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pride, or wounded honour. The allies been avowed and gloried in as merito. agree to yield certain portions of what rious patriotic deeds, and the populace is nominally a part of the Ottoman have been too ready to regard the traiempire, and wby should not France tors as heroes and martyrs ; whereas agree to yield a part of Mebemet's ra. in England even our very Chartists and pacious conquests? There is no prin- Socialists profess to recoil from assasciple to quarrel about; the whole matter sination as a political weapon. It is from in dispute is merely the life-government this ruthless spirit, this combination, of three pashalics; and for such a trifle to use Voltaire's remark on his coun. as this, it were absurdity, wickedness, trymen, of “monkey and tiger,” and and madness to light up the conflagra- which was so strikingly evinced in tion of a European war. It seems to the atrocities of the first revolution, us that there is much to regret in what and has never ceased to characterize bas already taken place in our precipitate popular disturbances in France, that invasion of Syria; and that the queen's Europe has constantly to dread some muskets had better have remained in violent outbreak which may again sumthe Tower of London, and her bomb- mon the nations to arms. The allied shells and rockets in the arsenal of armies suppressed it for a time by their Woolwich, than to have been sent to occupation of Paris ; but left to itself the Levant, the former to put into the it soon brought on the second revoluhands of lawless mountain Arabs whom tion; and but for the prudence and firm.
are stimulating to a sanguinary ness of Louis Philippe, and the sober insurgency, and the latter to destroy counsels of well-advised men, it would peaceable towns and villages which have have precipitated revolutions anew, the misfortune to lie between the fires often any fantastic change of the Egyptians and the allies. War, came over the national spirit. And unhappily, we believe to be sometimes what reliance can be placed upon the necessary or unavoidable ; and in such
principles or conduct of a people, the cases we may lawfully and in faith pray great mass of whom have been educatfor the blessing of God upon the arms ed in blasphemous infidelity, and proof an injured nation ; but we cannot fess their disregard, their bitter scorn, persuade ourselves that in regard to of all the sanctions of religion? Their the relations between the Sultan and rulers may dread and deprecate war; bis rebel subject, England, even though and yet through popular inflammation, her interests may be remotely affected, and the maddening stimulus of journalhad any moral right to interfere, further ism, be precipitated into it. We do than by those powerful and peaceful not think that it will be so in the preweapons which she is well able to wield, sent instance ; but if, in the mercy of and' which constitute her effective God, Europe escape that dire scourge, strength far more than her fleets and it will not owe its exemption to the armies.
good sense or good wishes of public If anything could convince every opinion in France; or indeed to the well-intentioned Frenchman of the duty wisdom of the British cabinet in entan. and necessity of restraining the ebulli- gling itself so much as it has done in tions of popular passion, and uniting all the affairs of other nations. political parties in one great patriotic phalanx, it would be the recurrence of Sir Moses Montefiore, having succeed. another of those atrocious attempts to ed in procuring from the Pasha of assassinate the sovereign which bave Egypt the unconditional release of the reflected so much disgrace upon that accused Jews in Damascus, has arrived fair but unballowed land. We are not at Constantinople to plead the cause of insensible to the taunt that England his injured and barbarously tortured has lately witnessed an attempt at re- countrymen with the Sultan. We gicide; and that witbin the last few shall rejoice if the burst of indignation, weeks two attempts have been made so loud throughout Europe, at the cruto fire her majesty's dockyards; but elties exercised towards the accused the unhappy man who shot at queen Jews at Damascus, is overruled by a Victoria was found to be a lunatic, merciful Providence for the benefit of and the mystery which shrouds the the despised children of Abraham in origin of the conflagration at Devon- every nation where they labour under port does not allow that we should oppression; and, we may add, shall in assert it to bave been the work of a the issue tend to the improvement of political incendiary, and that at Sheer. their own cbaracter ; for though we ness is still under investigation : but a believe that the accusation of their wide distinction lies in this, that the murdering Christians, to mingle their six attempts against the life of Louis blood with sacrificial oblations, is Philippe,ending with this of Darmé, have mendacious calumny, yet nothing can be more degraded and superstitious honour, or rather has escaped disgrace, than the great mass of the Jews in the by the rejection of Alderman Harmer, East, and even in various parts of the proprietor of the revolutionary and Europe. Despised, persecuted, and blasphemous Dispatch newspaper, from deprived in many countries of the right its civic chair ; but it is melancholy to of possessing landed property, they add that 2,294 liverymen voted on his have been urged into the most crooked side, a number exceeded only by 447 and odious by-paths of “tilthy lucre ;" for the successful candidate. When and they are too often objects of just we think of this, and remember that suspicion and reproach. The Jews in the Dispatch stands at the bead of Poland, Russia, and the East, know newspaper circulation, the regular sale little, and heed less, of their own in- being 60,000 copies, we cannot but feel spired Scriptures; they are bigoted alarmed at the signs of the times. Talmudists, and nothing can be more grovelling and demoralizing than their An act recently passed, allowing the popular code of faith and conduct. trustees of Grammar schools, with the Under a fear perhaps of exciting preju- consent of a court of equity, to add dice against them, and thus impeding “other useful branches of literature and the efforts made for their conversioni, science to, or in lieu of, the Greek and some of those who have laboured for Latin Languages." their conversion to the faith of Christ, have been falsely tender in exbibiting Some convictions have taken place the dark traits of their character. But for the violation of the recent act for. these ought not to be concealed; for bidding small-pox inoculation. The the more ignorant and depraved they objects of the Act are so wise and are, the more pressing is the duty of humane, that its provisions ought to be endeavouring to enlighten and reform generally known, and the clergy would them; which can only be effectually do well to instruct their parishioners done by their return to the God of upon the subject. their fathers, through his divine Son, their rejected Messiah. We ought We are glad to find that Mr. Stowell however to add that the better educat. is about to appeal against the decision ed among them are probably upon a against him, for a libel on a Romanist moral level with their nominally Chris. priest. As the poor man who undertian neighbours in the same station ; went the penance became deranged, his but they are extensively tainted with testimony could not be made use of; infidelity, and adhere to Judaism only but presuming that the Manchester from national predilictions, and not on priest did not enjoin it, still the inflicaccount of its divine origin.
tion of painful and degrading rigours
and austerities by the Papal priestWe will add a few miscellaneous bood, and particularly of crawling upon notices.
the bare knees, as at Loch Dearg, The sovereignty of the two islands is so 'notorious, that we should marof New Zealand has been ceded, by ami. vel, if we could marvel at anything cable arrangements with the chiefs, to in popery, that bishops and priests the British crown. We trust that this could depose upon oath to the contrary. measure will lead to the effectual pro. It is of little consequence, as respects tection the natives from lawless the question, whether Mr. Stowell can Europeans, and afford favourable open- prove that the infliction at Manchester ings for the introduction of civilization was prescribed, not voluntary ; but be and the blessings of the Gospel.
will be abundantly able to shew that to
deny the custom is falsehood, and if The city of London has done itself upon oath perjury.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. A. K.; A. C. B. ; M.J. M.; F. M. S. ; An Anxious Warder; A. B.; A Lay
Member of the Diocese of Chester ; C. M.; Philadelphia ; M. C. ; Sacerdos;
Puritans; F. S.; and a Dissenting Minister, are under consideration. In reply to several correspondents, we think the design of the Parker Society,
(the title seems far-fetched) for republishing valuable works of Church of England divines, truly excellent, and we wish success to it. The number of subscribers ought to amount to at least two thousand, to enable it to issue its books at so low a cost as to satisfy the public, accustomed of late to very cheap reprints.
OPPIDANUS should write to the compilers of Mr. Withy's memoir, prefixed to
bis discourses. We know nothing of the facts ourselves. It undoubtedly was Dr. Page, not Dr. Carey, who was bead master at Westminster School when
Withy was there. In reply to DORCAS, we know of no Society “for the reception of discarded
linen, clothes, &c., for the children of poor clergyinen ;' and though we lament to say the penury of too many clergymen is disgraceful to their flocks, so that even the gift of cast-off clothes, if it were not degrading, would be a benefit to their families; it would be insulting to form a society, or such a purpose. The laity ought to discharge their duty to their ministers in a far different manner, according to the command of God both in the Old and New Testament. We are sorry that the Rev. J. Carver's interesting, and as we think satisfactory,
statement of the circumstances under which he administered the Lord's Supper to Courvoisier, was too late for our present Number. Our readers will
find that the newspaper account contained some grave misstatements. We see nothing to retract in what we said of the Rev. F. M. Knollis's dicta, at
page 272 of our Number for May; and we are sorry that he obliges us to recur to the subject, or to allude to him by name, as we extracted the passage only in reply to a correspondent who could not believe that any persons represent all pious non-episcopalians as being left to uncovenanted mercies, just like the heathen, or even in a worse condition ; and we did not give his name, but only spoke of the author as an inexperienced bachelor of arts, who we hoped, “ as he grows older and wiser, will learn to address Dissenters in a manner less dogmatical, and better calculated to win them from the error of their way.” And here we might drop the matter; but as a great deal has been lately said about “ uncovenanted mercies,” and some among us seem to think they cannot rightly defend the Church of England, or oppose dissent, without borrowing the anti- Protestant weapons of the intolerant Church of Rome, we will add a few remarks :
Mr. Knollis says, “Unfortunately for your argument, I all along most distinctly referred to salvation both of Dissenters and Churchmen through Christ, and Christ alone." Doubtless he did; he could not do otherwise ; but how does this interfere with our statement ? And here lurks another instance of that “ reserve” of which we have so often complained. He would cause it to be supposed, that because he said that those who are saved must be saved through Christ, he did not consign the church of Scotland and all non-episcopal communions to uncovenanted mercies. But the declaration, that those who are saved must be saved through Christ, does not touch the question. It was the very point of his argument (let our readers re-peruse the extract), that no Dissenter can be in covenant with God, or have any title to the promises of salvation. A Dissenter, he urged, is not a member of Christ's church; and “ Christ has nowhere said that he will save out of his church ;" assuredly then a Dissenter, if saved, must be saved by unpromised, uncovenanted mercy. Again, “ Cbrist may save” a Dissenter ; " but he does not positively say he will.” Is not this consigning all Dissenters to uncovenanted mercy? And we may add, that it is presumptuous not only in the way of binding but also of loosing; for if God has not given any promise, what right has Mr. Knollis to hold out any possibility, however feeble, that a Dissenter may be saved ? He should say more, or say less.
We have supposed the term Dissenter, so far as refers to the present argument, to be equivalent in spirit to non-episcopalian ; for, Mr. Knollis cannot mean that Christ has not promised salvation out of a national establisbment. This would be to make the characteristic of the church of Christ that it is in alliance with the State ;-a most absurd consequence. The sin of forsaking a pure and apostolical church is doubtless enhanced, where its ministrations are brought nigh to men's doors; but the essence of the schism is not that it is the State church, but that it is a portion of Christ's true church. Yet, says Mr. Knollis, “ As to your idea about Scotland and the foreign reformed bodies of Christians, I never in the least alluded to either, nor need I do so now; it was of Dissenters in England that I was speaking." But if in speaking of Dissenters in England he so constructed his whole argument, that it necessarily applied equally to “Scotland and the Foreign Reformed Churches,” we were not “ false witnesses" because we so applied it. The expressions, “ The Church" and " Dissenters," are equivocal ; but will Mr. Knollis tell us whether in speaking of the former he did not necessarily shut out all non-episcopalians ; so that Dr. Chalmers, for example, though belonging to an established church, is as much a dissenter from “ The Church” as Dr. Watts or Dr. Doddridge? Or
does he mean to say that he spoke of the Church and Dissenters only in regard to the English national establishment? If so, he is on the other horn of the dilemma ; for then he excludes the Dissenter from all promise of salvation, not because he is not a member of Christ's catholic church, but because he dis. approves of national establishments; so that in Scotland an Episcopalian would exclude himself from the promises of God by being a Dissenter. But this assuredly is not his intention. The truth is that he uses ambiguous terms; and when we try to fix him to their meaning, he declines the test. He needs not, he says, allude to “Scotlan 1 or the Foreigu churches.” Most certainly be needs not: for what right has he to constitute himself an infallible judge? But he makes his readers allude to them ; for say what he will his whole argument necessarily includes them; and he has not ventured to say that it does not.
It is more common than candid to wound all the Protestant churches through the sides of the Dissenters. Let Mr. Knollis tell us plainly what he means by “ the church" out of which there is no “promise of salvation," that, is no
covenant mercy; ” ” and when he does so, we will leave any man to decide whether we are false accusers because we say that he includes Scotland and the reformed communions on the continent as well as English Dissenters ;Dr. Chalmers, for example, as much as Dr. Watts and Dr. Doddridge. We abhor ambiguities. Let men enunciate what they imply. The church of Rome does so, and we respect her honesty, while we reprobate her unscriptural bigotry.
As for the Dissenters, we leave both them and the members of non-episcopal national churches, to Him who searches the heart, though we do not think lightly of the absence of episcopacy: and still less of secession, where a branch of Christ's church is established in a nation; but as the establishment is not "the church,” we see no substantial difference between affirming that though a Baxter, or Owen, or Henry may possibly be saved, “ Christ does not positively promise that they shall, because his promises are left to the church, and that only;" and they were not members of it; and affirming the same of “Scotland and the foreign reformed bodies of Cbristians." The error arises from an unscriptural and anti-Anglican notion of the church," from whicb, and the blessed promises made to it, Mr. Knollis's argument excludes many who will not be found excluded at the last day. We believe that Christ is holy catholic church includes all who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity; though they do not all form one visible communion upon earth.
We are much obliged to Mr. Knollis for sending us his sermon preached at the Bishop of Peterborough's Visitation, and published in deference to the opinions and wishes of a few personal friends of the author," (we are glad that it was not by desire of the bishop and clergy) in wbich we shall find, he says, “ rather a proof against my being an Oxford Tract man." But for this disclaimer we should have inferred just the contrary; and we would fain know in what important matters the writer differs from the divines alluded to. The title is, “ The Church her own Revivalist ;” and we gladly state that the discourse contains much good advice respecting regularity in following out the rubrical directions of the church, and giving effect to her offices hy zeal, dili. gence, and faithfulness, in order to promote the glory of God and the salvation of men; but the more important matters are so mixed up with,and overwbelmed by, exhortations about church ornaments, and prescribed dresses, and the exact ceremonial of how “ the holy elements" are to be placed on the Lord's table, and the utility of preaching in a surplice and so forth, that the attention of the reader is fixed far more upon “mint, anise, and cummin,” than upon “ the weightier matters of the law."' We think that many of Mr. Knollis's reverend hearers, when urged to "return to the old path," "and to make “the church her own revivalist,” must have been vexed and ashamed to have bad their attention diverted to such doleful lamentations as “ In how many parishes are hoods and cassocks quite unknown, and the academical cap almost in all !" By all means let us have everything in due order ; but the claims of square caps above shovel-bats or round bats have mighty little to do with a revival of piety. Even good advice, such as that about catéchising and godly discipline, is degraded by the juxta-position. The way in which the church must become her own revivalist is by the revival of her scriptural doctrines, wherever they have lapsed into desuetude, and by carrying out her system in the true spirit
of the Protestant Reformation. We will insert the Secretary of the Hibernian Society's letter on the employment
of Romanist Teachers, but our opinion remains uncbanged.
THE WICKED HUSBANDMEN.
For the Christian Observer. THE parable of the wicked husbandmen was addressed by our
Lord to the Jewish rulers during His last visit to Jerusalem, and within a few days of His crucifixion. He was now about to witness before Pilate that “ good confession;" to proclaim Himself the Messiah before the Jewish council; and then to offer Himself up upon the sacrifice and service of our faith. And desiring to add the evidence of prophecy fulfilled, to the many other evidences which His death and resurrection should furnish, He, in the parable before us, foretels to the Jewish rulers the awful crime which, within a few days, they would perpetrate, in the murder of their long expected and anxiously desired Messiah ; and forewarns them of the awful judgments which they should draw down, by this blasphemous act, upon their own devoted heads.
The first verse of this parable, when stripped of the veil of metaphor, informs us that God has established upon earth a church, endowed with many and great privileges ; blessed with all necessary means of
grace and helps to holiness : and a reference to Scripture history confirms this. We there find it to have been the uniform plan of God's moral government to select a peculiar people, who should be the depository of His promises, and the guardian and witness of His unity, and of the other great truths of religion, in the midst of a heathen or apostate world. The Jews, in their day, were chosen by the free and sovereign grace of God to this high office, and gifted with suitable privileges. To them pertained the adoption and glory, the giving of the law and the promises : to them were committed the oracles of God: theirs were the fathers : and of them, as concerning the flesh, Christ came. Nor were their temporal mercies less than their spiritual. God brought them out of the house of bondage with a mighty hand and stretched-out arm. He led them through the deep as through a wilderness ; and the angel of His presence guided and guarded them, in a pillar of fire by night, and of a cloud by day. He fed them with bread from heaven, and with water out of the stony rock did He satisfy them. He cast out the nations before them, and slew even kings for their sake. He divided CHRIST. Obsery. No. 36.