some different article, such as the most of it is imported from Trieste. small table and tray used at meals, They endeavour to make up in quarpipes, &c. This plain and unostenta- tity for deficiency in quality, so that tious retinue is quite an anomaly in a the bottoms of those vessels are per. Basha of Egypt; and such as would fect beds of timber. This is the tenth have been considered quite too plain of this class, and there are eight in for one of the very least of the Mem- commission. The ninth was brougbt look lords."

out of the docks yesterday to be rigged (The dock-yard at Alerandria.)- and got ready for sea. 'The comple“ We were waited upon this morning ment of men on board each of these by the surveyor of the navy, Moham- is 1005, including officers, who in rank med Effendi, whose embossed card ! in and number correspond to those of the the latest London fashion, was English navy.

Besides the ten line-of. tainly more than we expected to have battle ships, there are seven frigates, seen in Egypt. He is an exceedingly armed steamer, four corvettes, intelligent man, was educated in some eigbt brigs, and other small craft in of the best dock-yards in England, and commission. So far as the vessels go, so far overcame the prejudices of Is. they are, I suspect, rather more than a lamism, as to have married one of our match for the Porte. In our walk countrywomen.

round the yard we were surprised at “Attended by Mohammed, we visited the number and extent of the works, the dock-yard and arsenal, which must all divided into their several depart. certainly be admitted to be the greatest ments-and at the order and regularity national undertaking of the present that prevailed. Brass foundries, carBasha, and taken in connection with vers, blacksmiths, carpenters, sail. the cannon foundry and arms manufac- makers, and all the different requisites tory at Cairo, shows much of returning in ship-building, upon a most extensive civilization, and of the introduction scale, all worked by native hands, who (perhaps we should say, revival) of the amount to about 800.-The stores and arts in this extraordinary country. Of arsenal were as neat, as clean, and as all the modern works of Egypt it is orderly as could possibly be. Origithat best worth seeing, and is an object nally the heads of the different departof much interest, even to those more ments were Europeans, but at present conversant with naval works; as, with the situations are nearly all filled by the exception of the three higher natives, who rose under their instrucpowers, I doubt whether any of the tion, or were educated in France or European states could exhibit finer. England ; among them was the princi. We were first ushered into an office pal mathematical instrument maker, a near the entrance, where the commis. very intelligent young man. How sioners of the dock-yard were seated very fluently, and with what a good cross-legged on deewan. They were accent, many of these speak our lanexceedingly courteous, as, indeed, we guage.

There is an extensive ropeinvariably found the higher classes of walk, and we saw some of the cables Egyptian Moos'lims. Coffee was pre- being worked by a patent machine; sented, in small china cups, holding the head of this departinent is a about a third of one of ours, not on a Spaniard, but there is also a native tray, but handed to each individual by fully capable of conducting the work. a separate servant, in a small silver I was much struck with the skill and stand:

neatness of several of the workmen, “But we must pay a visit to those particularly in brass-turning, carving, fine vessels now upon the stocks;-and &c. We were shown a handsome room here is one just ready to be launched, for the drawings, plans, engine-work, which I will tell you something about, &c. and several models of the crack without having your ears assailed by English vessels. that most stunning of all noises, the * There is a mosque in the yard, calking and coppering. This is a two. whither the men go tive times a day to decker, but corresponding in number of pray for about five or ten minutes. It guns to our three-deckers, than any of is a small but pretty building, covered which it is larger, being 3000 tons.' It with clematis, and other creepers now is not so long as some of ours, being in blow, and has a pretty fountain but 189 feet by 40 feet in beam, and attached to it, where the men perform will mount 100 guins. The timber of their ablutions each time they go to these vessels is confessedly very infe- worship. All the workmen are enlist. rior, and much smaller than would be ed in the Basha's service, as sailors or used in any English vessel of war; but soldiers, and are drilled occasionally, so as there are no forest trees in this land, as to be capable of almost immediate

service. They are fed, clothed, and in 1820, a scheme of manufacturing it get from fifteen to thirty piastres a in the country was commenced, and the month pay, which they and all the men Basha went to an enormous expenditure in the service of Mohammad Alee re- of men and money, in erecting cotton ceive into their own hands, to prevent mills, and procuring spinners, engineers, any sort of peculation.”

and machinery from Europe. At first (The Shipping.)—“ I found the ves- these men worked with great energy, sels that I visited particularly clean and and the Basha was fain to believe the orderly, and this is the more marked, as interested stories of his French and there is a greater quantity of brass inlay- Italian overseers, that he could thus, ing and ornamental work in them than in a short time, become the rival of is usual in any of our men-of-war. Glasgow and Manchester. Crowds of This is a 100 gun ship, but equal in natives were driven into the factories ; tonnage to ours carrying 120. The the machinery, of a rude and imperfect uniform is a dark brown, and the officers description, was made by ignorant are principally distinguished from the hands, and soon got out of order. I men by the fineness of the regimentals, understand that a system of peculation and having an anchor, star, or crescent, was carried on by the foreign instrucemblematic of their rank, and composed tors, and the outlay was immense. of silver, gold, or jewels, on the left Afterwards the war in which Egypt has breast. In the navy as well as the army been engaged for some years past, has neither beard nor whiskers are als been so great a drain upon the populalowed ; except the mustache, all must tion, that the different cotton mills have, be close shaven daily ; this at first was in a great measure, been abandoned. considered a very great innovation, and Mohammad Alee is now, however, was londly complained of as quite too pursuing a wiser and a better policy, in Christian and uncircumcised a form. curtailing the number of the spinning The men are trained to military tactics, and weaving mills, and only manufacas well as to go aloft, and in this latter turing in the country a sufficiency for they are often very clumsy, to the no its own consumption, and the remainder small amusement of any English tars of the raw material is sold into Europe. who may be lowering top-gallants, or Machines for compressing the bales are reefing topsails at the same time. But multiplied at Alexandria, and the export much cannot be expected from a navy into England bids fair to exceed both called into existence since the battle of the East and West Indies, or America. Navarino, and whose service bas here. We left six English traders in the bar. tofore consisted in a visit to Candia du- bour of Alexandria receiving cotton. ring the summer. There is a moolah Although of a dark colour, and not of or priest on board each ship. The men the very finest description, it is now are now allowed to smoke in watches, mucb valued in our markets. and a certain mmber each night are (The Telegraph.)_“ The Basha has permitted to go to their families, who established telegraphic communications live near the town. There was an air along the canal to the capital from of great simplicity in the officers' berths, Alexandria, and to Rosetia by the even in that of the captain: a plain banks of the Nile from Atfe." deewan surrounded two sides of the (Sugor.) —" The sugar-cane is now cabin--a table with writing materials, grown in considerable quantity, and the and a couple of chairs ; and on the side manufacture is in a most flourishing conof each was hung a plain glazed frame, dition. The colocyntb, or bitter apple, in which was written the name of God, bas also become an article of consideraand sometimes a verse of the Kooran ble trade ; and the opium I examined was underneath.--From a desire to avoid fully as good in appearance, and as clean even the appearance of any 'graven as any Turkish or East Indian ; but as it image,' there are no figure-heads to any too has become a royal monopoly it canof the Egyptian vessels. There is a not be expected to be so productive as naval academy at Alexandria, where the it would otherwise be." young officers are instructed ; a noble (The Conscription.)—“ Nearly all the establishment, having accommodation young men you meet are blind of an for 1200 students."

eye, generally the right one, and have (Cotton cultivation and manufacture.) lost the index finger of the right band ;

" The introduction of this plant into this act of mutilation is done by them. Egypt has been attended with the most selves to avoid the conscription. I signal success; and though twenty-five have known them, on hearing the years have not elapsed since the tirst tallyho of the conscription officers, sprig of it took root, it is now one of deliberately redden a pointed stick in the principal sources of revenue, and the fire and thrust it into the eye. At the most extensive article of export. Cairo a little boy, not more than ten

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years of age, who worked in the gare part, up which in a moment of despair den of the hotel, on being informed by he forced his horse, which actually way of joke that the officers of the clambered up the passage ; and fight. Basha were approacbing, ran most hero- ing his way through the soldiers on the ically to a trowel, placed it on his fin- ramparts, leaped him over the parapet ger, while his sister, still younger, of the turret on the right side of the chopped it off with a stone! He bore gate, and, strange to say, although the it without a murmur, and held it up as horse was crushed to pieces, the man a trophy of no ordinary conquest. The escaped unburt. He filed for refuge to thumb of one of our crew was still raw the adjoining mosque, and is still alive from a similar operation; and what in Cairo, his life being granted him by with the effects of the ophthalmia, and the Basha, whom it is said he particuthe terrors of the conscription, there larly resembles in appearance.

What a will soon appear a cyclopean population. scene must not this narrow space bave The Basha has, however, very properly presented with the bodies of 500 men, put a stop to this self-mutilation, by arrayed in all the gorgeous trappings making such offenders punishable by with which they delighted to deck perpetual working in the arsenal or themselves, mingled with the carcases dockyard."

of their spiendidly caparisoned horses; (Arms Factory.)—"We next visited motionless in death, but still retaining the arms factory, where there were the expression of proud defiance, mor1500 men at work, some of whom ap. tal fear, or wild despair, in which they peared most admirable artisans. I severally met their cruel and unavoid. could not but wish them a better em- able fate. ployment, but I anticipated the day “This act of Mohammad Alee's bas when the same bands shall be turned been often discussed, and doing so now towards the more useful art of erecting would be to review his whole life,policy, steam-engines to increase the irrigation and government of Egypt. Certain it of the Nile. Some of the arms inade is he could have taken no step towards here would not disgrace Birmingham. the improvement of the country durEach department is separate, and it ing the existence of those ruthless has a most extensive cannon foundry; tyrants, whose bodies became, as it most of the guns of Mohammad Alee were, stepping-stones to his present are brass, of which he is particularly greatness." proud. Over the door of the boring (Colleye and Medical School.) department is this inscription— Vive · The college and school of medicine Moham'mad Alee, patron de les arts !! form a part of the building of the bos. Originally the overseers of each of pital, so that the student has but to these works, denominated instructors, cross the court from his dormitory to were foreigners, but wherever it was the ward, and can proceed from thence possible they have been superseded by in a few minutes to the dissecting native hands."

theatre, or lecture-room; become ac(Massacre of the Mamelukes.) quainted with materia medica under “Our way out of the citadel lay through the same roof in which he sleeps, and a place that will be ever memorable in enjoy his morning's walk in the botanic Egypt, and one of the first inquired for garden beneath his window. by the traveller ; the spot where the “ The nominal duration of study is murder of the Memlooks took place. five years; but the greater number are It is a long narrow entrance, with drafted off into the army or navy, high battlements on either side, the after three years; some few remain as upper gate leading to the palace of the long as seven. Basha, the lower opening into the “ The school of medicine consists of space of the mosque of Sooltan Hassan. seven professorships, viz.-anatomy and Here on the festival held on Tous. physiology, surgery, patbology and insoon's becoming a Basha they were in- ternal clinique, pathology and external vited, and when the procession of 500 clinique, medicine and chemistry, bowas ranged in this narrow pass, both tany and materia medica, and pharmacy. gates were closed, and the troops who Instruction is given by means of an were concealed bebind the breast-wall, Arab interpreter, or dragoman; the rose and poured down a fire that in a professor writes bis lecture, and it is few minutes anvihilated the dynasty of translated to the class by the interpre600 years. There were no means of ter. The majority of the professors are escaping, or of attacking their destroy- French, and their salary is somewhat ers-one instance alone occurred-a more than £200 a year. They are all Memlook bey, amidst the shower of obliged to wear the Egyptian uniform, balls that poured round him, perceived and shave the head, but no sacrifice of a narrow staircase leading to the ram- religion or principle is demanded ; and,

I need hardly remark, that all Euro- produced upon my mind such an effect peans, or Christians, are under the pro. as nothing could banish ; for I was tection of their respective flags, and incessantly haunted with the pictures should they be convicted of any mis- of squalid misery which obtruded themdemeanour, must be banded over to selves upon my view. How any hu. their consul.

mane traveller can call the Pasha great, “ The laboratory contained a good except as a burlesque upon the moral chemical apparatus, and the dissecting feelings, or meaning thereby that he is room several subjects. This latter in. a great villain, (as the pirate intimated dispensable requisite to medical educa- to Alexander the Great,) I cannot contion, it would be scarcely worth men- ceive; and I look upon those travellers tioning, but that it occurred among a

who affirm such of Mohammed Ali, as people whose strong religious preju- being devoid either of common sense or dices prohibited even the touching of a of humanity. Many towns and villages dead body in some cases ; and the in- are wholly deserted; a few squalid troduction of this novel science was wretches bivouack amidst the ruins of one of the most difficult things Moham- others; and the rest are not more than mad Alee had to enforce for a long half-peopled. The men and boys are time. He in the first place referred it forced from their homes, to supply his to the priesthood, who obstinately set Excellency's army and fleet; whilst their faces against it, declaring it utterly women and girls are made to conduct incompatible with the religion of the the labours of husbandry under the lash Propbet of Mekka. The Basha’s an- of a task-master. I have often been swer, that it was his royal wish and asked by the lads to extract their front pleasure that they should legalize the teeth, so that they might not be enlisted, act, and that, if they did not speedily being then unable to tear open a cardo so, it was more than probable they tridge ; and upon my refusal to comply themselves should form material for the with their wishes, they have said that first experiment in this branch of the they would dash them out with a stone. practical sciences, soon brought them This has actually been done by many; to reconcile their prejudices with his and others bave lopped off the joint of unbending will.”

a finger or toe, for similar purpose.

When their tyrant found out this way There are other


of escaping from his service, he col. shew that the writer views in a lected a number of these maimed creafavourable aspect"the proceedings tures, and set them to work in irons as and institutions of Mehemet Ali. galley-slaves. One little urchin was

asked how he had lost his front teeth ; Let us now hear what the Me- and upon replying, that he had knocked thodist Missionary says, alluding them out with a stone,' my friend anto some of the same topics.

swered, “If the Pasha hears of that, he

will take off your head.' 'He may do (The Alexandrian Canal.)-" The so,' said the other, indifferently, but Alexandrian canal is one of the glorious he shall not make me a soldier.' I works of Mohammed Ali, and was con- inquired of another, if he could read : structed in true Turkish style. Up- .no,' said be, 'I won't learn to wards of one hundred thousand persons read.' Why not?' asked I. •Bewere collected together by the soldiery, cause,' rejoined he, if I knew anyand set to work under terror of the thing of learning, the Pasha would lash and the bayonet. The loss of soon take and send me off to his human life in this undertaking has been ships.' ” estimated, by the lowest calculation, at (Military Spirit.)—" We visited the tbirty thousand people; the greater citadel. Ilere are the cannon-founpart of whom died of starvation. It deries and military workshops of the was literally dug with human hands; Pasha, carried on at a vast expense, for after the surface had been broken under the management of Europeans. with hoes, the rest of the mud was Every thing smells of war; the curse scraped together with the fingers, and of Egypt. For this the people are then made into balls and thrown out of oppressed, the population diminished, the excavation by the workmen below, and the resources of the country squanwhilst those above received it, and dered upon foreigners. The latter therewith formed the embankments.” naturally care only for themselves, as (Mehemet Alis Tyranny.) –

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the Pasha cares only for himself; and tures of misery presented themselves they lead him on to every extravagant all along the banks of the noble Nile. expenditure that will procure them a To me, the scenes which I here wit- job, or add to their own profit. Did nessed were altogether appalling, and Mohammed attend to the arts of peace, CHRIST. OBSERV. No, 35.

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encourage the independent labours of almost deserted; for a great number of husbandry, and employ a few respect- the houses are uninhabited and falling able engineers to water the land, and into decay. Such are the blessings of reclaim the wastes, he would prove a Mohammed Ali's reign! Government lasting blessing to his subjects. But, has just been making a forced levy of for this purpose, he must give up his all the men that they can lay hands monopolies. He is the farmer-general upon; and I saw droves of young fel. and merchant-general of Egypt, buying lows pinioned together by their necks, and selling all its produce at his own and draughted off from Siout and its price; so that there is no encourage. neighbourhood. The inhabitants of ment for honest industry, nor can any Aboutig appear to be very poor and of his subjects acquire property, except wretched, though it was once a filourish. by fraud or stealth. The country maying town. The angel of destruction be called the Pasha's military camp, may again bless Mohammed Ali! There which is supported by a large factory are two or three hundred Copts in this worked by slaves at the point of the place, having two schools, one church, bayonet."

and four priests. They had a bishop, (Medical Practitioners.) – “ The who is now dead; but no successor bias Pasha has many Frank doctors in his been appointed, on account of the suemploy; but some of them are deplor- pervening poverty of the people.”. ably ignorant and quackish. One was (The Pasha's Fleet.)" I know originally a bottle-blower, another an nothing about ship-building ; but have attaché to the army, a third a barber, been informed, by several British naval &c. ; but, according to Turkish notions, officers who have iuspected the Egyp• a man who is clever in one profession tian fleet, that it is constructed upon is fit for any other;' or else, "Mabomet the very worst priociples of shipgives him talents to fill any station building, and does not possess one of which he may be called to occupy.' So, the modern improvements in the art. a good courtier is sure to make an ex- Captain --, formerly in the Egyptian cellent admiral, though he may never service, as commander of one of the have been on ship-board; and an active ships of the line, told me, that the fleet midshipman will do for a first-rate en. had to undergo a thorough repair after gineer. One of the above doctors had every, voyage. Upon one occasion, received a list of drugs from a cor- after bis vessel had been repaired, he respondent in Italy; and wishing to was ordered to sail for Candia ; but it oblige bim, he thought that he could was with great difficulty that he not refuse to buy a small quantity of reached that island, on account of the some cheap article. Finding the mu. leaky nature of the ship. It was then riute of soda to be marked at a very examined, and found to be opened at low rate, he ordered a few pounds of it the bows: upon which the admiral sent to be sent; and was in no small degree men to calk her. Captain expossurprised at receiving a package of tulated, saying that so slight a repair common salt, for which he had, no was insufficient, as the openings were doubt, to pay a good price, by reason extensive; but the Turk persisted in of its carriage from Italy. The circum. bis plan. When the workmen bad stance soon became known; and the finished their job to the admiral's satisdoctor had long to bear the jokes of faction, the Englishman fired a broadthe Franks, upon this exposure of his side; by which all the calking was professional ignorance. Yet to this immediately started; and the vessel same person was committed the medical leaked as much as ever. Captain care of the lazaret during the plague; then requested to have the guns rewhen, also, upon talking to two of my moved, and a proper repair to be acquaintances, concerning the purgative effected. But the Turk refused; deeffects of tartarized antimony, he said, clared that calking was sufficient, ex* And then, you know, it acts by its pressed his indignation that the guns specific gravity.'. Can we wonder that should be fired without his permission, such men should be lavish in the praises and said that the captain should pay for of the governor, whom they are fleecing the powder which had been thus need. of that money wbich he wrenches from lessly expended. The latter replied, that his own famishing subjects? But in the Pasha had given him full command these remarks we do not include those over his own ship, and that he would medical men who have received a regu- do as he pleased with the ammunition. lar education."

Having set sail, he with some difficulty (Ruined Villages.) “ Aboutig kept the vessel afloat until sbe reached (Abooteeg) is a poor place, at a short Alexandria; when she was docked, and distance from the Nile, built in part of laid up for the winter. I have heard half-burned bricks. It appears to be English officers boast, that, with two or

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