never been so successful in re-establish- day, we regret that the possession of ing friendly intercourse as unfortunate the Gospel has not taught Europeans in giving occasion for stopping it. more forbearance and long-suffering.

* As in the instances where actual Had these been oftener practised on force was used to decide disputed suitable occasions, we should have had claims, the Chinese have generally fewer causes of complaint against the proved inferior, they have become de- Chinese ; but it is not strange that sirous to avoid any recourse to phy. Europeans, destitute of the spirit of sical strength. Instead of spilling Christian meekness, on coming to this blood, they prefer to spill ink, and have country, and finding themselves treated proved to the world that China is in- as barbarians by a nation so evidently vincible in a paper war.

Like the ana- below them in civilization, should feel themas of the papal see, fulminating their indignation roused, and should edicts have been invariably issued on retaliate insolence for insolence, and such occasions against intruding fo. dislike for hatred. Thus the line of reigners. These edicts are in general separation became broader and broader. very specious, and would persuade a Govermental proclamations, detailing European unacquainted with the case the infamous conduct of barbarians, to believe that the Chinese have justice have been repeatedly posted up at Canon their side. Their threats are inti- ton. Foreigners have wisely taken no midating, and their commands almost notice of them ; but the minds of the irresistible, but here they stop; for people have been thus embued with the intruder either yields and retraces strong antipathy against such worthhis steps, or if not, the Chinese is too less barbarians. Thus the authorities wise to let matters come to the ex- gained their point; for the aversion tremity of force, where he is as sure of to foreigners, thus excited and che. defeat as he is certain of victory in a rished, was the best precaution against pitched battle of words.

forming too close a friendship with “ The continual collision of the fo- them. The writer has often heard the reign mercantile establishments at Can. natives rehearse these accusations with ton with the Chinese authorities, bas self-gratulation at their own supeoccasioned great surprise to persons riority: but slightly acquainted with the native Thus every event has contributed character. The most severe animad- to widen the breach between foreign versions also have been called forth from nations and the Chinese. In vain have capatalists who have suffered loss, and embassies been tried to conciliate their who have not been on the ground to favour; no presents have been withjudge of the case. But so long as the held, no trouble spared, in order to prejudice against foreigners is che- bring about a friendly intercourse.” rished, there must be contests; on the “These fruitless embassies will teach one part, to maintain old privileges, the sovereigus either to attempt no ameliorate their present condition, and negotiations at all, or to propose them extend the trade; and on the other, to in a different state of affairs; for retrench the liberties and enforce the there are two grand obstacles the exclusion of strangers. The experi- pretension of China to supremacy over ence of centuries has taught Europeans all the nations of the world, and her that the Chinese authorities will heap dread of every superior power. Add insult on insult upon them, when it to this the want of veracity prevalent can be done with impunity to them. in all the departments of her governselves and their interests; but when ment, the ignorance on subjects of gean opponent supports bis argument neral knowledge, and their bigoted adwith physical force, or their interest herence to unfounded opinions; and demands it, they can be crouching,

we shall the less blame the embassagentle, and even kind. This pecu.

dors for the failure of missions, in liarity of national character, so very

which there was scarcely a possibility unlike our own, has been prolific in of success. mutual evils.

Gutzlaff, our readers need not “ It has exhibited the measures taken be informed, is a zealous upholder by the European residents to redress

of the doctrine that China is not their grievances in a light the most unfavourable by contrast with their hermetically sealed against Chrisown plausible and forbearing deport- tian enterprise ; and he certainly ment. While we do not forget the himself found or made facilities long catalogue of petty annoyances of intercourse which less sanguine from the Chinese authorities, which the Europeans have suffered from the or less courageous minds would first arrival of the Portuguese to this have shrunk from daring to em..

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brace. In his native Prussia he efforts, in the day of small things, had long pondered and mourned

will subserve the cause of God. The over the awfully wretched state of translation and circulation of the Holy

Scriptures, the composition and distrithe heathen, and depicted them bution of tracts, with occasional oral to himself as “ vehemently thirst- addresses to the people, are the means ing after a Redeemer and the he would employ to promulgate the GosDivine consolations of the Gos- pel of Christ. Many thousands may read,

and hear, and not understand; yet, if pel ;” to enable him to communi

a few among these thousands embrace cate which, he says in a letter dated the word of eternal life, the salvation from his tutor Pastor Jænicke's of that few is an abundant reward; missionary seminary at Berlin in able than to conquer the world. While

for to save one soul is far more valu. 1822, “I have commenced the quoting this divine truth, I am constudy of six languages, that I may vinced that individual Christians, become an evangelist of the king. thoroughly penetrated with such senti. dom of Christ in all parts under benefit of China than the greatest

ments, could accomplish more for the heaven;" and greatly did he re

statesmen as mere politicians. Of the joice when after various disap- former there have been few to conpointments he found himself ac.

secrate their lives to this great object, tually afloat for the Indian Archi, cessful in their attempts ; but more

and still fewe who have been sucpelago, under the joint auspices of will arise as as the enterprise the Dutch and London Missionary shall cease to be regarded as hopeSocieties. We shall not follow less.” his eventful career; but we can- Assuredly China was not exnot withhold his fervid anticipa- cepted when the heathen were tions concerning China in the given to our Divine Lord as his retrospect of his arduous la heritage, and the uttermost parts bours.

of the earth as his possession ; “ When love to our Saviour shall

and though the wall is lofty and transcend all minor and selfish pas. strong, and no practicable breach sions, and, fully possessing the heart, seems to have been made in it, shall prompt to the uttermost exertions we cannot doubt that the proto glorify his name, we humbly believe that all the barriers of Chinese misan- phecy will one day be fulfilled, thropy will fall

. There is something and that it is our duty to endeairresistible in that holy ardour which vour “to be fellow-workers with counts all things nothing for Christ, God” in this mighty enterprise, and which is prepared for any sacrifices when and how He pleases, if he to exalt his glorious name. The prince of darkness, with all his infernal array,

will graciously condescend to emcan never prevail against the men who ploy our feeble services. We rely upon their Redeemer's strength, would even hope—abhorrent as who walk in his Spirit, and who live is strife to the servants of the and die in his service. As he is the ruler of the universe, and the sole po

Prince of Peace, and wicked as tentate, upholding the world by his is the doctrine of doing evil Almighty band, the removal of obsta- that good may come that it cles insurmountable to man is to him an easy work. A simple, steady faith in

may please Him who can educe him, exalts its possessor above impedi- good from evil, to

overrule ments and repeated disappointments: the pending rupture with China he knows that his Saviour will triumph to the relaxation of the restricover all his enemies, and, under all difti.

tions which forbid missionary in. culties in the path of duty, will uphold him. In the Divine promise, surer

tercourse. It cannot be said that than any buman covenant that all the Christian missionaries have barred nations of the earth shall be given to China against us; there is no conhis Lord, he reads the certain conver

venient “ mutiny at Vellore " to sion of China. Armed with tbis faith, he is confident that the day, though lay the blame upon ; there were remote, is yet sure, and that small no Bibles in the opium packages,

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and we fear few religious tracts in keep up the gaming establishment the smugglers' chests. Wicked at that settlement, on account ness has shut China against us ; of any habits or institutions of may righteousness re-open it! or the Chinese, if unjustly opened by rougher It is a principle of the Chinese

Government which I have never seen weapons, may righteousness follow

violated, not to license what they con. to heal the cruel wounds of war! demn as immoral. His imperial ma

And here we must do Dr. Mor- jesty and his government condescend rison the justice to mention how

to dehort the people from vice; but conscientiously he bore his tes

never avowedly on any consideration

license it. They cannot prevent private timony against that direful traf- vice, but the public voice is uniformly fic which has caused the present against it. Gambling (like opium disasters; in which the honest smoking) although much practised, is Christian merchant is involved disgraceful in China ; and the govern

ment, in its endeavours to suppress with the contraband trader. His these vices, is supported by the conwidow, in her interesting memoir science and opinion of every Chinaman. of him, quotes many passages

I know they glory in the superiority, which shew his opinion on the

as to principle, of their own govern

ment; and scorn the Christian governsubject. Thus he writes to Sirments that tolerate these vices, and G. Staunton, in 1892.

convert them into a source of pecuniary “ There are two or three English advantage or public revenue. "I believe ships on the coast, smuggling opium the Chinese view the system as into China. The Hoppo has published contemptible dereliction of the duties two orders requiring the English chief of a paterual government from a sordid to order them into port. This is a money - making spirit in the rulers. traffic which is far from being reputa

This language may appear strong, but ble either to the English Aag, or to the

it does not amount to the nervous character of Christendom.”

strength of Chinese legislators and Again he writes to the Secre. moralists; nor to the feeling which tary of the London Miss ry

every Chinese Coolee (though himself

a bad man) in his better moments alSociety, in 1826 :

ways cherishes. In China I have been “There is a great influx of new com- reproached for the wonted conduct of mercial agents, especially for opium, the Penang government in licensing that disreputable smuggling commerce. opium-smoking shops and gambling The sale of this drug, it is said, bas

houses. much increased, and with it there is a As to the second part of the subject, great increase of crime."

viz. : wbat may be safe and practicable He frequently mentions the here, I cannot from experience speak, anxiety of the Chinese govern

as I do not know how far thegood Pagan ment to suppress the traffic; and

taste of the Chinese may have been vi. this from humane, moral, and

tiated by unprincipled pseudo-Chris

tian indulgence during former colonial patriotic motives. His testi, governments. But I imagine the num. mony to the disinterested ho. ber of Chinese is very small that would nesty with which the rulers of that

not cordially approve of legislative en

actments to diminish the facility and mighty empire consult the wel

licensed respectability of gambling." fare of the people to the contempt We do not follow out the me. of sordid fiscal gain, is very moir of Dr. Morrison, as the outhonourable to them; and the late lines are well-known; and for the total destruction of the contra- filling-up recourse must be had band opium, and the continued to the volumes. It were superrefusal to levy a tax upon it, tend fluous to mention his piety, his to corroborate Dr. Morrison's zeal, his pre eminent ability as a conclusion. He says, in 1823, linguist, and the services which he in reply to an official inquiry made rendered to literature, to to him from the Lieutenant Go

merce, and to Christianity, by his vernor of Singapore, as Chinese Dictionary, and Chinese whether he thought the British version of the Holy Scriptures, Government was called upon to and his missionary labours.



VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. AFTER a debate of three days, Sir Anglican, does not seem likely; the James Grabam failed but by nine votes ministers of the Church of Scotland in a bouse of 533 members present, of were not then or now usually called carrying, a vote of censure upon her “clergymen;"—but even granting that Majesty's advisers for not having made the expression admits these, how can snch pre-arrangements as might have the Church of Rome be included, or be prevented the disasters which have more strongly excluded ; and who can occurred in China. Successive cabinets, but feel indignant at the idea of also it is true, as well as the East India allotting a part of this sacred and legally Company, bave been conveniently blind appropriated fund to “ Tunkers, to the enormities of the smuggling traf- “Mennonites," and we know not what fic in opium; but the present ministry other monstrosities? The Popish cleris specially to blame, not only because gy in Lower Canada are handsomely the trade had become much larger and provided for by the State ; but it is more notorious; but because the abo. proposed to treat the Anglican Church lition of the Company's monopoly trans- as only a party sect. The whole proferred the responsibility to the ministers ceeding is so flagitious, that we trust of the Crown. Sir R. Peel agrees with it will not only be frustrated, but that the cabinet, that war has now become the result will be that its injustice will indispensable; and true it is that the awaken the right feelings of Protestant Chinese acted unjustifiably in seizing England, and help to prepare the way parties who were not opium smugglers; for large measures of Church extension. but they followed out their ideas of Church extension, including the nenational hostages, and they had received cessary division of large parishes, is the great provocations; for what right had most important measure which could we to force our opium upon them in be adopted for the public welfare. Mr. spite of their edicts ; injuring their M`Neile, though we do not concur in revenues, corrupting their officers, and all his opinions or propositions, has poisoning their population ? And for strikingly shewn this in his late valuawbat are we at war ? For wbat are ble lectures. With church extension unoffending millions of her population would be connected Scriptural schools, to be visited with all the borrors of pastoral labours, and sacred ordinances; hostile incursion? For what are ber and though God alone can give the peaceable merchants to have their ves. blessing, we may, in faith, hope for it sels seized, plundered, and destroyed ? in the diligent use of his own appointed Is it to enforce the opium traffic? Is it means of grace. We are constantly to re-imburse the smugglers for the witnessing new efforts of vice and inti. well-deserved confiscation? Oh no! delity ;- Socialism is the climax-and says Dr. Lushington, it is only to obtain what can put tbem down but the faithful reparation for outrage. What repara- preaching and strenuous inculcation of tion? Will any man believe that no evangelical truth? we say emphatically mulct is to be exacted; no opium treaty “ evangelical," meaning specifically extorted? and that the India Company what is coucbed in that emphatic word. will no longer grow poppies for China ? The Quarterly Reviewer finds a specific Our faith is not equal to our wishes. in Oxford Tractism; and gives broad

bints that he would rejoice to see reParliament bas adjusted the Privilege vived those amiable arguments of tine, question by an act granting protection imprisonment, or torture, with which to its printer and other officers. This the founder or most zealous advocate of is right; but it is not so still to leave that system, Archbishop. Laud, at. a maligned person no remedy against tempted to uphold it; for he says : “ If the calumniator.

you allow dissent,” if you permit “ the

toleration system"-to Methodists, for The late Canadian Bill, which divides instance, or " Evangelical Dissenters," the Clergy reserves among the churches you must also allow Socialism. You of England, Scotland, and Rome, and cannot separate the one from the other. various classes of Dissenters, seems All are departures from “ the Church," likely to be vetoed by the appeal to and therefore you must put down all, or the Judges, which the House of Lords leave all untouched ! This Oxford has decided upon, as to its legality. Tract Quarterly article will do more to That the words “ a protestant clergy," aid Socialism, by the bigotry and abin an act passed in the year 1791, were surdity of its statements, tban a heap of meant to include any church but the Mr. Owen's publications. The Review


er is pleased to say, that " the Socialist An able letter from the Bishop of has friends and agents in our Evangeli. Calcutta to the Bishop of Norwich upon cal clergy." We will not stoop to the Martiniere institution, and the reply reply to such insane raving and down. of the latter, have been published, right falsehood; but sure we are that which forcibly corroborate the stateit is evangelical” doctrine, and not ments in our last Number. It is clear, the fanaticism persecutions of first, that the plan was not Bishop Laudism, that is the only panacea for Wilson's, except in so far that he presuch evils. Those whom the Quar. vented its being worse ; secondly, that terly Review stigmatises as “evangeli- it recognizes those features of doctrinal cal" consider it a Scriptural injunction truth which are acknowledged in comto give to Socialists and all other men, mon by Romanists, Anglicans, and or

a reason of the hope that is in them;" thodox Presbyterians; and therefore but this the Oxford Tract sect teaches does not coincide with the no-creed is neology and infidelity; you are not project of the Irish school system; and to give reasons, but to tell men that thirdly, that even with these favourable you rest your claims upon tradition. modifications, it rather proves the im. The “ fact' of a traditional church is practicability, than tempts to the introto be urged against the Socialist as an duction, of the general and special argument in full, and then forth with he

scheme even for a particular institution; cannot but be convinced ! Will the and that to model the popular instrucReviewer condescend to try the experi- tion of a Christian nation upon such a ment before he so contidently predicts plan would be as futile as it is anscripits results?


ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. M. X.; A. B.; A Subscriber; Clericus; Humanus; A Churchman; F. S. ;

Secretarius ; W. D.: Vicanus; H. B. ; are under consideration. How can Topogeos imagine that we will employ a printer to print, or cause our

readers to pay for, a series of papers to exhibit his discovery, “after chasing an ignis fatuus for thirty years,” that all the controversies of theologians are idle,” for that “ salvation means nothing more than rendering obedience to the commandments?" If he will run through a concordance, at the word “ salvation," substituting his synonyme, he will find that as delusive a will-o'-the-wisp has fermented from his own—not very novel-lucubrations, as from any of those on “ faith on works,” which he has so intensely studied from Sandeman to Huntingdon. Would he read, “ Now is our keeping the commandments nearer than when we believed ;" Neither is there keeping of the commandments in any other;" “In the day of keeping of the commandments have I succoured thee;' “He became the author of eternal keeping of the commandments ;" with fifty other passages.

The same remark as to non-eligibility of admission applies to the subject proposed by THEOPHILUS ; who being “ A Baptist” (that is an Anabaptist, for we will not allow infant-baptism, or baptism without immersion, to be invalidated by an exclusively-assumed name) thinks that “the evangelical party, if they are contending for principles," ought to come to his conclusion, that the baptism of infants is “ the reign of Antichrist;" and that with it all national church establishments ought to be abolished, as being “ the great Apostacy” and “the practical cause, to a vast extent, of nearly all the irreligion and misery that now so universally prevails.' If Baptists consider such notions candid or scriptural, they must at least be their own preachers and printers. We cannot but re-iterate our laments respecting the powerful aid rendered to their cause by the insidious suppression, by compact, of the doctrine of infant-baptism in the hundreds of millions of publications of the " Religious Tract Society.” They have thus excluded this important doctrine for nearly forty years, not only from the Sunday and daily schools of the Dissenters, in which these tracts form almost the only reward-books; but from the numerous missions of the London Mis.

sionary Society. BIBLE SOCIETY EXTRACTS.-Among this month's Extracts are two which form

an appropriate sequel to the subject of our review ;-the letter from Malacca, on the circulation of the word of God among the Chinese ; and the memorial of the lamented missionary Williams and his colleagues for aid in printing the Scriptures in the language of the natives of the Navigators' Islands, in which 20,000 persons have learned to read; and twice that number are under Christian instruction. What hath God wrought !

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