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over, which may be considered as the continuation of his discourse with Nicodemus. (See this Vol. p. 100.)
The plenary power, and judicial authority conferred on Him by THE FATHER, is thus represented.
Verily, verily I say unto you, THE Son cannot do any thing of himself, except what he seeth THE FATHER doing; for what things soever He doeth, these also THE Son doeth likewise. For THE FATHER loveth THE Son, and sheweth him all things that Himself doeth ; and will shew him greater works than these (now wrought before you,] that ye may marvel.
For as THE FATHER raiseth and quickeneth the dead, even SO THE SON quickeneth whom he willeth. “For THE FATHER judgeth no one, but hath given the whole judgment to THE SON; to the end that all should honour The Son, according as they honour THE FATHER: he that honoureth not THE SON, honoureth not THE FATHER who sent him,” John v. 19-23.
Here our LORD declares, in the plainest and most express terms, his association with THE FATHER, in power and worship, both positively and negatively, to give it more weight and impressiveness; and in the language of prophecy also, as spoken of the MESSIAH, who is styled “ MY ASSOCIATE” by THE FATHER, Zech. xii. 7, and who declared of himself, “ The sacrifice of praise shall honour me; and thereby will I shew him, [my worshipper] the way to the salvation of God*,” Psalm 1. 23. Compare Psalm ii. 12.
Our gracious LORD, the righteous JUDGE of all the earth, in his conversation with Nicodemus, had briefly stated the certainty of the future judgment, by one of those bold figures of rhetoric, prolepsis, or anticipation, (John iii. 18,) which he here repeats.
deceived himself, and deceiving others; provided we may be allowed, by the ordinary judges, (or civil magistrates, not the inquisition."]
For these incomparable articles, striking at the root of the papal idolatry and superstition throughout, in the most guarded and cautious scriptural terms, were the professors persecuted unto death; and for his fiery zeal against them, was Dominick, the first inquisitor general, canonized by the Church of Rome! And even still, at the present day, and in this enlightened age, (as it is called) Romish malignity, with “ conscience seared with a hot iron," unblushingly dares to insult the memory of these faithful witnesses of evangelical truth, styling them “ THE INFAMOUS ALBIGENSES”!!!
This rendering is warranted by the Sept. Vulg. Syr. and Arab. versions; which, instead of the participle DŲ, (Sam,) “ offering,” evidently read the adverb, Dy, (Skam,) " there."
“Verily, verily I say unto you, he that heareth my word, and believeth on Him that sent me, hath eternal life, and is not to come into judgment, but hath passed over (ueraßeßnkev,) from death into life,” ver. 24.
He now enters more minutely into the subject of
THE TWO RESURRECTIONS.
It is the peculiar glory of THE GOSPEL, to have unfolded this most awful and awakening doctrine, more clearly, distinctly, and explicitly than the OLD TESTAMENT.
The first resurrection is thus described by our LORD.
Verily, verily I say unto you, the hour is coming, and is now [at hand,] when the dead shall hear the voice of THE SON OF God, and they that hear shall live *,” ver. 25.
Lightfoot is the single commentator, perhaps, who rightly interprets this very important verse (25,) of the first resurrection ; supposing it equivalent to Rev. xx. 5. All the rest refer it, either to the miracles of raising the dead, in the course of our Lord's ministry, the daughter of Jairus, the widow's son at Nain, and Lazarus ; or else, to the saints that arose after our Lord's resurrection, and appeared to many in the holy city, Matt. xxvii. 53.
But neither of these supposed cases seem of sufficient importance for the occasion, nor suitable to the context. 1. They were but few; and the persons restored to life, died again, and saw corruption. 2. The apparitions were transient, and not generally seen; but the resurrection here meant, is to eternal life; as plainly intimated by ver. 26; and by its contrast with the general resurrection afterwards, ver. 28, corresponding with Rev. xi. 11-13. 2. The stated time on which the prevailing opinion is founded, KAI VUV EOTI®, " and is now (at hand,”] admits of considerable latitude. OUR LORD, shortly before, expressed that blessed season of the regeneration, when the pure and spiritual worship of God should universally prevail throughout the earth, exactly by the same phrase, as Lightfoot remarks, “ the hour is coming and is now (at hand,) when the true worshippers shall worship The Father in spirit and truth," John iv. 23. For the interval, however considerable it may seem to men, is nothing in the sight of God, to whom "a thousand years are but as one day," Psalm xc. 4, 2 Pet. iii. 8.
3. Where our Lord meant to express a near event, such as the approaching desertion of his disciples, previous to his crucifixion, he clearly marks it by a definite sense, epxerat wpa kai vuv elnAugev, “the hour is coming, and hath now come, when ye shall be scattered," &c. John xvi. 32.
4. The foregoing expression, kai vvy cotiv, is explained by Paul, EyyUS EOTIV, “ THE LORD is nigh," or “at hand,” Phil. iv. 5; yet he denies that " the day of The LORD, EVEOTIKEV, is actually impending, or ready to come upon us, until after the ap pearance and removal of the man of sin, or the lawless one," 2 Thess, ii. 1-8, which was confessedly a distant event. James also, thus exhorts the faithful, parpojuungate, “ wait patiently, until the presence of the Lord, because his presence, 7777KE, draweth nigh,” James v. 7, 8; and so Peter says, “ the end of all things, 117768, draweth nigh, be sober therefore, and vigilant unto prayers,” 1 Pet. iv. 7, and yet be represents Christ's presence as rather a distant event, in his description of the “nex heavens and new earth," 2 Pet. iij. 4-13.
For as THE FATHER hath life in Himself, so gave He also to THE Son to have life in himself; and gave him authority also to exercise judgment, because he is THE SON OF MAN," ver. 26.
The second follows.
“ Marvel not at this, [the first resurrection,] for the hour is coming, in which all that are in the tombs, shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation,” ver, 28, 29.
The analogy and the contrast in these mysterious passages, is remarkable. In both resurrections, the hour, or season of judgment, is said to be coming, or drawing on; but in the former, is now at hand, or nigh, compared with the latter, which is indefinite. In the former, only some of the dead shall hear, and live, or rise to eternal life, in consequence of the principle of eternal life, vested in The Son by THE FATHER, and communicated to them, “ the just,” or eminently righteous dead; “ who shall then live by their faith,” in CHRIST as their REDEEMER, Habak. ii. 3, 4. as explained Rom. i. 17, Gal. ii. 11, Heb. x. 36–39. Whence, perhaps, our LORD styles it, the resurrection of the just, Luke xiv. 14, and calls them the children of the resurrection, who shall die no more for ever, but shall be like angels, immediate sons of God, Luke xx. 36, John xi. 26, Job i. 6.
In this account of the first resurrection, OUR LORD seems particularly to allude to that famous prophecy of Daniel, in which he was styled THE SON OF MAN, and invested with universal and everlasting dominion, by THE ANCIENT OF DAYS, THE FATHER; when he shall come, a second time, with glory, in the clouds of heaven, to establish the kingdom of the saints upon earth, at the regeneration, or restitution of all things; and to gather his elect from the four quarters of the world; when his Apostles, according to promise, shall sit on twelve thrones, judging, or instructing, the twelve tribes of Israel ; when Daniel also, written in the book of life, shall stand in his lot, or proper order, at the end of the [1260) days (of persecution.] Compare Dan. vii. 13, 14-27, and xii. 1-13, with Matt. xix. 28, Luke xxii. 28–30, Matt. xxiv. 30, 31, Acts i. 6, 7, iii. 21, Heb.ix 28, 1 Cor. xv. 23.
• The fullest comment on Daniel's prophecy, and its duration, is furnished in the visions of the Apocalypse.
“ And I saw thrones, and some [the Apostles,] sate thereon, and judgment was given to them. [I saw) also, the souls of the [two faithful witnesses of THE LAW and THE GOSPEL) that were beheaded for the testimony of JESUS, (under the latter.] and for THE ORACLE OF GOD, (under the former, Rev. xi. 3-12.] - And they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. (But the rest of the dead revived not until the thousand years were finished.) This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection; upon such the second death hath no power : but they shall be priests of God and of CHRIST, a thousand years," Rev. xx, 4-6.
And this clear and explicit commentary of John, is fully supported by the other Apostles.
Paul calls this first resurrection," the extraordinary resur. rection * of the dead,” to which he himself aspired, Phil. ii. 11; he states that it is to take place at CHRIST's second appearance, 1 Cor. xv. 23, Heb. ix. 28; who is to reign until he has put all enemies under his feet, as foretold by David, Psalm cx. 1, 1 or. xv. 25; and he critically distinguishes this, from the end of the world, and translation of his kingdom from earth to hearen, ver. 24.
Peter also, in a highly figurative passage, (which shall be considered hereafter,) expressly states the expectation of the apostolic age; "for, according to CHRIST's promise, we do expect a new hearen and a new earth, wherein righteousness shall reside," 2 Pet. iii. 13. Compare Acts iii. 21.
The second resurrection, and general judgment of all mankind, is fully explained by our LORD himself, in a most awful representation of his coming at the end of the world, with all his holy angels, sitting as King upon his throne, summoning all nations before Him, separating the sheep from the goats, or
Tyv ečavaotaoiv. This compound is used only in this passage ; the lexicographers reckon it of the same import as the simple, avaoTaois, " resurrection," but ek is often intensitive in composition, as ekJaubew, " to terrify exceedingly." And surely, St. Paul must have aimed at something higher for himself, than the ordinary resurrection at the end of the world, common to all; he who had the first fruits of the Spirit, and waited for the adoption, Rom. viii. 23.
the good from the wicked, and consigning the former to heaven, and the latter to hell, Matt. xxv. 31–46.
The fullest comment on this also is furnished by the Apocalypse.
“And I saw a great white throne, and Him that sate thereon, [CHRIST,) from whose face the earth and the heaven fled, [or disappeared,] and there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, standing before the throne * ; and books were opened, and another was opened, which is the book of life; and the dead were judged from the registers in the books, according to their works. (And the sea gave up the dead therein, (the Antedilurians † especially,) and Death and Hades gave up the dead [bodies and souls) that were in them, and they were judged each (SKUOTOS,) according to their works.)
-And whosoever (EL TIS) was not found registered in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire, along with Death and Hades. This is the second death," Rev. xx. 11-15, xxi. 8.
We may trace here a likeness also, and an enlargement of the Psalmist's description of the throne of CHRIST, Psalm xlv. 6, 7, and of the general judgment by him, Psalm 1. 1–5; noticed also by Solomon, Eccles. xii. 14.
The Apostle Paul has furnished some further most interesting particulars of the general resurrection and judgment.
Evwmlov Tov Opovov. This reading is supported by all the ancient versions, and by the earliest editions, the Complutensian, Plantin, Genevan, and several MSS., and is restored to the text by Bengelius and Griesbach. The present reading, however, Tov tov, is admissible, as referring to CHRIST, by the grammatical principles laid down, see this Vol. p. 67, note. But the former seems preferable from Rom. xiv. 10, 2 Cor. v. 10.
+ The destiny of the Antediluvians, who perished in the general deluge, reserved in chains of darkness unto the judgment of the great day, in Tartarus, or the lower Hades, is noticed by the Apostle Jude, 64-15; 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20; 2 Pet. ii. 4, 5, See those difficult passages explained before, Vol. II pp. 36, 40.
From these texts, and from the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, explained also, Vol. II. p. 84, note, and afterwards, is sufficiently refuted the Popish and Pagan doctrine of purgatory, that supposed intermediate state for purifying the souls of sinners, before the general resurrection, by fire ; from which state of torment they may be relieved, sooner or later, by masses and prayers, to be performed by the priests, for money, given them by the friends and relations of the deceased, and sent directly to Heaven! For,
1. Good souls are not tormented, but “ comforted” in Paradise, or the upper Hades, Luke xvi. 25.
2. Bad souls are confined in Tartarus, or the lower Hades, by an “impassable gulph," which precludes all intercourse with the blessed, Luke xvi. 26.
3. No mortal ever yet went to heaven nor to hell, till the general judgment, Acts ii. 34, Rev. xx. 14.