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choly illustration of the evils of party- expenditure could be much curtailed spirit.
without serious danger. The new Chancellor of the Exche- Sir R. Inglis's motion on Church ex.. quer's first financial exposition was far tension was postponed in consequence from flattering. He stated the income of a technical irregularity. The peti. of the year, ending April 3, 1840, at tions in favour of it have been nu. £47,843,202. The expenditure was merous; and though any addition to £49,300,424., leaving a deficiency of the fiscal burdens of the nation would £1,457,222. The deficien however, not be popular, especially at this mohad been anticipated, to the extent of a ment of pressure, there is a growing million, by a vote of Exchequer Bills, conviction throughout the land, among reducing the balance unprovided for to the serious and well-judging part of £457,222. The charge on the Conso- the people, that to build and endow new lidated Fund was £31,877,000.; the churches would not only be a right, Army, Navy, Ordnance, and Mis. but, in the end, an economical, mea. cellaneous Estimates amounted to sure, from the moral, social, political, £16,880,000. The whole was £48,- and religious benefits which, by the 757,000. With respect to the China Divine blessing, would accrue from it. expedition, the expenditure will be charged on Her Majesty's Government, In the long-pending Braintree parish but will be advanced, in the first in. question, Lord Denman bas decided stance, by the Government of India. that a church-rate levied by the church. The amount estimated, if the expedi- wardens without the authority of the tion should last six months, would be vestry is invalid; and that a church£216,000. Looking at the condition warden is liable for the repairs of the of the country, he did not see sufficient church only so far as the parishioners grounds to suppose that, in the course vote money for that purpose ; and that of next year, the resources of revenue the principle of ecclesiastical law with were likely to produce less than in the regard to his duty is bounded by the past year. The whole amount of our resources afforded to him. For our. estimated income was taken by him at selves, we never felt any doubt on the £47,034,000. Allowing for deductions, question; and though it is grievous and the income on which he could rely for disgraceful that a parish should refuse the ensuing year, was £46,700,000. to do its duty, we could not see our The deficiency would be £2,732,000 way to the conclusion, that the church. He was not prepared to make a provi- warden, in such case, bas any rigbt to sion for that deficiency by any tempo- levy money by his own autbority. The rary expedients, which would be only decision of Sir W. Wynn, wbich Lord staving off the difficulty; and he would Denman has overruled, always appeared not place the hand of the tax-gatherer to us to rest upon a doubtful basis. on any new object of taxation. He Still it was right that the question felt that it was best to propose an in- should be tried; and the result being crease on the duties already existing. now known, some other measure must Stamps should not be included; but he be devised, if requisite, to meet the evil. proposed five per cent. on the Excise and Customs duties, and ten per cent. If in these extraordinary times we upon the assessed taxes; not upon the were not so accustomed to strange value of the commodity taxed, but upon things that they almost cease to excite the amount of duty now collected. He attention, we might deem it incredible calculated the additional duty on spirits that Mr. Hume should bave been al. would yield him £276,000. In house and lowed, in the British House of Com. window-taxes, it was not proposed to mons, to record a notice of a motion call for arrears, but to be more strict for an address to the Queen to cause for the future. The amount of five the National Gallery of Paintings to per cent. on the Customs and Excise be opened after divine service on would yield £1,426,000. There was Sunday, for public resort. We have still a deficiency of £400,000. ; which no fear that this ungodly suggestion he proposed to meet by a vote of cre. will be acceded to; but the very breathdit. It is very depressing that so large ing of such a proposition, if uncheckan expenditure should be necessary, ed by public abhorrence, is a step in and increased taxation be required; and the career of national iniquity; and by still more that the Army and Navy es- little and little the people may become timates should be so high; but upon so accustomed to such propositions, that the whole (excepting the war with at length, in some unguarded hour, one China) we do not see, in the present or another may be listened to, and a circumstances of the country, that the breach be made through which the full
[JUNE tide of Sabbath desecration may freely ritual legislation. This is true ; and flow, as in infidel France. And why we are glad to find the Archbishop of the paltry hypocrisy of the reservation Canterbury and the Bishop of London of i after divine service ?" Do the admitting that we need an ecclesiasti. people who attend divine service wish cal legislative assembly, though with to solace themselves after their toil by the latter we are yet to learn “how lounging at exhibitions ? Think of the such an assembly is to be established." incongruity of repairing from the house Both these prelates, as well as the of God, to the temple of the Graces !- Bishop of Lincoln, deprecated any such we wish we could say of the Virtues ; alterations as the petitioners proposed; but there are pictures in the National and indeed, any alterations at the preGallery, for the exposure of a print of sent moment, when it would be far which in a shop window the culprit more easy to pull down and scatter would be prosecuted by the Vice-Sup- abroad, than to build up a more goodly pression Society. And where do we fabric. The Bishop of London justly read “Remember to keep boly the reprebended the Bishop of Norwich for hours of divine service ?" Why, we his rash and unfounded statement, that repeat, this hypocritical reservation ? the clergy do not generally believe Why not shout in full chorus, I am an what they subscribe to. infidel; thou art an infidel; he is an in- The judges have agreed unanimously fidel; we, ye, they, all of us, are inti. that “ the words .a Protestant clergy,' dels; and then bonestly proceed from in the 31st Geo. III., are large enough the church to the play-house, or rather to include, and do include, other clergy turn the church into one ; and set up than clergy of the Church of England, Baal, or Jove, or Venus, or Mr. Hume's and Protestant bishops, and priests and god or goddess, of pounds, shillings, deacons, who have received episcopal and pence, in the place of the one true ordination.” They add : “to the seGod, and Jesus Christ whom he has cond part of the question, if any sent? Yet perhaps it is well that such other, what other ? 'we answer, clergyabominations are broached; for the men of the Church of Scotland." The enormity of the offence may alarm some Bishop of Exeter has explained that who otherwise might be ensnared before he did not intend to deny that the they were aware.
Church of Scotland is a church ; though,
construe bis words rightly, he While we are writing, another start. means only that it is so by Act of Parlialing announcement bursts upon us; the ment, not truly. Why cannot Protespresentation of a petition to the House tant Episcopalians enjoy their own of Lords by the Archbishop of Dublin, Scriptural privileges without unchurch. “ to take into consideration the means ing sister churches? whereby the letter (why this evasion ; instead of saying fairly, the undeniable The bishop of London bas published a meaning and spirit?) of the Articles and most important letter to the Archbishop Liturgy might be brought into greater of Canterbury, proposing the establishconsistency with the practice and the ac- ment of many new bishoprics in the Bri. knowledged system of the established tish Colonies. His Lordship says: “The Church." We have not yet seen the difference between our past labours in petition, and the proposed reforms were the work of erecting colonial churches, not specifically mentioned in the debate; and those which are now called for, but we gather that it is to the effect of must be this : that whereas we forthe Feathers Tavern petition: and merly began by sending out a few inthat the object is not to ease tender dividual missionaries to occupy detached consciences by a slight alteration of a and independent fields of labour, unfew ill-understood passages in our connected with one another by their offices, which operate as a stumbling relation to a common oversight in the block to many pious men out of the execution of their task, although dechurch, as well as to some in it; but riving their spiritual authority from a that it is wished to relax our formula- common origin; and then, after an ries in reference to some of the distin- interval of many years, placing thein guishing doctrines of the Gospel: so under the guidance and, control of bi. that even a “moderate Arian' might shops, we should now, after having supnot find access to its pale quite pre- plied the wants of those older colonies, cluded. The Archbishop did not ground which are still destitute of the benefit his non-concurrence with the petition of episcopal government, take care to let upon its character, but upon the cir. every new colony enjoy that blessing from cumstance that Convocation, and not the very first. To us who have been Parliament, is the proper court of spi. urging this doctrine for a quarter of
century, and with no better reply posed by Mr. Palmer or Mr. Perceval, tban, Impossible; or you would degrade would alter the whole character of the order ; you would make bishops too the Society (as indeed is avowed ;) cheap; and where are funds to be found would cripple its labours; and would " to support the dignity ?"_it is very place the bishops in circumstances consoling to see the matter thus taken of extreme awkardness and difficulty. up in high places; and we strongly The Society's gross income for the year hope with good expectation of success- has been £92,487; being an increase ful results. His Lordship wishes to of £2,123 beyond last year. It has have a fund placed under the manage- issued Bibles, 119,185 ; Testaments, ment of the Right Reverend bench, to 113,791 ; Prayer-books, 253,338 ; Psal. aid the colonies in making local exer- ters, 12,318; Other bound Books, tions to carry out the plan; and he 231,209 ; Tracts, 2,885,642. Total, justly looks to the friends of the church, 3,615,483. and the Church Societies, to contribute The Church Missionary. Society's liberally for an object so important. anniversary was eminently interesting We fear that his Lordship has not al. and important. The openings for useways been so zealously aided as he ought fulness are multiplying on every side ; to have been, especially by the clergy and the most cheering indications of the of his own diocese (we mean by their Divine blessing on the Society's la. influence with others, not from their bours are attested from various and own resources) in some of his truly mo- distant lands. The intelligence from mentous plans of enlarged Christian India, and especially from Kishnagur, duty and beneficeuce. We trust the is most hopeful and joyful; but New present proposal will not be allowed to Zealand is a still more striking illustra. languish.
tion of the power of the word of God,
by the aid of His Grace and Holy The anniversary meetings of various Spirit, to soften down the most rugged religious societies during May bave been savage nature, and to reduce it to the fraught with encouragement. We will obedience of Christ. Had the present advert to a few.
state of New Zealand, compared with The enlarged labours and glowing what it was thirty years ago, been all spiritual prospects of the Society for that this Society had to shew for its the Propagation of the Gospel are toil and expenditure, we should still among the many bright indications of exclaim, “ What hath God wrought!" the increase of piety and zeal among The attestation of the bishop of Authe members of our church ; but far stralia to the character of the missionmore aid is still required to enable it to aries, and the results of their labours, carry out its beneficent plans.
is most gratifying. There has been The Society for Promoting Christian some discussion about the missionaries Knowledge is in a fourishing con- holding large tracts of land; but it does dition; and if the ill-judging meddlers not appear that, with the exception of who are striving to subvert its con. Mr. Fairburn, whose case the Comstitution by their new-fangled Ox- mittee bas decisively and judiciously ford- Tract crotchets would leave it in dealt with, the holdings have materially peace to discharge its duties, it would exceeded a decent provision for more proceed still more rapidly in its career than two hundred children of missionof efficiency and improvement. It was aries, who will be a most valuable class well for the Society and the church,- of settlers. Should any instances be and we are persuaded it was also in proved to bave occurred of inordinate accordance with the wishes of the Right accumulation of land by any of the Reverend prelates who are so often pro. Society's agents, the committee bave truded in invidious positions without pledged themselves to bave the mattheir concurrence-that the motion of ter rectified; and the introduction of Mr. Palmer (wbo, being only a deacon, money payments, which begin now to might have beld back his peculiar opi- be feasible, will in future obviate the nions for a few years without any loss danger to the spiritual interests of a to the church) was negatived in favour mission, which might arise from large of Mr. Clarke's judicious proposition to investitures in land. The Society's revert to the previous question. We income for the year has increased to trust also the response to Mr. Perceval upwards of £100,000; but the arrears next month will be “ Nolumus leges of last year are not yet covered ; and mutari;"_not because the Society's unless strenuous exertions are made, laws are infallible; but because they the Society, instead of breaking up new are in the main wise, well-judged, and ground, must eventually retire from have stood the test of long experience ; some of its present scenes of prosperous whereas such iunovations as those pro
Our old friend the Naval and Military well supported by funds as its importBible Society has celebrated its sixtieth ance demands. It bas effected much anniversary. Its receipts for the year good, as the efforts now in progress have been £3264; and it has circulated throughout the land for the observance to soldiers, and naval and commercial of the Lord's day abundantly testify; seamen, (for it now takes in the latter) but it has prevented more evil : for 12,114 copies of the Scriptures : but it had it not been for the counteracting has sadly declined since Major Close and influence of this Society, we fully bea few others of its ill-judging friends, lieve that such men as Mr. Hume procured, without the slightest plea of would have succeeded in many of their necessity, that change in its constitu- ungodly projects, and national desecration which took place a few years ago,
tions been introduced, far greater than and which led to the secession of many any, great as they are, wbich at present of its supporters.
afflict 118. The Pastoral Aid Society is, as it Respecting that cosmopolitan Chris. eminently deserves to be, a rising and tian institution, the Bible Society, flourishing institution; but it mourns which may well crown all, as it is the the want, not so much of money, bandmaid of all, we need add nothing though more is needed both by it and to what appears in the report of the the sister Church Aid Society, than is speeches at the Anniversary, except at present afforded-as of clergymen ; our joy at the increase of its finances for, alas, though the fields are white to and of the manifest blessing of God the harvest, the labourers are few. which attends its labours.
The Lord's Day Society is not so National Society, too late to add.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
D. T.; A Wavering Churchman; J. H. B.; W. P.; J. R.; D.; Serutator;
A. B.; S. H. ; DOCTIS; R. J. K.; S. B.; H. C.; G. W.; E. R. S.E.; Clericus Norfolciensis ; A Lover of Justice (on Dancing) ;P.; and J. K. W.; are under
consideration. As Mr. Venn affixed his name to his statement, it would not be just to insert
in reply a long printed paper written we know not by wbom, three years ago, and inserted we know not where; nor can we trouble our readers with any lengthened controversy about a matter wbich is more personal than general ; but we would readily insert a concise, readable reply, with an authentic signature.
If Mr. Isaac Taylor should think it worth while to address us in answer to
our remarks last month upon his translation of sanctifier, sanctificationem, and scandalum, we shall be bappy to hear from him ; but it would be disrespectful to such a man to insert any unauthorised statement. We may add that we did not mean to affirm in the note at page 290, that he would really deny that the “ intellect as well as the heart of corrupted man requires renovation” (the words former and latter were typograpbically transposed) but only that he “ virtually” does so by his translation ; for why not say “rectify the un. derstanding as well as the will? We may add, that we should rather bave said that Pascal included that is, he did not exclude-the renovation of the understanding, than that he meant it. His words literally translated are “ The design of God is rather to perfect the will than the understanding"; which we considered as admitting that both require rectification, thougb even if the understanding were perfected, a depraved will would refuse to listen to it. We merely wished to shew that there was no reason for Mr. Taylor's translating perfectionner by two words “rectify” and “ satisfy' for that Pascal applied the same word both to the will and the intellect, as though he said; “It is the design of God doubtless to correct the judgment; but much more the heart." The pleonastic translation “ virtually” implies that the judgment does not require to be corrected, but to be satisfied. We have purposely delayed our remarks upon Mr. Taylor's able and effective work on “ Ancient Christianity,"
wishing to see the end of a book before we comment on the beginning. J. M. R. was anticipated.
THE VAGUENESS, AND CONSEQUENT INEFFICACY, OF
POPULAR NOTIONS ON RELIGION.
For the Christian Observer.
a selection of efficient means a knowledge of the end is essential." And I added to this, another principle, equally self-evident, and intimately connected with it, namely, that “to a diligent application of those means, when discovered, a desire of attaining the end is also essential.” In reference to the immediate subject of these papers, I observed, that the Apostles were so blinded by the prejudiced wishes of a carnal mind, and the general expectation of a temporal sovereign, that they could neither see, nor, if they had seen, could they desire, that spiritual salvation which the gospel proposes as the great end and hope of the Christian's calling : a salvation which the Saviour's life exhibited; His blood purchased; and His Spirit operates in the believer's soul: whose foundation is humility : and whose consummation love.
I then proceeded to transfer these principles, and Thomas's complaint, from the great chamber at Jerusalem to society in general: and to bring against the great mass of mankind that charge, which, in all the simplicity of an unawakened mind, the unbelieving apostle brings against himself and his brethren, “ Lord, we know not whither thou goest, and how can we know the way?" When descending from the high ground of abstract principle--sanctioned, as it is, by the express declarations of the written word ; and denying, as it does, to the unregenerate mind, the spiritual knowledge of a single principle; the spiritual experience of a single affection; and consequently the spiritual understanding of a single term, with which Christianity is conversant; I endeavoured, from the analogy which this life, viewed in its bearing upon eternity, furnishes to boyhood, viewed in its bearing upon mature age, to enforce, by a familiar illustration, the necessity of grasping, in a clear and definite apprehension, that object which should be the great end of our conversation in the present life ; namely, that “hope in Christ” that “when He shall appear we shall be like Him;" which he who possesses, and he alone, "purifies himself"-in the general tendency of his spirit, and in every voluntary and unconstrained action, “even as Christ is pure.” CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 31.