WORKS ON EGYPT, SYRIA, AND TURKEY. 1. Macbriar's Missionary Travels :-2. M. de Geramb's Pilgrimage :3. Wilde's Narrative :

- 1. Southgate's Missionary Tour: -5. Hughes's Illuminated Atlas.

(Continued from page 699.) SYRIA, from its historical asso- under his sway to European traciations, as including Palestine, vellers, with a freedom never is the most remarkable and in- beföre known, and with a zeal teresting country in the world. and good faith which have proIn our Number for November tected them against the bigotry appeared some notices respect- and lawlessness of the natives, ing Egypt and Turkey, with Palestine, and the regions North, the affairs of which those of Syria South, and West of it, have been are closely implicated. Our pre- extensively visited and explored sent remarks will be confined to by European travellers ; many of Syria, and chiefly to that memo- them men of piety and scriptural rable portion of it, the emphati- learning, including several miscally Holy Land.

sionaries; so that fact and fable It is only of late years that the have been more clearly separated, modern state of Palestine, and and much bas been effected by the probability of the alleged topographical researches towards identity of many of its localities elucidating Jewish and other bibwith places mentioned in Holy lical antiquities. Writ, have been searchingly in- It would not be possible, withvestigated. Even far more re- out writing a volume, to abridge cently than the period of the the results of these multifarious travels of Dr. Clarke of Cam- inquiries; nor would a few debridge, and Chateaubriand, or tached critical investigations be even of Burkhardt, the difficulties of much value or interest. Those of access to the country impeded who wish to enter into these deinquiry, so that the student, tails must minutely compare the amidst conflicting statement, had researches of travellers. Among little choice between adopting all the most recent, we may mention the fables, traditions, forgeries, Mr. Wilde, whose work, aboveand wonderments of the old ex- mentioned, furnishes a good deal plorers and narrators, from the of new matter in this way. He times of the Crusades down. ranges however beyond our ability wards, and arming himself against to follow him, when he presents a imposition by a sceptical resolu- map, not only of what Jerusalem tion that little or nothing is to is, and what he considers it was be ascertained with any reason- in ancient days, but of what it able certainty. But of late years, shall be topographically after the -thanks chiefly to

Mehemet return of Israel and the restora. Ali, who with all his crimes has tion of the city in the Millennium. been anxious to promote como He admits, however, that “ It is mercial and literary intercourse, but fair to state, that objections and has thrown open the regions have been urged against this

literal interpretation of the pro. humility ; but a little real mophecies," and that some think desty of enunciation is not unthat “they are emblematical, and graceful in difficult matters, espe. relate to spiritual matters ;" but cially where hosts of wise, learned, he says, that if so, there would and holy men are against us. be “no manner of use" in the We are not about to attempt to topographical allusions to ancient discuss the history, antiquities, Jerusalem--which is just begging geography, or political relations the point in question ; and he of Syria ; respecting which innualso, from “a comparison of mea- merable volumes have been writsures," asserts, that not only the ten; more especially as the pub. spiritualists are wrong, but also lic has of late been sated with those literal interpreteters, who, these topics in the newspapers. with Sir Isaac Newton, refer the But we thought that a few strikprophecies in question to the ing though cursory particulars temple of Solomon built upon might be interesting; and we Mount Moriah, and restored by especially intended, when last Zerubbabel, or that rebuilt by month we included Baron GeHerod. We enter not now into ramb's Pilgrimage in our list, to the discussion ; but a man had select some passages from that need be very clear that he very remarkable publication. is accurate in his knowledge While we are writing intelligence of ancient lineal measures and has reached England that the topography, before he applies it writer is no more ; a circumwith such confidence to explicate stance which adds new interest to unfulfilled prophecy.

Some of his book. We purpose therefore the writers of this school are not closing our review with it; but as a little peremptory in their state- Mr. Wilde's volumes are in our ments, While we are writing, a hands, we will extract a few en. new book has fallen into our tertaining and instructive scraps hands, entitled “ Israel's Return, from them. or Palestine Regained; by J. (Beyrout.)—“There is the appearance Freeman," in the very first page

of a large population along the shores and

hill sides about Beyrout; and several of the preface of which, the

picturesque villages, with their patches writer, speaking of the personal of cultivation, mosques, and marabuts reign of Christ, sitting upon a

appear among the scattered groves. throne in the literal Jerusalem,

A light breeze off the land kept us on the re-establishment of the Jews

our course. Presently the moon rose

in the most gorgeous splendour; the in Palestine, and “the subjuga- night was exceedingly mild and calm ; tion of every nation upon earth and the stillness and strikingly grand to their authority"—not merely The range of Lebanon, which runs paral.

scenery of all around was most imposing. to the authority of Christ, but to lel with the coast for some distance, rais. theirs-says that, in regard to ed aloftits dark fantastic form, and these and other litigated matters, threw the broken outline of its summits “ The author feels unbounded con

into strong relief, as the orb of night

sailed slowly and majestically on her fidence [his own Italics]; and were

course." he, from a feeling of false humi- (Mount Carmel.)" We departed lity, to speak in language less from Tyre, and on rounding the beadstrong.... he would be affecting tinct view of the promontory of Mount

land of Cape Blane, we obtained a disa doubt, diffidence, and uncertainty, Carmel, running out into the sea for where (whether right or wrong) a considerable distance. The convent he is not in the slightest degree that crowns the outer part of Mount conscious of possessing them.”

Carmel forms a pleasing object in the We do not recommend “ false"

scenery here presented to the view; and when we consider that, in all pro

bability, on this spot was gained that iu any spot upon the globe ; and a wonderful triumph which the prophet polyglot language is beard, such as few Elijab, by the power of God, achieved other places in the world could exbibit. over the priests of Baal and their idol. “ The front of the churcb presents atry, it adds considerably to the inter- little worth describing. No architec. est of the scene. The proximity of tural beauty seems to have been at. the spot to the sea at once answers the tempted in its erection ; and it is now objections of the sceptic as to where a poor mean-looking building." the water was procured in that season « One of the first objects that caught of drought to pour out the sacrifice and our attention on entering the sepulchre, in the trench.

was a large oblong slab of variegated (Sharon.)-We rode over the lovely yellow marble, raised a few inches vale of Sbaron, still producing those from the foor, and having an immense roses, whose beauty and fragrance have candle burning at each corner. Our been described by Solomon in the cicerone, Padre Benjamin, very gravely sweet strains of Hebrew poetry. informed us, that this stone was that on Around us was an atmosphere such as wbich our Lord was anointed; and here, can only be perceived and breathed in on Good Friday, the priests go through the East-no palpable sky-no cloud a similar ceremony with an effigy of the traversing a canopy definite in extent, Saviour. At this spot the daily station but an ethereal expanse about and of the pilgrim commences ; for, on above us-terminating only where the approaching it, he kneels, and not powers of vision fail—and creating the only kisses it, but touches it with his thought that we looked into the regions forehead, and then with both cheeks. of boundless space.

No detached This is the usual form of salutation at houses, and but two villages, are with all the holy places. in view on this part of the plain.”

(Calvary.)—"Going down upon my (Latin Convent at Jerusalem.)_“The knees, I entered the passage to the curate of the convent generally acted crypt beneath. The tirst thing that as our guide. He was a kind, good- attracted my attention on reaching this natured creature, but extremely dirty place, was a large circular plate of in his habits. He had been but a few embossed silver, fastened on a marble years in the country, and had not yet flag, and containing the remains of told his tale often enough to believe it many precious stones and gems which bimself; for, on questioning him as to had been set upon it. In the centre the accuracy of many of the sacred of this plate there is an aperture, into places, he usually finished his speech which I sunk my arm, and at about the with, ' But I am sure it is all tradition.' depth of a foot I found a square hole in His evening visits to us were often the rock, where, it is said, the cross very acceptable, for be generally pro- was placed on which our Lord was duced from underneath bis cloak a crucified. A few paces to the right bottle of good wine, much better than of this spot, we were shown a silver that supplied to us by the convent" grating wbich covers a cleft in the

(The holy Sepulchre.)-" The scene rock, wbich we were told was the exact that presented itself in this space was spot where the rock was rent at the of most novel and exciting interest, and time of the crucifixion." the motley groups of figures that (The Pentecostal Fire.)-"On the thronged it gave it a very extraordinary Easter eve all the Christian inhabitants appearance. On the upper raised steps of Jerusalem, and many of the Mohamwere tables spread with coffee, sherbet, medans also, assemble in the church sweetmeats, and refreshments; and of the Holy Sepulchre, to witness the throughout the court were seated ped. ceremony of what is termed the Holy lars, and the Bethlehemite vendors of Fire. After the usual masses and proces. carved shells, beads, ornaments in mo. sions have been concluded, the Greek ther of pearl, bituminous amulets, patriarch and the Armenian bishop bowls made of the asphaltum of the enter the pavilion of the sepulchre, Dead Sea, and other articles of holy the outer door of wbich is immediately merchandise, some of which each of the closed upon them. The dignitaries pilgrims purchase during their stay. remain locked in till night, waiting for Through these wares, hundreds of per- the miraculous fire which they assert sons passed and repassed to the church is sent down to them from heaven.” door. Pilgrims of many nations were “ About four years ago, this mock. to be seen in their different costumes ; ery was visited with a signal instance Latin, Armenian, Russian, Greek, and of the wrath of the Almighty, and was Coptish friars, with Turks and Egyp- attended with the most melancholy tian soldiers, all forming the most results. On that occasion the crowd extraordinary scene that could be fonnd was more than usually great, for up.

Carist. OB serv. APP.

5 I




wards of 6,000 persons had assembled in the Porte, the different boly places the building, and according to custom, are now rented by the Greeks or the the outer doors were closed. Just at the Armenians, but particularly the for. moment tbat the fire made it appear. To make up for this deficiency ance, several persons fainted, others sunk the Latin fathers immediately pretend down from weakness and extreme ex- to have discovered some spot in the haustion, a cry of distress rose from neighbourhood of one of these places, those in the centre of the building, and still more holy than the former; and a general panic was immediately spread at once establish its sanctity by reputthroughout the whole multitude. A ed miracles, by masses and procesa rush was then made towards the door, sions." but, as it turned inward, it was impos- (Mount Olivet.)_" There is this sible to get it opeved, owing to the charm about Mount Olivet, that there extreme pressure of the crowd against can be no cavil as to its identity, no

In the space of a few minutes, doubt of its being the favourite resort certainly not more than a quarter of of our Lord and his disciples, and the an hour, numbers, not less than 300, scene of some of the most remarkable perished, either from suffocation, or events in his life. Even though the from being thrown down and trampled spot pointed out may not be the actual to death by the crowd.”

Gethsemane, we knew that it must ( The rock rent.)" As regards the have been within our view: and though fissure in Calvary, Clarke himself was antiquarians may dispute as to the exforced to acknowledge that it was a act position of Calvary, yet we most astonishing phenomenon ; that be convinced that at this moment we must could not account for it; and that it have been looking at the place.” was a natural crack or rent, proceeding (Bethlehem.)“ Aflight of steps condown to a great depth, which could ducted us into an oblong apartment, on not have been formed by man, as its one side of which a sinall low crypt, sides corresponded to each other." said to be hewn out of the solid rock,

(Garden of Gethsemane.)--" There was exhibited to us as the actual place is nothing unnatural in assigning an age of the Nativity. On one side of it is of nineteen centuries to these patri- an altar with a silver plate, like to that archs of the vegetable kingdom, the at Calvary, and said to cover the spot olive trees, whose growth is perhaps on which the birth of our Saviour took the slowest of any in existence. They place. Opposite to this, a niche in the have not borne fruit for some years wall contains a very handsome, polishpast; but, though their truks are ed wbite marble trough, like a sarco. greatly decayed, yet, from the hardness phagus, wbich is shown as the very of the wood, and each part being so manger in which the infant Jesus was retentive of life, there is still a con- laid!!" siderable bead to each, whose light- (The Innocents.) “On our return coloured, silky leaves hang like so to the sacristy of the Latins we were many silver locks over their time-worn shown a relic of priceless worth, enand aged stems, that now, in the even- cased in a splendid frame, and decorated ing of life, are fast tottering to decay. with gold and jewels. This is a relic But, having witnessed scenes of suffer- the very oldest that superstition bas ing, and the long dark night of gloom, yet pawned upon the world, and one and fearful retribution that has sunk that dates its origin from the nativity the pride and prostrated the glory of itself. It is the hand of one of the Jerusalem, they seem yet to linger innocents who were slain by order of for the morning twilight of that bright the Tetrarch, and whose bodies were era that will shortly dawn upon the all thrown into a deep pit which was land of Judah."

pointed out to us beside the chapel tbat “In the vicinity of this garden were contains the manger.

This musty pointed out to us the usual traditionary looking little article is considered of places, attached to which there is not great value. There is, however, one a single shadow of probability. Some slight objection to it. It is quite true that we examined have been lately that, owing to certain diseases, or to erected, and have recent Latin inscrip- the effect of embalming, or any other tions upon them. But I will cease to drying process, a band would keep for enumerate them, nor would I have a much longer period tban tradition mentioned them here except for the assigns to this; but this unfortunately following reason. They are opposition preserves that plumpness peculiar to shops: that is, the Latins having of infancy which such means could not late years, and especially since Napo. possibly retain. This fact may preleon's invasion of Palestine, lost their vent the scientific, at least, from evu. influence in the country, as well as at merating it among the wonders of Beth.



rose as


lehem for the future. It is, however, try--take him any where out of this an exceedingly good representation, and unhappy laud.' And he held the child! does considerable credit to the artist round to each of us in turn. From my who made it.'*

heart I felt for him. On informing

him that it we took the child to EngWe will now quote two pas- land he would be made a Christian, be sages of a different class. The appeared thoughtful for some moments, first shews the cruel and deso. looked earnestly from us to his child lating character of Mehemet Ali's

-the inward struggle between deep

rooted religious prejudices and fatherly conscription.

love were strongly marked in the man's “ One day, while toiling up the steep he answered,

countenance ; the latter conquered, and ascent of Mount Sion from the valley

Yes, take him with of Hinnom, we perceived an old grey

you, even make him a Christian ; better bearded Arab, who sat under an olive

that than to remain here to be shot.' tree with a lovely child in bis arms,

Never did I feel the pride of being an whose beauty struck us as being very

Englishman so strong as at that mo. remarkable. The man

Thrice bappy land; even at

that distance, and at the very gates of party approached, in a different manner from that usually displayed by the

Jerusalem, has the poor Arab heard of generality of his people, and appeared shield to the desolate and oppressed

your freedom, and looks to you as a to court an interview. Seeing us stop

the Judah of the Gentile world !” he advanced a little, and inquired of our ciceroni if we were not Russians. On The following is perhaps the being informed that we were English, most curious passage in Mr. the old man's face brightened up, bis Wilde's volume. hesitation vanished; and coming boldly the facts for consideration, with.

We present forward he seemed to recognise us as friends, and at once entered into con- out offering any opinion upon versation, and related to us his sad tale. them. It is one that then echoed throughout

" This Field of Blood still retains the length and breadth of Syria-a tale

its name and is called in every lanwhose sad reality makes the mother childless and the wife a widow, but

guage, and by every people within or

about Jerusalem, Jews, Christians, avd one ever consequent on the horrors of a forced enlistment and the ravages of

Mohammadans, Aceldama. It is not

far distant from the stream of Gihon." He told us, with tears standing in his large expressive eyes, that be

“ Having heard a rumour of a tomb had been the father of eight sons, seven

that had been lately discovered and of whom were dragged from bim to joiu and it being reported that some human

opened by the Arabs, in this vicinity, the Basha's army within the last two

remains were found in it, I rode out years. Four of them were killed during the Houran war, and after their death

one evening during our sojourn in Jethe survivors deserted to the Bedawees panied by two of my companions, Mr.

rusalem, to examine the place, accombeyond the Dead Sea; and bad then

W. Meiklam and Mr. Finlay. A little a price fixed upon their heads. The youngest, ' his sole remaining joy,' – higher up in the cliff that rises from the Benjamin of his old age-was the

the caveru erected by the Roman em. child be carried in his arms. · When,'

press, within the ground denominated said he, ' will the English come to take Aceldama, and in the neighbourhood this country? - when will

of the painted chambers, and that exyou come

cavation called the tomb of Isaiah, some to rescue us from our present bondage ?

Arabs, when at work in the place, acHere is my child—my youngest--and I know that I am but rearing him

for cidentally discovered the door-way of

a tomb carved out of the solid rock, the battle ; a few years more and he

which had been concealed by a heap of too will be taken from me. Oh ! bring

rubbish, over which the soil had accuhim with you to your own free coun

ulated so as to completely conceal the entrance. Such was the account

given to me by credible witnesses in * Mr. Wilde is mistaken in saying Jerusalem. This entrance at the time that this is the oldest alleged relic in of our visit was still partly concealed existence. There are plenty of pre- by brambles, stones, and dirt, so that tended Old Testament relics in various but one half of the door-way was visi. places. A monastery at Erfust boasted ble. David's tuning-hammer! Popery how- “ It represents a Doric pediment, supever does not pitch its strings to his harp. ported by rude pilasters, with some


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