointment."
Christian churches, not only for the “ Hence the growing persuasion that original but the continuous supply of since our design is to reach more speedily, labourers, we ought now to say, Look to efficiently, and permanently the great these churches for the original supply of mass of the people, we ought openly to labourers to communicate the first im. avow the chief means to be, so far as pulse ; but let these give that shape and regards education, not the elementary direction to their operations which may instruction of the youth at large, but the most speedily cause the field itself to raising up and qualifying a body of special send forth the continuous supply.”. agents, whose minds, from the length “ In missions, that one which is still and variety of their studies, might be dependant on home for labourers, has quickened, expanded, and enlightened. got no permanent footing, and is no In every individual in whom we thus better than a sickly exotic, which will concentrate the rays of a higher know. droop, the moment it is left to itself and ledge, we provide a new source whence its own inherent powers. Left to itself shall emanate and diverge the rays of in such a mission, Christianity might, in quickening truth, to vivify and illumine the course of a single generation, decline all within the reach of its influence. And into the feebleness of old age ; and in if all who are thus taught do not engage the next, from the corruption and interdirectly in the work of disseminating blendings of it with surrounding heathentrue knowledge among their countrymen, ism, new heresies might spring up-the they cannot fail to teach extensively by foul but stable monument of its short. their example,--to imprint a new charac- lived reign. It is not enough that in ter on their own children,-and to en- any mission there should be individuals