three British frigates, they would de. Egypt can awaken in a Christian stroy the whole of Mohammed's fleet, mind but those of desolation and if they had plenty of sea-room;

and especially if it were blowing hard at the disgust. He is right in his moral ; time of action, for then Egypt's vaunted yet still there are scenes which ships would be useless.”

may well awaken intense

tions, even while we carefully Both Mr. Wilde and Mr. Mac. guard the understanding and the briar are right in their facts. As heart from the seductive influences compared with the institutions which can varnish over pride and and establishments of such a na- oppression, and make us forget tion as England or France, those the sufferings of millions, in conof Ali Pasha must of necessity be templating the trophies which infantile and feeble, and some they raised for the barbarous gratimes ludicrously ill-appointed; tification of some ruthless oppresbut as compared with the state of Egypt twenty years since, they First glance at Mr. Wilde's picare a remarkable monument of ture. ability and enterprise, having been planned and carried out by the (The Plain of Memphis.)“ It was

now about sun-down, and as I sat upon energy and perseverance of one

one of the adjoining billocks that crown man of powerful mind, in opposition this range of rock, while Paulo was to the strongest habits and preju. preparing my coffee, I enjoyed the dices of his adopted country, and splendid picture that lay stretched beto the whole cast and colour of neath me, and mused upon the days of his own creed and education recollection of far distant eras, and gave

the past, while fancy conjured up the Then as to the moral character of shape, form, and life itself to the unduthe Pasba's government, like Bo- lating line of gray sand that occupied naparte, he is arbitrary and tyran- fertile plain of Fayoum. This space,

the space between me and the glowing nical upon principle; he deter

now so lone nd desolate, was once mines to accomplish his purposes crowded with the edifices, and noisy at whatever expence of suffering with the people of Memphis.. Notto others; and though courteous

withstanding the learned descriptions,

as to the site of this vast city, by the in manner, and not probably re

savans of both ancient and modern velling in cruelty for its own sake, times, the unpretending traveller who yet prepared to be as cruel as may sits thus, with a view commanding the be expedient to work out his tations of Herodotus, Diodorus Sicu

whole range of country, and the quoplans, and reckless of human life lus, and Strabo, fresh in his memory, to promote his own aggrandize. may be able to advance an opinion as to ment.

its probable situation. It appears to Our two travellers differ as

me that Memphis stood not exactly at

either of those two places, but lay much in general taste as respect- along the whole length of the pyramids ing the proceedings of Mehemet -extending from Dashour down to Ali. We will instance this, in rather Geza, which latter it did not quite reach, ludicrous contrast in a pyramid the large ones) were between Mem.

as Pliny tells us the pyramids (evidently scene. Mr. Wilde is by no means

phis and the Delta, one league from the a romantic traveller, rather the Nile, two from Memphis, and near the contrary, but he warms when he village of Busiris. The vicinity of the begins to relate his visits to the tombs and pyramids is no doubt that

alluded to by the prophet Hosea, who, pyramids ; whereas Mr. Macbriar speaking of the destruction of the Helooks at the matter as coolly as if brews, says, “Egypt shall fatten them he was looking at the architec- up, and Memphis shall bury them.'ture of a street in Leeds or Man

Hosea ix. 6.

“ It was here the Pharoahs reigned ; chester, and wonders what asso

it was here a Joseph ruled, and an Heciations the proud monuments of rodotus was initiated into the Egyptian

mysteries. It was here a Sesostris and though not very dangerous; but here a Rameses held their court; here, per- was an obstacle that I knew not how baps within my view, were executed they themselves could surmount, much those sigus and wonders when the Nile, less how I could possibly master; for 2:0w glancing in the sunbeams, ran thick above our beads jutted out, like an and red with blood, as the rod of the Is- eave or coping, the lower stones of the raelitish law-giver was stretched over its coating which still remain, and retain dark waters; here plague and pestilence a smooth polished surface. As consi. swept off millions, and those very rocks derable precaution was necessary, the

nd caves that now surround me once men made me take off my bat, coat, tiung back the midnight cry that rose and shoes, at this place; the younger throughout the land, when the first- then placed bis raised and extended burn of Egypt were smitten by the angel hands against the projecting edge of the of destruction, who breathed his deadly lower stone, which reached to above mandate on the host of Pharaoh ; and bis chin; and the elder, taking me in farther on the mental diorama moves his arms, as I would a child, placed my till when Israel's bond-children rose to feet on the other's shoulder, and my go, and countless numbers crowd the body flat on the smooth surface of the streets, laden with the spoil of their stone; in this position we formed an Egyptian lords; and lastly came in a angle with each other, and here I restill more recent age,

the king mained for upwards of two minutes, Bokhtnasr, to avenge the wrongs of Ju- till the older man went round, and by dah, and receive the reward of conquest some other means contrived to get over performed in another and a distant land; the projection, when creeping along and a small volume which then lay be- the line of junction of the casing, he fore ine, printed in a far distant isle, took my hands, drew me up to where and in a language then unknown, tells he was above me, and then letting me all this!

down his girdle, assisted to mount up “But all that was great or grand of the younger, but less active and less Memphis is no more ; the sand rolls its daring, climber of the two. We then destructive wave along the ground proceeded much as follows :-One of whereou it stood, and Egypt lies beyond, them got on the shoulders of the other, its noble river margined by tall quiver- and so gained the joining of the stone ing palms; the hainlet's rustic music, above, which was often five feet asunthe jackal's evening whine, and the der; the upper man then helped me in pelican's plaintive note, are the only a similar action, while the lower pushed sounds that wake the stillness of this me up by the feet. Having gained this sequestered spot."

row, we had often to creep for some (The Pyramid of Cephrenes.)—“I way along the joining, to where anoengaged two of the Arabs to conduct ther opportunity of ascending was me to the summit of the pyramid of afforded. In this way we proceeded to Cephrenes. I was totally unaware of the summit, and some idea may be the difficulty and danger of this ascent, formed of my feelings, when it is recol. and of its having been undertaken by lected, that all these stones of such a but five or six travellers of late years; span are highly polished, are set at an the natives themselves never scaling angle less than 45', and that the places it but for some reward. Had I been we had to grip with our hands and feet, acquainted with the difficulties to be were often not two inches wide, and encountered, I much doubt whether my their beight above the ground upwards enthusiasm would have induced me to of four hundred feet; a single slip of venture up.

the foot, or a slight gust of wind, and, “ Tbis, like the others, was first from our position, we must all three built in steps, or courses of enormous have been dashed to atoms, long before stones, each row placed the breadth of reaching the ground. On gaining the itself within the course beneath. Some top, my guides gave vent to sundry stones in the base of this pyramid are demonstrations of satisfaction, clapping larger than those of Cheops, and from me on the back, patting my head, kiss. four to five feet in depth, so that we ing my hands, and uttering a low growl, had to clamber over them on our bands; which presently rose into the more but in this I was assisted by the guides, audible, and to my ears, less musical one an old man, the other about forty,

buckshese ! From all this both of a mould which for combination I began to suspect that sometbing of strength and agility I do not think wonderful had been achieved ; and I ever saw surpassed. We soon turned some idea of my perilous situation to the north, and finally reached the broke upon me, as I saw some of my outer casing on the west side. All friends beneath waving their hats, and this was very laborious to be sure, looking up with astonishment, as we

cry of

sat perched upon the top, which is not as are the people that raised those stilmore than six feet square; the apex pendous sepulchres. Battles have been stone is off, and it now consists of four fought round their base, the storms of outer slabs, and one in the centre, above 3000 years have played harmwhich is raised upon its end, and leans lessly around them; men, the most to the eastward. I do not think that renowned the world ever saw, have human hands could bave raised it thus come to wonder at their greatness, and from its bed, on account of its size, and the earth itself has changed much of its the confined space they would have to external form since they were built ; work on. I am inclined to think the dynasties and kingdoms have passed top was struck with lightning, and the away: the very bodies of the persons position thus altered by it. Tbe three for whose use they were erected, were of us had just room to sit upon the most likely ransacked for the bit of place. I saw two or three names gold that may have ornamented them ; scratched upon the central slab, to yet, there they stand, as if waiting for which of course I added my own, and the dawning of another transformation collected some bones of the jerbil, of our planet.” wbich lay scattered about, as a memento. At first, I imagined these might Now let us see how quietly the have been carried up by hawks, but I good Methodist missionary treats soou heard the animals squeeling under all these fine matters. where I sat. I could not discover the Arabic inscription mentioned by Wil. kinson, on any of the stones; but I

“ There are only two things which had far more interesting and absorbing ramids : one is, to say that they have

incite most travellers to ascend the pyobjects to meet my attention, for the grandeur and extent of the picture that

been there ; and the other, to obtain a now presented itself from this giddy grand. But it was too much for my

view of the country, which is certainly height, was alınost as intoxicating as the ascent I had just completed. dizzy head to sustain: for though pretty Around me lay the vast plain of inter- good at climbing up a steep place, I can minable sand, that marked the Lybian

never look down from a great height and African deserts, the scorching,

without shuddering; so that my swimecholess wilderness which mingled with ming brain was much at ease when we the clear blue of the atmosphere at the

reached the bottom. I thought that I horizon. In a sloping vale, bounded

should make a better hand at scrambling by massive rocks, the unvaried bue of through the interior of the pyramid. barrenness was enlivened by what ap

Disencumbering myself, therefore, of peared to me a narrow silver ribbon,

hat and coat, I crawled upon all fours that wound its tortuous course for through the aperture; the Arabs leadmiles and miles, as it seemed to rise ing the way with lighted candles. It out of the junction of sand and sky

was suffocatingly hot; and we were above, and was lost to vision as it sunk sometimes obliged to crawl upon our into it in a similar manner below. Its bellies, and again to climb the rocks ; banks were green and verdant, with

for which trouble and fatigue, we were the richest foliage, and groves of wav

privileged with a sight of some bare ing palms were now and then relieved

stone chambers, one of them containing by the gleam of noon-day light, that

a sarcophagus like a bath. I was almost glanced from the snow-white minaret, tempted to ask, 'Is this all that is to or the stately dome of a marabut. This

be seen ?' But remembering that it was ribbon was the river Nile—its banks antique, and was really the inside of a the land of Egypt.

pyramid of Egypt, where everything “ The thousand pinnacles of the

must necessarily be marvellous, I prumosques of Cairo rose to view beyond like others; though my amazement was

dently held my tongue, and wondered the goodly laud; the white sail of the Kanghia looked but as a sea bird's wing; found here to wonder at. I never vi

excited in trying to guess what others and the drove of camels, as a black

sited a natural cavern that was not a dotted line upon the plain beneath. The whole of the pyramids were below

hundred times more worthy of being me, almost at my feet. What remem

seen; and, if enthusiastic antiquarians brances; what inexpressible emotions

will pardon me, the rail-road tunnel must not the traveller ever feel, while

under the town of Liverpool, and much viewing such an exciting picture, where

more the tunnel under the river Thames, the shadows of the past, and the reali

are a thousand times more marvellous.” ties of the present, rush together on his senses. Memphis and Heliopolis stood

Mr. Macbriar did not find much within my view; but these are gone, opportunity in Egypt for direct mis. sionary labour, at least in preach- gably diligent and persevering. ing; and the Wesleyan Mis. Whether he is really, as in profes. sionary Society withdrew its mis. sion, a Mohammedan, or whether sion from that country just as he he is in hearta Deist and a despiser was leaving it. But we are far of all faiths, seems doubtful; but from taking a despairing view of he is an Occidental rather than an the prospects of Christianity in Oriental in his measures. In diEgypt. We have already ex. rect opposition to the whole spirit pressed our opinion respecting the of Mohammedanism, he deterruler of that country; but though mined to introduce into Egypt the bis personal character is violent arts, sciences, manufactures, and and reckless, and his political am- commerce of Christian nations; he bition and his spirit of exaction invited foreign artizans to settle are tyrannical, he has incidentally in his country; he instituted done much towards opening the schools and colleges, and encouregions under his sway for the raged the studies of the Western entrance of Christian light. He world ; he gave confidence to the has now ruled over Egypt for five- merchant by the security of proand-thirty years, and for many perty, so that commerce found its years over Syria and other vast way to his shores; he opened the tracts, including a large part of land to travellers, who may now Asia Minor; and his power is safely perambulate it to the revirtually acknowledged through. motest deserts, under his protecout the Arabian peninsula, except tion ; he established courts of Muscat; as also in Ethiopia, justice; promoted navigation ; and Nubia, and Abyssinia, and to the introduced unknown manufac. interior of Africa. Over the pas- tures ;* and we have already no. sage by the Red Sea to India, ticed his dockyards and arsenals. from the arrival at Alexandria to In his domestic establishment he the exit at the Straits of Babel. has no harem ; the arrangements mandel, he is undisputed master of his court are simple and unosThus powerful, he has everywhere tentatious; and he has even wel. exerted his influence to assimilate comed a pious English lady into the countries under his sway to his palace as an instructress to his European habits. He found children ; and he allows persons Egypt subjected to the execrable of all persuasions to dwell in the domination of the Beys, (Mame- land without being exposed to perlukes) and strikingly correspond- secution on account of their creed. ing to the predictions of Holy Writ: “ The sceptre of Egypt shall pass

* It has been alleged that the manu. away, and there shall be no more

facture of cotton must have been a prince of the land; they shall known to the ancient Egyptians, for be a base kingdom.” For ages that cotton-cloth has been found among these strangers had ruled her, and the investments of some of the mum

mies. This proof, however, is not indis. deplorable was her condition. putable ; for great numbers of manufacMehemet also himself was tured mummies are imported into Eustranger; an obscure Albanian, rope; the investments of some of which, whose sword, and enterprising calico. British goods are exported to

it is said, are indisputably Manchester character, and powerful natural Egypt, and though the mummy makers talents, though unaided by educa.

are very clever, they may have overtion, made him at first the right looked the distinction between cotton arm, and afterwards the victor, and linen; and have dyed, rotted, of his Ottoman masters. He is instead of the latter. The manufacture

and singed the former for their purpose shrewd, penetrating, and indefati. of fax is indisputably ancient.


Surely under these circumstances may it not be that the remarkable Egypt ought not to be abandoned events which have happened in as a theatre for missionary opera- modern Egypt will assist to open tions, whether as regards the Mo- the way for the entrance of light hammedan or the Coptic portion and truth, and that this wretched of its inhabitants. The Bible land, the ancient and continued may be freely circulated ; and fa- type of spiritual darkness and cilities are not wanting for the bondage, may become itself a institution of schools; that is, so focus of light and spiritual liberty far as the government is con- to the benighted continent of cerned; for the prejudices and Africa ? bigotry of the people are strong, From Egypt we pass over the and a missionary must proceed Levant to Turkey (confining ourwith caution, so as not to raise selves to its Asiatic side); but we popular disturbances. The wide must not delay time here, as we prevalence of infidelity among the have to pass on to that most inteforeign part of the population, resting of all lands, Syria. particularly the French, has not Very little has been attempted tended to give the natives any in modern days for the converrespect for the religious opinions sion of Turkey to the faith of of Europeans; and probably Christ; indeed, we might say, many of them have been shaken almost nothing except the transin their Moslem notions, without lation and dispersion of the Holy having acquired anything better; Scriptures as a ground work, and but even these disruptions are this rather for the degenerate favourable to the introduction of Christians who speak the Turkish Christian truth; and we seriously language than for Mohammethink, that, as soon as the present dans. The obstacles in the way differences with Mehemet Ali are of religious intercourse with the settled, British Christians ought votaries of the false prophet are earnestly, though discreetly, to very great; for not only by the address themselves to missionary laws of the Koran are tortures efforts in Egypt; and we feel per- and death the lot of those who suaded that their labour would reject the superstition of their not be in vain in the Lord. The fathers, and embrace ChristiaPasha is grasping, oppressive, and nity; so that a bar of adamant despotic in his government; but is interposed in the way even of his innovating policy favours the preliminary inquiry; especially attempt to introduce not merely in Turkey, (for in Persia the European - habits, but that which people are less, intolerant, and alone has given to Christendom even court discussion); but the its superiority and brightest hopes mixture of what is true with -its holy religion. Are the days what is false, and what is virof Cyprian and Augustine forgot- tuous with what is depraved, renten, that Africa is for ever to be ders it far more difficult to reason despaired of? or rather is the with a Mohammedan than with a universal declaration of Holy Writ Pagan. The latter is a polyforgotten, that the heathen were theist, and his notions of religion given to Christ for a heritage, and and moral duty are superstitious, the uttermost parts of the earth debasing, and disgusting; but for a possession; or the specific the Mohammedan-though much prediction that "Ethiopia shall of his system is entitled to these stretch out her hands to God?" epithets, yet acknowledges the The fulfilment is certain ; and unity of God; and he reads in

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