Scene at Heilsberg, from the same :- The cannon thundered, and the mus. quetry rolled, illuminating the atmosphere with continued Name, till gradually the combat relaxed, and the Russian lines re-ascended to their position. A little before ten at night, a deserter came over to the Russians, and informed the general that another assault was preparing from the wood. Suitable arrangements had scarcely been made, when the dark bodies of the columns were seen sweeping forward. Again the batteries were opened, and the fury of the battle again raged; but the assailants, unable to force the progress, fled back wrecked and almost annihilated. The action became then more feeble, and about eleven o'clock, the enemy, along their line of tirailleurs, shouted, “arrêtez le combat," (cease the action) when this scene closed, and the massacre terminated; but the cessation of the tumultuous uproar of war was followed by a more melancholy din—the groans of the wounded, who, anticipating the morrow's renewal of the fight, or tortured by pain, in vain implored removal, relief, and even death.

Heavy rain fell in the early part of the night, which rendered the ground er. ceedingly slippery, and the troops experienced much distress. When light broke, the French were arrayed in order of battle; but a spectacle, indescribably disgust. ing, engaged attention more than the hostile dispositions.

The ground between the wood and the Russian batteries, about a quarter of a mile, was a sheet of naked human bodies, which friends and foes had during the night mutually stripped, not leaving the worst rag upon them, although numbers of these bodies still retained consciousness of their situation. It was a sight that the eye loathed, but from which it could not remove.

Scene at Cadiz, after the sea-fight off Trafalgar, from Semple's Travels :As the wind was contrary to our crossing over, the boat was obliged to make several tacks. In one of these we approached so near the shore, that we plainly discerned two dead bodies which the sea had thrown up. Presently one of a number of men on horseback, who for this sole purpose patroled the beach, came up, and having observed the bodies, made a signal to others on foot among the bushes. Several of them came down, and immediately began to dig a bole in the sand, into which they dragged the dead.

All this possessed something of the terrible. But in Cadiz the consequences, though equally apparent, were of a very different nature. Ten days after the battle, they were still employed in bringing asbore the wounded ; and spectacles were hourly displayed at the wharfs and through the streets sufficient to shock every heart not yei hardened to scenes of blood and of human sufferings. When by the carelessness of the boatmen, and the surging of the sea, the boats struck against the stone-piers, a horrid cry which pierced the soul arose from the mangled wretches on board. Many of the Spanish gentry assisted in bringing them ashore, with symptoms of much compassion ; yet as they were finely dressed, it bad something of the appearance of ostentation, if there could be ostentation at such a moment. It need not be doubted that an Englishman lent a willing hand to bear them up the steps to their litters; yet the slightest false step made them sbriek out, and I even yet shudder at the remembrance of the sound.

On the tops of the pier the scene was affecting. The wounded were carrying away to the hospitals in every shape of human misery, whilst crowds of Spaniards either assisted, or looked on with signs of borror. Meanwhile their companions who escaped unhurt walked up and down with folded arms and downcast eyes, whilst women sat on heaps of arms, broken furniture, and baggage, with their heads bent between their knees. I had no inclination to follow the litters of the wounded ; yet I learned that every hospital in Cadiz was already full, and the convents and churches were forced to be appropriated to the reception of the remainder.

On leaving the harbour, I passed through the town to the point, and still beheld the terrible effects of the battle. As far as the eye could reach, the sandy side of the isthmus, bordering on the Atlantic, was covered with masts and yards, the wrecks of ships, and here and there the bodies of the dead. Among others, I noticed a top-mast marked with the name of the Swiftsure, and the broad arrow of England, which only increased my anxiety to know how far the English had suffered; the Spaniards still continuing to affirm tbat they had lost their chief admiral and balf their fleet.

While surrounded by these wrecks I mounted the cross-trees of a mast which had been thrown ashore, and casting my eyes over the ocean, bebeld, at a great distance, several masts and portions of the wreck still floating about. As the sea was almost calm, with a slight swell, the effect produced by these objects had in it something of a sublime melancholy, and touched the soul with a remembrance of the sad vicissitudes of human affairs. Though portions of floating wreck were visible from the ramparts; yet not a boat dared to venture out to examine tor endeavour to tow them in; such was the apprehensions which still filled he minds of the enemy.

Description of a Military Life, from Rocca’s Memoirs of the War in Spain :When we came to plenty, wë made baste to enjoy it; we lived as fast as we could, because we knew that nothing could last long. When tbe cannon roared at a distance, announcing an approaching attack on any part of an enemy's line ; when the different corps were hurrying into action, brothers and friends serving in several divisions recognised each other, and stopped to embrace, and had a hasty farewell; their arms clashed, their plumes crossed each other, and they returned instantly to their ranks.

The habit of danger made us look upon death as one of the most ordinary circumstances of life; we pitied our comrades when wounded, but when once they had ceased to live, the indifference which was shewn them amounted almost to irony.

When, as the soldiers passed by, they recognised one of their companions stretched among the dead, they just said, “He is in want of nothing, he will not have his horse to abuse again, he has got drunk for the last time," or something similar, which only worked, in the speaker, a stoical contempt of existence; such were the only funeral orations pronounced in honour of those who fell in our battles.

From the Journal of a March from Lisbon to Coimbra in 1811 :—Before sunrise we departed for Leira. On reaching it, we went to the commissary. He gave us out of a tub some salt beef, so extremely putrid that we could not touch it.

The bread too was so offensive, that I could not even bear it in the room. Having rested, I went into the town. What a sight! Almost every house a beap of ruins; the convents destroyed; the streets green with grass ; in some streets not an inhabitant; such a mournful silence in tbese deserted places : and where there were any inhabitants, such pale, wretched figures !

A friar led me round an immense convent. It was a mass of ashes and ruin. Every picture, every statue, every ornament, every monument, and even every tomb, broken and destroyed. Human bones, that had lain at rest for ages, had been disturbed, and were scattered over the ground. The walls were black with fire; the staircases pulled down; the windows torn out of their frames; the very fountains ruined! Oh, such a scene of desolation! The actors in this scene bad, in some instances, scrawled their names with firebrands on the walls of the churches and convents. The most finished specimen of Gothic architecture I ever saw, is a chapel situated among the rocks on which the castle stands. This has suffered worse than any other building. Every tomb is broken open in search of treasure. The beautiful foliage of the stone capitals is knocked to pieces out of pure mischief, the altars levelled, the fine carved doors completely demolished. Really, my tears were ready to flow, when I stood on the high brow of the castle, and looked down upon the ruins of one of the fairest cities of this kingdom at my feet. Oh war, war, what a scourge to the nations art thou ! and oh happy, tbrice happy, blessed peaceful England, whom alone, of all the nations of Europe, the Lord has in mercy preserved from its ravages.


To the Editor of the Christian Observer. Tue writers of the Oxford Tracts inculcate only what they practise when they insist upon the duty of “reserve” in communicating religious knowledge. There is so much mysticism and studied ambiguity; so much artful laying trains of premises without ven. turing to express conclusions ; there are so many significant hints without direct assertion; so many quotations from the Fathers to insinuate what the writers do not distinctly avow; that, as Dr. (afterwards Bishop) Hall said, in his epistle to their founder Laud, who had been accused of being inclined to popery, “I would I knew where to find you ; then I could tell how to take direct aims, whereas now I must pore and conjecture. To-day you are in the tents of the Romanists, to-morrow in ours; the next day between both, against both .... This of yours is the worst of all tempers .... Resolve one way, know at last what you do hold and what you should. Cast off either your wings or your teeth, and loathing this bat-like nature, be either a bird or a beast.”

In attributing to our modern Laudeans this studied reserve, where they consider the times not ripe for unveiled disclosures, I only claim for them what they themselves vindicate ; and what they impute to the revisors of our own Prayer-book : for they agree with the late Mr. Knox that those venerated men, wishing to reform the liturgy backwards, but not daring to do so openly, silently slipped words in, or cut others out, so as to enable the initiated in future times to perceive their object and to avail themselves of their dark sayings, in order to bring out in full effulgence what the prejudices of Protestants would not bear when the fear of popery was strong upon them. They durst not, for example, restore the word “altar" in the communion service, which had been significantly extruded at the time of the Reformation; but forsooth, by a few unperceived stratagems, they gained their object; so that what Laud bitterly lamented the loss of in the office-book of his day, is in effect restored to us, and needs only the skill of an esoteric to bring it out where an exoteric would never dream of it! These writers have illustrated their own precept in the case of Froude's Remains and other publications, which exhibit more clearly what was artfully veiled in some of the earlier Tracts for the Times; the members of our Protestant Church not having then been sufficiently accustomed to the revived doctrines to tolerate them at once in their naked deformity. Accordingly those who judged of them by their spirit rather than according to the letter; in their obvious tendencies rather than their guarded and reserved glosses, were accused of exaggeration and falsehood. But the charge was unjust ; for "seeds of things” are to be seen in many places where the climate was too uncertain to risk the unsheltered ripening of the fruit.

Under these circumstances, the intelligent Christian student, in reading the works in question, frequently and reasonably suspects that there often lurks beneath the surface more than meets the eye. But one alleged discovery is so extraordinary that really Dr. Pusey, or his friends, ought not to be silent upon it; but should explicitly either avow or repudiate the inference. The allegation is, that these divines have covertly revived the strange“ whimsey," as it has been justly called, of Dr. Dodwell, the Nonjuror, respecting the loss of the immortality of the soul of man by the Fall, and its recovery by Christ, imparted through the agency of the church. I am not aware that in England this alleged bearing of Dr. Pusey's ambiguous intimations has been pointed out; but an able divine in the United States, who has put forth a series of learned and powerful papers upon the Oxford Tracts in the Episcopal Recorder, under the signature of “Warburton," has urged the charge so strongly, and with such adduction of proof, that the Oxford divines ought to throw off their characteristic “reserve," and ingenuously admit or deny it. He says that a reader might peruse and re.peruse Dr. Pusey's new treatise upon baptism, without discovering the drift of the author, unless he has previously accustomed himself to close application of mind, and to metaphysical speculations; but that when once pointed out to

his observation, it will be clearly perceived. There is no man, he remarks, who wishes to comprehend what he reads, that does not find his mind perpetually upon the stretch to understand this work ; and so obscure is its language and so mystical are the conceptions, that the ideas which float through the mind during its perusal, like lights and shadows falling upon a scene in quick succession, are so blended with each other, that no object can be distinctly discerned amidst the confusion of images produced by the mixture. This, he adds, is a most excellent method of writing, when our secret purpose is to broach or recommend doctrines and principles, which we are assured are extremely offensive to others, and which, if boldly displayed to vision, would awaken odium and disgust. Upon this plan, they may be gradually insinuated into the mind while its apprehensions are asleep. He maintains that the doctrine in question is that which all the author's previous dissertations aimed at, for which they furnished materials, and which, if it can be established, will produce as effectual and important a change in the whole system of gospel truth, as Harvey's discovery did in Medical science and Newton's in Natural Philosophy. He requests his reader to begin at the hundredth page of the essay, (query what edition) and remark whether he can discover any flaw in his argument.

Early in the last century, Mr. Henry Dodwell published a treatise, entitled an “ Epistolary Discourse,” in which he attempted to prove from the Scriptures and the first Fathers, that the soul is a principle naturally mortal; and that the power of giving the divine immortalizing spirit was conferred upon the Apostles, and after them upon the bishops. “Warburton" undertakes to shew that this doctrine is revived by Dr. Pusey, with the unimportant modification, that the high prerogative of conferring immortality upon mankind is not limited to the order of bishops, but extended to all the clergy.

Such are the writer's allegations : I will now shew in what manner he has arrived at them. He says :

“I aver, that Dr. Pusey, in this treatise upon baptism, maintains, that man both in body and soul is naturally mortal, and that he can obtain immortal life only by his incorporation into the body of Christ, and that this incorporation is effected by the sacraments, and more especially by baptism. Allow me to quote his language in demonstration of my charge, simply premising, as a caution to the reader against misapprehension, that all the passages from Scripture to which be refers to give veri-similitude to bis error, have been much better explained by learned commentators, and shewn to have no such significations as those ne annexes to them. With consummate puerility, he considers figurative language as if it were literal, and mere images and shadows as if they were realities and substantial entities or beings. With this explanation, bear him speak for himself, pervert Scripture, and advocate pernicious heresies.

“Speaking of the Fathers, and after giving quotations from them, he says: They were not accustomed, in our lax way, to look upon the resurrection to life, as one might almost say, the mere natural consequence of our escaping condemnation, that since our natures were immortal we must live on in some way, and since we were rescued from misery, therefore in bliss. Eternal life was with them, not the mere alternative of death, or the necessary result of forgiveness. Nor was His (Christ's) resurrection mere making known of God's acceptance of his sacrifice, a confirmation of our faith, an outward attestation to the fact of our immortality, an evidence or earnest of our resurrection. It was to them all these ; but it was more ; it was the cause of our resurrection."... incarnate Lord imparted to our decayed nature, by his indwelling in it, that principle of life, which through Adam's fallit had lost: and when by the spirit of holiness, which resided in Cbrist, he raised it from the dead, be made it not only the first fruits, but the source of our resurrection, by communicating to our nature his

« Our

own inherent life."..“ He saith, I am the resurrection and the life. He not only has obtained, purchased, wills, bestows, is the meritorious cause of our resurrection ; He himself is it. He gives it us, not as it were from without, as a possession, as something of our own, but himself is it to us. He took our flesh that He might vivity it; He dwelt in it, and obeyed in it, that He might sanctify it ; He raised it from death by His quickening spirit, that He might give it immortality."

Next, hear how these tenets of our natural mortality of soul through Adam's transgression, and immortality through our ingrafting into Christ, are effected by our participation of the sacraments, and more especially the rite of baptism. • And we in bis Church, being incorporated into Him, being made members of his body, flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone, through his sacraments, partake of his life and inmortality, because we partake of Him; we are made members of Him, He dwelleth in us, and is our life; “ because I live, ye shall live also." “ It is through the communication of that life, and so by belonging to Him, being joined on to Him, that as many as live have and shall have their life." And this power of His resurrection is imparted to us through baptism. Baptism saves us through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, as applying its power and efficacy.'. .. Nor is it without significance that the title of regeneration, which denotes the gift in our baptism, or our second birth, is used once more in Holy Scripture by our Lord, to designate our last perfected birth to immortality, when death shall be swallowed up in victory, whereof this our second, or rather our first birth in Christ, is the seed to be matured in this life, and in the next to be developed in glory.' . . . Having been buried, cointerred with Him in baptism, wherein also ye were raised together with Him, made partakers of, joined in his resurrection. I surely need make no more extracts to show that the doctrine maintained by this writer, and running through the whole of this portion of his Essay, is, that by nature the soul of man is mortal, and that the spirit of immor. tality is conveyed to it by baptism, which rite incorporates it into the body of Christ, which becomes to it the source of life and immortality. Thus the old doctrine of Dodwell is revived, which more than a century ago was repudiated by all men of sense, exploded by the learned, hunted down by the ridicule of wits, and which subjected its inventor to universal obloquy. Most justly, too, was it an object of general abhorrence, and pursued with unsparing bostility both by ecclesiastics and lay scholars; for reflect for a moment upon its natural and unavoidable fruits. The clergy, then, are the order of men upon whom God has conferred the power of giving immortality to his children, and these without receiving baptism at their hands must sink into annihilation. According to this scheme, too, all the whole Jewish, Pagan, and Mahometan world, the illustrious of our race, who have most elevated and embellished the social state, are at a single blow cut off from that privilege of immortality which the meanest Christian enjoys. This is the baleful fruit which has spring from those seeds of mysticism, high pretension and extravagant assumptions of clerical authority, which these Oxford writers have been scattering among the community for years past. Mr. Dodwell, we are informed, with these exhorbitant claims for the bishops, connected the doctrine, that the penitent members of Christ's flock cannot obtain from God the pardon of their sins without the absolution of a priest, and see how closely our Rev. Dr. treads in his footsteps, upon this track also. 'Mr. Williams, a missionary to the South Sea Islands, observes of a lady, who had sent to himn in great agony of mind upon her death-bed, on acconnt of the infanticides of which she had been guilty, that after he had referred her to that passage of Scripture, which affirms that our Saviour came into the world to save sinners ; * this imparted a little comfort; and after visiting her frequently, and directing her thoughts to that blood which cleanseth from all sin, I succeeded, by the blessing of God, in tranquillizing her troubled spirit; she died eight days after, animated with the hope that her sins, though many, would be forgiven her. And what but the Gospel, continues Mr. Williams, could have brought such consola. tion ?". Upon this simple and interesting narrative, which Dr. Pusey cites in a note, the following is liis criticism: Consolation is not the main object of the Gospel, yet the Gospel would have brought much more consolation, bad this teacber known it all, and could have told her of the 'one baptism for the remis. sion of sins,'tbat she had been washed, had been cleansed : and so could he have declared authoritatively, without altering our Lord's own words, 'thy sins are forgiven. Is not this monstrous ? Here not only the outward form of baptism is regarded as a ground of confidence that our sins are forgiven, independently of our inward emotions of penitence, but the prerogative is assumed for the clergy, of authoritatively pronouncing the remission of sins. They say that the tender.

« VorigeDoorgaan »