1840.] Review of the Correspondence of W. Wilberforce. 441 possess ye your souls,' is a direction

to questions generally of piety and which no description of Christian, per: haps, is more bound to bear constantly

philanthropy. The following are in mind, than those who are signal in. citations from Mr. Wilberforce's struments in a great and righteous cause.

letters. We purposely interweave Consider how much more you have been a few references in these and other enabled to do in yours than any one who extracts to papers in the “Chrishas preceded you; and how thankful you should be for having been thought wor

tian Observer," for the conveni. thy to sow the seed, even though it ence of reference to those who should be appointed to your successors possess our earlier volumes. The to reap the harvest."

letter dated May, 1812, shews From the letters of the Rev. T. the difficulties and delicacies which Gisborne (who still survives in a beset the path of Mr. Wilbervigorous old age) we copy his an

force and his friends in their efforts ticipation of the quality of some

to civilize and evangelize India. of the members who would be in- The practice of burning widows troduced into the House of Com- was at first denied, and when that mons by a union with Ireland; subterfuge failed, was actually England, we fear, gained little by apologized for; or at least lightly that union; though it would be passed over as a Hindoo rite which ruinous and monstrous now to

we could not set aside, and had dissolve it.

better not meddle with. The

Pilgrim tax, and the encourage“I have made an Irish acquaintance ment thereby given to idolatry, here, with whom I am considerably pleased : I mean Dr. Browne, the M.P. have been argued upon with equal for Dublin University. He has much coolness. The letter dated Octoinformation, and apparently much can- ber, 1809, alludes to a circumdour; and the character which I under- stance most honourable to Mr. stand Johnson to have heretofore given

and of him to Garrick (“ David, here is Macaulay, the detection a young, Irishman, who is at present seizure of a slave-trader through modest,") still belongs to him. I think his sagacity and persevering assi-80 much better of our Houses of Parlia- duity; but still more his noble ment than I do of the Irish, that I ap conduct in giving up his large prehend they would suffer materially from that infusion of Irish members, share of the prize to the revenue which must result from a national coali- officers; both to stimulate their tion. I am no drinker of port; but I diligence in future, and to shew daily pint of that liquor, even though that the abolitionists were not acnot of the very best quality, would have tuated by interested motives. no great satisfaction in learning that for the future it was to be mixed with a "(Lyme, December 7, 1804.)—I feel third or a fourth of Hiera Picra. It is uneasy in not coming forward to assist possible that these and other disadvan- poor Hall; (Robert Hall was at that tages attending an union, might be more time afflicted with insanity,) and really than counterbalanced by benefits. But mere feelings, and feelings less legitimate that is a point concerning which I at than Christian sympathy, prompt one to present feel nothing like assurance." desire to contribute liberally towards his

aid. But as it is impossible for me to Mr. Wilberforce corresponded judge what I ought to subscribe, because occasionally, during more than that must depend on what others give,

and what in the whole is raised, I must fcrty years, with his beloved and

again trespass on you, and beg you to confidential friend, Mr. Z. Macau. judge and put down my name accordlay. Their intercourse related to ingly. I doubt in my own mind between the slave-trade, the “ Christian

£io. and £20; and if even £20. be less Observer," the religious societies, freely

than you think I ought to give, tell me the extension of Christianity to


I hope to send you a paper for the the dark parts of the world, and Christian Observer to-morrow. (“The CARIST. OBSERV, No. 31.

3 L

Letters of Colonus,” in Dec. 1804 and monly depends on some one powerful Jan. 1805.) You will think it too much drug to do the business, considering how of a novel ; but in all the leading par- he may so combine it with other ingreticulars it is really true.

I wish I dients as to render the patient most could help you still more. Kind remem- willing, or rather most able to bear it; brances."

or, to speak more plainly, as will either . (Near Newport Pagnel, October 19,

render it less nauseous to the palate or

least offensive to the stomach. We con1809.)—My dear Macaulay,-I am in the

ceive that the writer of the foregoing state of a full charged bottle of electrical fluid, which wants some conductor to

article has acted on a similar principle,

&c. I almost fear the piece would otherempty itself by. Mrs. W. indeed takes her part in my joy, but I want you, or

wise be objectionable, on the ground of Stephen, or Babington, or H. Thornton.

levity, or rather on that of the want of You really deserve a statue. But more

sufficient seriousness. Yet I have only serious and sober matter for rejoicing re

read it once over, and that, of necessity, mains, after the first riotous effervescence

by fits and starts. You know it better has, or rather shall have, fumed away,

than I, and will judge better whether or for this is far from being yet the case

not my criticism is well founded. I aswith me; and with as much sobriety as

sure you it often grieves me to reflect I can, I compose myself into a grateful

that I am not a contributor of any thing acknowledgment of the goodness of Pro

better than good wishes to the Christian vidence, in blessing your endeavours

Observer, and I will be something better with success. It may be useful to put by and by if I can; but if, while M. P.

for Yorkshire, I had much more than I down exactly the whole story, from the first faint and distant view you had of

could do, I am sure I have at present

full as much." the thief with scarcely light sufficient to ascertain his substance and features, till

The correspondence between this moment, when he is draggéd into open day in all his deformity. I am the Mr. Wilberforce and

Hannah more glad on account of the effect likely More has been so largely detailto be produced on the mind of Perceval ed in their respective memoirs, and his Secretary

that we will add only two or three “I trust no further difficulties will occur. I should like to see Stephen's scraps. We give the following, face when he first hears of the seizure. relating to the widow of the R Farewell."

Charles Wesley, chiefly as shew. “(Kensington Gore, Friday, December ing how indefatigable Mr. Wil11, 1812).—My dear Macaulay, I re- berforce was in seeking out for

-'s paper, (Review of Edgeworth's Tales of Fashionable Life:

suitable opportunities of exerChristian Observer, December 1812), re- cising his benevolence of purse as gretting sincerely that I cannot add to well as of heart ; as in the case of it, but really I have not the faculty of Robert Hall above quoted. writing with facility anything that is fit to be read, and it is still more difficult to

“(August 10, 1792.) –I don't know interweave any additions into the finished

anybody to whom I can so properly apply work of another than to write a fresh myself as to yourself for information res. piece.- There is however one idea, one

pecting the widow of Mr. Charles Wes. doubt, which I ought to state to you.

ley; and to you I may disclose that the We who know

(the Reviewer)

object of this inquiry is to ascertain whewell , can have no doubt of his having render her a proper subject for pecuni

ther her circumstances, character, &c. treated Miss Edgeworth's entire exclu

ary relief. Unless she is something very sion of all religious principle with the softness, sometimes almost the easy ley ought, if health, not luxury, required

bad indeed, the widow of Charles Wesbadinage of his reproofs, from a per- it, to feed on ortolans; nay, I would suasion that the real operating drug in

not confine her to one dish, but, in spite the composition would be least likely to

of S—'s remonstrances, let her have a turn the stomach, or rather would sit

haunch of venison daily into the bargain. the best on it when so mixed up and

Be kind enough not to make the matter qualified. But should not this be stated frankly in the close, either by the writer

more public than is quite unavoidable." of the article himself, or by you? It might be done in the very way I have Wilberforce bargains with H.

In the following passage, Mr. mentioned. You might state, In all compound medicines the physician com

More to write for him in the

turn you

Christian Observer, while he re- surance that you will give me a credit for vises the manuscript of her as many hours as I expend in your ser“ Hints for the Education of a

vice, and I assign over the amount to

Messrs. the Editors above-mentioned, Princess.”

who may be paid in any coin which bears (Lyme, October 29, 1804.)_) have your image and superscription. It will, this day received another packet of your

I fear not, pass current ; so fall to work manuscript, and have returned you the accordingly." five chapters and the Introduction. Now I must enter into a treaty with you. I

There are several interesting had fully intended, and half promised, though mere currente calamo letthat before my falling to work on a li. ters, from that remarkable, and still terary business preparatory to our abo

remembered and lamented, young lition discussions next winter, I would employ a few mornings in writing for the man, Mr. John Bowdler (the well

Christian Observer :' if, therefore, I known • Crito" of the Christian engage in your service, you positively Observer); and also several from must supply my place to Messrs. Editors of the Christian Observer. Your subjects

that most warm-hearted of friends are so new and so important, that it and writers, the late Master really costs as much time to revise as it Stephen ; but we have quoted as would to write, and I would not pay your much as our limits allow, or as is works so bad a compliment as to accost them in any other than my best state. I

necessary for exhibiting the billmust therefore receive from you an as

of-fare of the volumes.


ADELAIDE ZAIRE, AN EMANCIPATED NEGRESS. To the Editor of the Christian Obscrver. [We have great pleasure in inserting My dear Friend,

Mr. Sims's edifying and affecting ÍN

your last Number you inserted a narrative; which he has published truly instructive and interesting account of that late eminent servant of her Di.

separately in a larger form, to acvine Lord, the late Duchess de Broglie ; company another little tractate who, in a high station of life, adorned from his pen,“ Africa and her chilthe doctrine of God her Saviour, and

dren." Mr. Sims's “ Christian Rezealously laboured to promote objects of piety and Christian benevolence.

cords” have had an extensive cirPermit me to lay beside this beautiful culation, and all his publications are portrait a sketch of a sister in the faith, dictated by Christian love and a under far different circumstances of life-a sable child of Africa, and once

desire to promote the glory of God a bond-slave, but afterwards liberated,

and the best welfare of his fellowand enjoying also that far higher emanci- creatures; particularly of children pation of being Christ's free-woman.

and the poor.] She entered into her heavenly rest a few months only before the Duchess de The humble subject of this brief MeBroglie, so that the date is not perhaps moir, Adelaide Žaire, was a native of too far back to allow of the introduc- Guadaloupe. She was born, probably tion of the narrative into your pages; in the year 1770, in the parish of Ca. especially when I add the additional besterre, where her father and mother link of the Duchess's benevolent and were domestic Negro slaves in an opuChristian exertions for the welfare lent French family. Zaire was bapof Africa and the abolition of slavery. tized, according to the rites of the She would truly bave rejoiced to have Church of Rome, on the same day as the perused these few humble memorials daughter of her young master and misof her unknown sister in Christ, Ade tress, the latter being one year older laide Zaire. I remain, affectionately than Zaire. She was considered as the yours,

THOMAS Sius. female slave of this young lady-who was afterwards Mme du Buc. She ac- mander-in-chief at Gibraltar had been companied her, in the expectation of requested to procure a free passage for civil discord in the island, to Philadel- him and his wife, in one of his Maphia; where Zaire obtained her free- jesty's store sbips returning to England dom; it being the wish of the uncle of from the Mediterranean. During the Mme Buc who had stood sponsor to voyage the unhappy man, in whom sympboth the young mistress and Zaire her toms of incipient insanity had been for slave. Zaire had been a very faithful some time observed, either fell, or threw attendant on her young mistress, who himself overboard and was drowned. gave her a pair of large gold car-rings, After the affecting occurrence of in token of her gratitude for her patient Celestin's death, bis widow, on her attention to her in an alarming illness. arrival in England, resumed her office

Wben tranquillity was restored, Mme as a laundress at Kensington Palace, du Buc returned to Guadaloupe ; but which she did not quit till the year Adelaide went to Halifax in Nova 1816. The following document, signed Scotia, where she married Hippolite by the Duke of Kent, explains the Celestin, a native of Guadaloupe, who cause of her leaving. had purchased his own freedom, or " These are to certify that Zaire Cefound friends to do it for bim, and was lestin, a woman of colour, has acted as then in the Duke of Kent's service at my laundress for many years, between Halifax. His Royal Highness gave 1795 and the present time, and that I Hippolite the following testimonial of have always found her extremely honest approbation :

and attentive, and considered her par. “ These are to certify that the bearer ticularly clever in her line, and that she hereof, Hippolite Celestin Vannier, a has only now quitted my service in conMulatto man, native of the parish of sequence of marrying a man whom I Desaix in the island of Guadaloupe, did not approve of having as an inmate who has been for the last four years, in my house. Given under my band and and still is, one of my servants, has my seal, at Kensington Palace, this 17th full permission to marry Adelaide Zaire, August, 1816.

“EDWARD." a black woman, native of the parish of Cabesterre in the island of Guada. As soon as the marriage took place, loupe, now living as servant maid with she reaped the fruits of her imprudence. Captain Daniel Lyman, of the Royal Her unworthy husband first took her Invalids, in this garrison, provided there money, and afterwards ber : furniture, is no lawful impediment. Given under which he put up to sale at Robins's my hand and seal, at Head Quarters, Rooms, Covent Garden. Thus com. Halifax, this 19th day of April, 1798. paratively destitute, she was left to


regret her indiscretion ; for she heard no “ Lieutenant-General, and command- more of the man who was so entirely

ing His Majesty's Forces in the undeserving of regard. province of Nova Scotia and its De- She was now compelled to depend pendencies."

upon her own industry; and from 1816 Equally honourable was the testimo- to 1834, she maintained herself chiefly nial given to the cbaracter of Adelaide by her exertions as a laundress. It by Captain Lyman of the Royal Inva- appears, however, that she found some lids. He says: “ She is without excep- difficulty in doing so; for his Royal tion one of the best servants I ever Highness the Duke of Kent having

for honesty, sobriety, and fide. died in 1821, leaving a widow, and the lity, she is not to be surpassed; and she illustrious infant who has since ascended possesses every ability and good quality the throne of this realm,sbe made applito recommend her in ber station of cation to the Duchess of Kent in 1821, life.”

1823, 1826, and 1828. The intervals Celestin and his wife remained in the between these several years seem to service of His Royal Highness the Duke imply that she was not importunate in of Kent, the former as cook, the latter soliciting favours, but that she found as laundress. They accompanied him herself occasionally in great need of to England, and afterwards to Gibraltar. assistance, partly in consequence of seWhen the Duke quitted Gibraltar, vere illness. From the year 1828, ber Celestin, being dangerously ill, was Royal Highness was pleased to order obliged to remain behind with his wife ; that £l should be paid to her every but he was not happy at that place after quarter in aid of her rent. the Duke's departure ; and, in conse- In the midst of her afflictions about quence, Mr. Parker, his Royal High- the year 1821, a desire came into her ness's Under-Secretary, wrote from mind to attend at Broadway church, Kensington Palace in 1809 to him at Westminster, near which she lived, Gibraltar, informing him that the com- The discourse she heard from the cler


for us.

gyman, the Rev. Mr. Mutter, was so read to her out of it the 5tb chapter of suitable to the state of ber mind, and St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, in was so deeply impressed upon her heart, English. When he next called he read, that she was induced to attend Divine at her own request, our Saviour's subworship at that church constantly from lime intercessory prayer for his disci.. that time, advancing in Christian know- ples. She said that she had taken great ledge and piety. She often referred delight in reading the New Testament, with gratitude to the period wben she and that after returning from church she thus found comfort in God's holy word, used to read till her candle was burnt and in His house of prayer, in her de- out. She afterwards stated various parsolate condition. She became a spiritual ticulars respecting her eventful life. worshipper, an attentive hearer, a de- On another visit, Mr. Sims says she vout reader, and in all respects an appeared refreshed and animated by the obedient Christian. Though in a very passage read, and the remarks made. humble sphere of life, there were many She said that when suffering much pain virtues conspicuous, from that time for in the morning, she had also possessed ward, in this poor black woman, which much inward joy and consolation. She gained her the friendship of a few per- seemed in a very resigned and humble sons, and the confidence and regard of state of mind-wishing to live, or die, her neighbours, for several successive according as the will of God might years. Mr. Sims's own observation be; and content, if necessity should at during the last three years and a length require to be an inmate of the half of her life fully confirmed the workhouse. statements of others.

At another visit, when she was graWith very compassionate feelings dually recovering, the conversation towards her fellow-creatures, she mourn- appears to have been in French, and ed on account of the abounding im- she made some observations on our Sapiety around her, and said that the viour's love—“sa charité”-in dying Lord's Day was better observed even

The comments and conversa. by her former master's slaves at Gua- tions, from time to time, Mr. Sims can. daloupe than by many of the inhabit- not recollect. ants of Westminster. Two instances Reflecting on the past services, the of her regard for the Sabbath may be solid worth, and the urgent wants of mentioned. When maintaining berself Adelaide, her attentive and benevolent as a laundress, she was careful, from pastor thought there might be a kind the time that she became a pious Chris- consideration of her circumstances in a tian, to get all clothes ready, and to take very high quarter, if a proper representhem home by Saturday, and she sent tation were made. Through the kindher Sunday's dinner to be baked on the ness of the Dean of Chester, he was Saturday; and on the Sunday, after directed to the proper channel; and church service, she put it on the hearth baving explained the subject fully to to be warmed.

Sir John Conroy, he had the pleasure of She was a constant communicant at being informed that the Duchess of the Lord's table: and her great atten- Kent had read the statement with the tion to the sermons she heard was sincerest interest ;' and was glad that proved by the remarks sbe often made her attention had been drawn to the privately, and with much warmth of case; and that “ Her Royal Highness feeling, to different friends. During was all anxiety to smooth the path of thirteen years, she had not been once the poor woman's last days.” It seemed absent from church on the Lord's to be ascertained that the wants of AdeDay.

laide would be adequately supplied by a On the 26th of October 1834, when sum somewhere between £5. 5s. and Mr. Sims was officiating at Broadway £6. per quarter. The reply to the church, a note was brought to bim re- communication was to tbis effect:questing the prayers of the congregation “ That it was a source of the greatest for a sick person. When the morning satisfaction to Her Royal Highness to service was over, he called to see her, be able to take care of Adelaide, as ber and found she was a person of colour. conduct bad shewn her to be so desery. She spoke devoutly of the Redeemer, ing, and her service in His late Royal as the Shepherd of his flock, and re- Highness the Duke of Kent's family ferred to the passage, “ Other sheep I naturally gave her a strong claim on bave, wbich are not of this fold: them the Duchess's feelings; and that the also I must bring, and they shall hear Duchess readily adopted the suggestion my voice ; and there shall be one fold, submitted in the letter; and bad fixed and one shepherd.” Finding that she upon the larger sum named, £6. per bad a French New Testament which quarter.” It was added, in reference she had been accustomed to peruse, he to the illustrious Princess who has since

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