every thing that could alleviate bis suf. out the night of Saturday his breathing ferings. He was sensible, which he grew shorter and shorter, till about two proved by his rejection or acceptance on the morning of Sunday, the 19th of of any thing that was offered, and as long February, when he gently breathed his as he was able he never omitted to add last." his thanks for every attention. Through


The Queen's speech, at the closing of China, and the indignities offered to an the Session of Parliament, was as bare agent of my Crown, have compelled me of novel intelligence as such documents to send to the coast of China a naval usually are; but we will notice the and military force for the purpose of chief topics referred to in it. We for- demanding reparation and redress.” get what minister it was, who, in reply All these statements, except the last, to the remark that his cabinet had put breathe of uninterrupted peace; and nothing into the King's speech, said yet we hear of urgent demands for “ We did our best endeavour to that soldiers, and sailors, and ships of war ; effect ;” but perhaps under all the cir- and her Majesty is constrained to lacumstances, especially where a young ment the necessity of additional burQueen is the speaker, a common-place dens being imposed upon her people. string of sentences, provoking no party Surely there is something discrepant feeling, and leaving to the executive in these representations. With regard government the task of communicating to Spain, and Portugal also, let us hope information and assigning reasons, is that England, having happily escaped more appropriate than an elaborately becoming a direct belligerent, will in reasoned ex-parte document, like the future leave them to settle their own messages of the United States Presi.

intestine strifes, with only such interdents. The sovereign thus escapes the ference from us as good neighbourhood direct affiliation of many mistakes, and and Christian duty may prompt; but is less exposed to the appearance of unconnected with any guarantee for going with a party.

military or naval aid. We have no The following are the heads of the right morally, and it is not our wis. document. Her Majesty continues to dom nationally, to make ourselves parreceive from foreign powers assurances ties in all the squabbles of Europe. of their friendly disposition, and of But we wish we could say that we see their anxious desire for the maintenance no dark clouds arising out of the of peace. The civil war having ceased Levant, which may extend in Spain, her Majesty is negociating bome, notwithstanding her Majesty's with a view to the withdrawment of intended “ pacification,” and her hope the naval force, which, in pursuance of of; thereby affording " additional sethe quadruple engagements of 1834, curity for the peace of Europe.” How this country has so long stationed on security for peace should arise from a the Northern coast of that kingdom. complicated arrangement compounded The differences with Naples have been of the most inflammatory elements of put into a train of adjustment by the strife, bas puzzled all men but her friendly mediation of the King of the Majesty's ministers to comprehend. French. Portugal has arranged to pay Russia had long wished to be mistress “ certain just claims" of British sub. of Turkey, the empire of which its jects, and a sum due to England under vassal the Pasha of Egypt had sent the convention of 1827. Her Ma- asunder by his successful rebellion, jesty is engaged with Austria, Prussia, first making Egypt de fucto independent, Russia, and Turkey “in measures in- and then conquering Syria. tended to effect the permanent pacifi. licy of France favours the Pasha; cation of the Levant, to maintain the England unites with Russia, Austria, integrity and independence of the Otto- and Prussia, to curb him; but the inman empire, and thereby to afford addi. terests of all the parties differ ;-thus tional security for the peace of Europe." England wishes to see Turkey strong, These are the European topics. The as a check against Russian ambition in only other foreign notice is the follow- the East ; but Russia only wishes to ing respecting China. “ The violent see it strong as against Egypt for its injuries inflicted upon some of my sub- own selfish ends; and France finds jects by the officers of the Emperor of its pride wounded and its schemes


The po

thwarted by an arrangement to which a contraband article. No European it refuses to be a party. England, power would have tolerated such protherefore, and her three allies, of ceedings; and why should China ? 'We which the most powerful, Russia, is can only pray that it may please God altogether opposed to her general po- to bring good out of evil; and to render licy, have to achieve the task of ap- the pending hostile proceedings a peasing angry France, and subduing the means of opening that sealed country to indignant and resolute Pasha of Egypt, useful knowledge and Christian inter. and wheedling or frightening him, if course; though, alas, the abused name they can, into the relinquishment of of Christian has been identified with Syria; while England has to see that cupidity and fraud, and rendered sus. in the general confusion Russia does pected and hateful. not find means to establish her iniu- Her Majesty next adverts to domesence in Turkey. We trust that in the tic proceedings. Of the Irish muni. mercy of the Providence of God, the cipal corporation act she merely says, misunderstanding between France and that she has gladly given ber consent England will be amicably adjusted, to it. As the Act stands it is not all and that our jealous neighbour will good or all evil. It requires a bona feel it her policy (we would not rely fide £10. rating, estimated by the rating too much upon her abstract good-will) for the poor ; thus preventing the pernot to encourage the Pasha to stir up a jured ratings which have disgraced general war, which would be a severe the parliamentary registrations ; Mr. affliction to Europe, Africa, and Asia, O'Connell in consequence calls it “ An and the ultimate issues of which no insulting and degrading measure." But man can predict; nor, upon the whole, it weakens the influence of Protestando we for one moment doubt that some tism, and, where Popery is paramount, mode of “ pacification” will be dis- will throw the aggregate of municipal covered and agreed upon ; for it were strength into its bands. Still we would insane either for England or France to hope that if Protestants, instead of rush to warfare. Their respective shrinking from the contest in despair, journalists, and men of talk, may in- will unite their efforts zealously and dulge in inflammatory declamations; perseveringly, but with wisdom and but the statesmen, and men of business conciliation, for the election of suitable on either side, and all Christians and town councillors, they may do much lovers of mankind, must deprecate such towards mitigating the evils justly an issue. Besides the higher question dreaded from the measure. of humanity and the horrors of blood. Her Majesty next adverting to the shed, war would be to England, as a Cathedral Bill, says, “I trust tbat the commercial nation, and not particularly law which you have framed for further prepared at this moment for warlike carrying into effect the Reports of the operations, a fearful calamity; and Ecclesiastical Commissioners will have still more so to France in her unsettled the beneficial effect of increasing the condition, and with several competitors efficiency of the Established Church, and for her throne; for though the wild of better providing for the religious in. and ill-contrived attempts of Prince struction of my people.” The measure Louis Napoleon to effect a new revolu- being now the law of the land, it were tion in favour of the Bonaparte family worse than useless to re-open the painhave strengthened rather than wea- ful controversy which attended its prokened the reigning dynasty, yet Bour- gress; we will, however, extract the bonism, Napoleonism, and republican. substance of the speeches of the Archism, are not extinct, and dreadful would bishop of Canterbury and the Bishop be the struggle for mastery if the ele- of Winchester upon the question of the ments of confusion were

once let second reading in the House of Lords, loose. We hope, therefore, and believe, as embodying some of the principal ar. that there are sufficient barriers on all guments for and against it. sides to prevent a petulant outbreak The Bishop of Winchester said, that of war ; but we think her Majesty was if the Right Rev. Prelates who con. not well-advised in speaking of the curred with him in opposing this Bill quadruple treaty as aiding this object. thought that its effects would be (as

The allusion to China is still more Lord Melbourne said) to increase the unsatisfactory. England, not China, was efficiency of the Church, and to rivet the aggressor; our Indian authorities

its claims upon the affections of the caused opium to be cultivated for the people, neither they, nor the deans and Chinese market; and British merchants chapters, nor the great body of the smuggled it into the country; all the clergy, would be found among the disparties concerned knowing it to be sentients to its provisions. But it was

precisely in order increase the affec- the crisis when we were most in need tions of the people to the Church, that of learned clergymen—when, in consehe now asked their lordships not to quence of the increase of population consent to the second reading of this and the diffusion of knowledge, it was Bill. Many of his Right Rev. Friends, necessary for those who were the indeed he believed the majority, ob- teachers of the people to take a high jected to the measures recommended stand, and to take the lead in the march by this Bill. It wanted also the autho- of intellect--was it at such a moment rity of the Universities, both of which as this that their lordships would imhad petitioned against it; it wanted pair, weaken, and well-nigh destroy likewise the authority of the great the nurseries of learning? He well body of the clergy. Not fewer than knew that this Bill did not annihilate twenty-two of the Cathedrals bad cathedral establishments, but he con. addressed that and the other house of tended that it would go far to impair Parliament in decided opposition to the their usefulness. The connexion be. Bill. There were the old and the new tween cathedral institutions and the foundations—the old, consisting of pre- maintenance of sound theology was bendaries residential ; and the new, of very close, and he believed, if their prebendaries residential and non-resi. lordships passed this Bill, there would dential. The residential prebends be occasions in succeeding generations varied in number; in some cathedrals to lament the loss of those institutions there were as many as twelve preben. to which we owed our Hookers, Pordaries, while in the others there were teuses, and other lights of the Church. only four, and the total number in the It would be impossible, from the makingdom was 204, all of whom bad terials contained in this Bill, to provide regular daily attendance and duties to a fund sufficient to supply the deficiency perform at the cathedrals. The number which was admitted to exist; and even of non-residential prebendaries was 340, if it were possible, out of such inaterials, and their only duty was to preach a to supply the destitution, then he should sermon occasionally in the course of maintain that the parochial clergy would the year. The property consisted of not willingly exchange their present fair property proper, as estates, houses, expectation of advancement in the &c., and of tithe impropriations which Church for the small additional pittance had sometimes been given in exchange which this Bill would give. The quesfor real property.

This Bill proposed tion hinged on the consideration, how to suppress the prebends not requiring far the State had a right to interfere residents, and to reduce those requiring with the property of the Church in the residents to four in each cathedral, add. way of re-distribution. It was a quesing one each to London and Lincoln, in tion for authorities, and the preponorder to make up the four. The Bill derance of authority was against the also dissolved all corporations of minor proposed interference. He considered canons ; but to this he did not so much the Bill wanting in principle in its subobject, as the canons had given their version of ancient institutions which consent. The effect of the provisions had not ceased to be of service. Again, of the Bill would be, to abolish seventy- he complained of the acknowledgment two prebendaries residential, and 317 in the Bill of the justice of resuming free non-residential, reducing that class of gifts which bad been made for ever, and preferments from 600 in number to 130, that resumption not being by the repregiving only one in five years to each sentatives of the donors. What right diocese, whereas at present there were had the Bill to deal with property given on the average one and a half in each for ever, not by the State, but by indiviyear to each diocese. The Bill would duals ? If their lordships agreed to pass therefore take away little less than half this Bill, they must sanction the principle the emoluments now attached to cathe- that property given for cathedral serdral establishments,such was thesweep- vice may be applied to parochial service. ing character of this Bill; and nothing There could be no greater mistake than but the most absolute necessity could to suppose that this was a question justify their lordships in passing such a between the deans and chapters on the

A well-digested system of one hand, and the Ecclesiastical Com. remuneration would be far preferable missioners on the other. It was a to the proposed reduction. The chief question in which the interests of the ground advanced in support of this whole Church and State were vitally measure was that of expediency; but and materially concerned, and he trusted he was prepared to meet it upon that that their lordships would so regard it point—he denied the expediency of this in the decision which they were about mode of supplying the acknowledged to give. destitution of the Church. Was it at The Archbishop of Canterbury agreed with the Right Rev. prelate who had lic worship, and of pastoral care. It just sat down that this Bill involved might, perhaps, be necessary to state principles of great importance both to to their lordships, in some degree, the nation and to the church, and in the great destitution which now prerising after the very eloquent speech vailed, and it would then be for them wbich had been made, and which ap- to say whether there was no necessity pared to have produced a considerable for a remedy. In London there were impression upon their lordships, he felt four parishes with an aggregate popu. some difficulty in undertaking to justify lation of 166,000 souls, having church. the Bill. At the same time, he must room only for 8208, and only eleven say that it had not in the slightest de. clergymen for that number. In twenty: gree shaken his opinion. His opinion one parishes there were 799,000 and was, that if their lordships should un. odd persons, and only church-room for fortunately determine to throw out the 6000 odd. In the whole of London bill, the results will be more or less and its suburbs, on both sides of the disastrous to the church, not only by Thames, a population of 1,157,000 perthe sacrifice of a great opportunity of sons had church-room only in the prodoing good, but by disappointing the portion of one to eleven, and only expectations which were raised through- seventy-five ministers for such a numout the nation, with respect to the ma- ber of people. Nearly the same desti. nagement of this part of the church tution prevailed in the diocese of Ches. property. This was to be but the ter, where, for 816,000 persons in completion of the system originated thirty-eight parishes, there was not by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, in church-room for 100,000; and in York, obedience to the commission directed with 402,000 persons, there was church. to them by the Crown. The attention room for only 29000. Throughout the of the commissioners had been din country altogether there was a variation rected by tbe terms of the commission, in the want of church-room from one in in the first place, to an equalization of eight to one in thirty. This was a the revenues of the bishops, by making miserable state for the country to be in, such an arrangement of Episcopal pro- and it was proper that some measure perty, as to diminish the frequency of should be devised for its relief. Now, translations, and entirely to prevent what were the means which the comthe necessity of commendams. Their missioners proposed to provide? They lordships had passed a bill transferring were not by the destruction of the the property of one bishopric to ano- cathedrals, but by the suppression of ther, and therefore he might say that the number of the canonries, amount. this principle had received their sanc- ing, among the canons residentiary, to tion. Another point to which the atten- seventy-two; at the same time taking 'tion of the Ecclesiastical Commission- care to retain a sufficient number of ers had been directed was, to cur- canonries for the due performance of the tail pluralities; and, in compliance with Church service, and making provision that direction, the undue accumulation for as good sustentation as bad hereto. of preferments in the hands of one in fore existed—if not better-of those dividual, which had been the disgrace magnificent fabrics. He thought that of the church, had been removed, and with a dean, four canions, and a certain parishes had, in many instances, reco- number of minor canons, making altovered the right of baving clergymen getber eight or nine clergymen to perresident on their benefices. And now form the service daily throughout the this was the third point to which the year, with the obligation of one sermon attention of the commissioners had or two sermons every Sunday, tbere been directed, namely, to consider the was no danger of the service not being state of the several cathedral and col. properly carried on. With respect to legiate churches in England and Wales, the non-residentiary canonries to be with a view to the adoption of mea. abolished, they must always be cousisures conducive to the improvement dered as sinecures, for what was the of the condition of the Established duty of preaching one sermon in a Church, and to secure the best means cathedral once a year? It would be of providing for the cure of souls, absurd to talk of them otherwise than having especial reference to the resi- as sinecures. He had placed before dence of the clergy on their respective their lordships the destitution that prebenefices. The object of this bill, vailed throughout the country. To and that which had engaged the atten- remedy this destitution it was required tion of the commissioners, was the of the cathedrals and chapters to make great destitution which prevailed in so


sacrifices. In gross numbers many parts of the country of the be- there were 3,000,000 of their fellow'. pefits of religious instruction, of pub. Christians in the country who were in



a great degree destitute of all kind of would ask, what would be the effect of pastoral superintendence, religious in- rejecting the bill? The circumstance of struction, or religious worship ; and it the spiritual destitution of the people had was the object of the bill to remedy been alluded to by all as an intolerable this great evil, by giving power to a

evil. What would be the consequence, commission to suppress certain endow. even to the Church itself, if so many ments, improperly called sinecures, and persons were allowed to remain in to suppress certain non-residentiary alienation from the Church who had no canonries, which to all intents and benefit from her ministrations, because purposes were sinecures. Was the there was no property available towards interest of 400 clergymen to be set the payment of ministers ? He thought against the destitution of millions ? much good would be effected by the He would argue the case of the chapters passing of the bill, and that the evil and others affected by the bill on sup. would be extensive if it were not passed, positions the most favourable towards the appointment of a commission to those institutions. He wonld assume look into the matter, had done good; that the parties had done the duties so by their means sinecures would be aboas to leave no ground for complaint, lished, and upwards of 30,0001. from and that all the appointments had been five bishoprics, through livings held in filled up with men of eminent piety and commendam, were all set loose for the learning, and that learning and that advantage of other clergymen, who piety employed in the service of the might now look up to those preferments. Church. (À noble lord here made He had been informed, by one well acan allusion to Bishop Hooker.) quainted with the matter, that much Hooker's exertions

never good had already been effected in the prompted by so low a motive as public mind; in particular, the mercanthe obtaining canonry: Wbere tile body of London, who recently bewas the probability of country clergy. lieved that the Church would do nomen ever obtaining such places of pre- thing, had their feeling quite changed, ferment? The greater number never and they were quite willing to assist the thought of such an event. If he looked exertions of those members of the at those who were most learned as Church who were actively engaged in theologians, he found there were very remedyiug the public spiritual destitufew in the possession of canonries. tion. The destitution was great, and one

The Queen speaks, in conclusion, with of the arguments against the proposed sanguine hope of Canada and the West measure for relieving that destitution, Indies. The conduct of the emanciwas the alleged smallness of the pated negroes has been excellent. funds which would be realized. The funds might be small at the The recent decease of Dr. Jenkinson, beginning, but they would in the end Bishop of St. David's, has been followed be found to be considerable. Every- by that of another right reverend prething must have a beginning, and it late, Dr. Otter, Bishop of Chichester. ought to be borne in mind that there Dr. Otter was a man of considerable was a great deal in example. If the talent, of a devout spirit, and of reChurch found even small funds in the markably amiable—perhaps too yielding beginning, that might be the means of character. As an author he was drawing supplies from other sources. known chiefly by his three publications The example of the Church would draw in defence of the Bible Society; in one further assistance; he believed it would of which he says: “ The object of the also prove of advantage by inducing the Society's triumph is beyond all comState to lend a helping hand. It had parison, and above all praise; it is the been urged by those who opposed the word of God, and the power of God bill, that it was the duty of the State the pearl of great price,' which the to provide for the spiritual wants of the merchant in Scripture is said to have people. He was of the same opinion; purchased at the expense of all he posbut, at the same time, he said to the sessed—the fountain of all truie wisdom Church, “Begin yourselves; first do -the book of eternal life. To have consomething yourselves, and then apply tributed, in the smallest degree, wheto otber sources." That was the lan. ther in support of the principle, or in guage of the illustrious Duke (of Well. aid of the practice of this Society, will ington); the same expressions had fallen ever be to me a source of pleasing refrom Earl Grey; the same language had flection, full of that joy which no man also been held by Sir R. Peel. Those taketh from me wbile living, and pregwho opposed the bill said the bill af. nant with a hope, which will not, I trust, forded a ruinous precedent. But he desert me when I die,

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