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sary for their maintenance, to unite, rather than to divide livings; whereby the clergy are rather diminished than increased in their number. And one single diocese in England, Lincoln, contains a considerably greater number of clergy, than the whole kingdom of Ireland ; if it be true, that the former amount to 1700, whereas the latter scarcely exceed 1200.

Add to this, the last ungracious act of the expiring provincial parliament of Ireland, previous to its desirable union with the British, in 1800, was for abolishing the legal tythe of agistment in Ireland, for dry and fat cattle, still paid in England; in order to preclude the Church of Ireland (as actually asserted !) from being raised to an equal footing in point of rerenue, with the Church of England, after the Union ; so necessary, for the support of “the true religion (to be) established among us.”.

Since the grant of the electire franchise, by the same parliament, in 1793, and the repeal of the act for prohibiting intermarriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics, combined with the active proselyting spirit of the Romish priests, Popery is making a rapid progress in most parts of Ireland, and mischievous inroads on the Protestant part of the community ;

" Whom the grim wolf with privy paw,
Daily, devours apace."-

Milton's Lycidas.

And the thinly scattered Churches in the interior, are threatened to be left desolate, in no long time, unless it shall please God to suggest some remedy to the wisdom and piety of our legislature.

In SCOTLAND, where the episcopal order was pulled down by that furious reformist, John Knox, and his abettors, who usurped their functions, and confiscated the revenues of the Church, while “they of the household divided the unhallowed spoils;" the established Presbyterian Church, or Kirk, is in a drooping state, as we may collect from the remonstrances of some of her most intelligent ministers.

They complain of the inadequacy of the public stipends paid them in lieu of their tythes, whereby their rank in society is lowered, and their utility and influence impaired; and the youth of better families, and more liberal education, deterred from entering into the Church from its poverty, usually apply themselves to more lucrative branches of trade, commerce, and industry; “Let our vain philosophers,” says Dr. Smith *, (indirectly addressing the Humists, &c.) “allege what they will, there can be no national prosperity, of any permanent duration, without religion, (Prov. xiv. 34,) and there can be no religion without a respectable clergy, nor a respectable clergy without a decent maintenance annexed to the office t. If this be not granted, the men who should fill the office, will naturally betake themselves to other employments; and their place will be filled by such as ought to have neither lot nor part in this matter," (Acts viii. 21.)

—And who, (we may add to this close and convincing reasoning,) will come, and cringe, and crouch to the Presbytery, saying,' “ Put me, I pray you, into one of the Priest's offices, that I may, literally, eat a morsel of bread!"

Alas! who shall live, when God doeth this!

Far be from us, however, the ungenerous, the malignant insinuation, or imputation, that we are croaking alarmists, of the number of those that “ trouble Israel," (1 Kings xviii, 17.) Such, indeed, are justly “hatedby the public, for “ prophesying not good, but evil," and abhorred by all good citizens. On the contrary, we wish, indeed, “to put down imaginations, and every high and proud thought," adverse to Christian humility, and the common weal; but not to depress the spirits of our well-beloved fellow-citizens in this most awful and tremendous hour of trial now come upon the whole world; when all the foundations of the earth are out of course. We wish rather to build up upon a secure and solid foundation, to edify them that are of the household of faith especially, to stand stedfast without swerving; to strengthen the weak hands; to confirm the feeble knees; to pour wine and oil, and balm into the wounds of our bleeding country; rent, torn, and convulsed by intestine divisions, factions, heresies, and schisms in Church and state, infinitely more ruinous and formidable than all the combined powers of all our foes. We wish to reconcile to the Church, to

See his View of the Agriculture of Argyle, 1798. + When the Scottish Clergy were either persuaded, seduced, or intimidated by the rapacious Reformists, into a formal surrendry of their revenues, for stipends to be paid by the state ; one old sturdy incumbent, tenacious of his benefice, resolutely maintained it. And we learn from respectable information, that it is now so greatly raised in its value, with the rise of times, as to be proverbially called the Scottish Bishoprick. --A useful memento to the English and Irish Clergy, to resist innovation and commutations of tythes.

the state, and to each other, all parties in religion and politics, and persuade them to lay aside their animosities, from a sense of their common danger; forbearing one another, and forgiving one another, and forgetting, by a general amnesty, all past aggressions and grievances, so as cordially to unite against the common enemy in defence of our most holy religion, our most sacred liberties, and all the dear and tender and intermingled charities of genuine patriotism, or love of our country; which still, God be thanked, render these fortunate isles, the wonder and the envy of the world; such inestimable blessings, indeed, are scarcely to be found elsewhere, and in many places, can scarcely be conceived.

The foundation upon which we wish to build national piety, charity, and fortitude, is Holy SCRIPTURE, more correctly rendered and explained from the originals in its doctrines and precepts; and especially those most awful prophecies which have hitherto perplexed and agitated the public mind *, by mystical and fanciful interpretations, highly injurious and dishonourable to the inspired WORD OF God, and detrimental to the peace and happiness of society.

Nor is this design, however vast or adventurous, in an humble, unassisted individual, altogether unprecedented. Milton, that prodigy of genius and learning, that zealous advocate for religious and civil liberty, and rational toleration, formed the noble, the god-like plan of reconciling, if possible, all the jarring and discordant sects of Protestants in his days, with the established Church, and with each other; and of uniting them in mutual communion, and against the common enemy, Popery. Supported by his high authority, we earnestly submit to public consideration at large, the following sketch of his masterly argument in his forementioned treatise, reprinted by Baron Maseres : presuming, with all due deference to the best-informed judges, that what Milton deemed seasonable, in 1673, will not be fastidiously rejected as unseasonable, in 1811; nor held irrelevant and obtrusive in this Apocalyptic review of the times, similar, indeed, to his, but much more awful and alarming.

• See the advertisement vindicating Joanna Southcote, the prophetess, the vender of seals, from the charge of frightening the inhabitants of Bath, by a prediction that the city would be destroyed on Good Friday; in a foregoing note, p. 372 of this volume.

MILTON ON TOLERATION.

"TRUE RELIGION," as well defined by Milton, “is the true worship and service of God, learnt and believed from the WORD OF God only. No man or Angel can know how God would be worshipped and served, unless God reveal it. He hath revealed it to us in the Holy SCRIPTURES, by inspired (prophets] and ministers; and in THE GOSPEL, by his own Son and his Apostles; with strictest command to reject all other traditions, or additions whatsoever. According to that of St. Paul; 'Though we or an Angel from Heaven preach any other Gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be anathema, or accursed,' Gal. i. 8; 'Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, neither shalt thou diminish ought from it,' Deut. iv. 2. If any man shall add, &c. if any man shall take away, &c. from the words, &c. Rev. xxü. 18, 19.

“ With good and religious reason, therefore, all Protestant Churches, with one consent, and particularly the Church of England in her thirty-nine Articles, Art. VI, XIX, xx, XXI, and elsewhere, maintain these two points as the main principles of true religion. “I. That the rule of true religion is the WORD OF GOD only.

II. And that their faith ought not to be an implicit faith; that is, to believe, though as the Church believes, against, or without express authority of SCRIPTURE.

“And if all Protestants, as unirersally as they hold these two principles, so attentively and religiously would observe them, they would avoid and cut off many debates and contentions, schisms, and persecutions which too oft have been among them, and more firmly unite against the common adversary.

“From hence it directly follows, that no true Protestant can persecute, or not tolerate, his fellow-Protestant, though differing from him in some opinions, but he must flatly deny and renounce these two, his own main principles, whereon true Religion is founded.”

I. But Milton contended that Papists were not proper subjects of toleration, [and we may add from Baron Maseres, nor of endowment with gifts of lands or property in mortmain, for their permanent support; much less of establishment, or public maintenance, by funds provided by authority of the government, Essays, p. 412--415,] upon the following political and religious considerations.

1. Their intolerance and avowed hostility to the members of all other Christian Churches excepting their own, counting them both heretics and schismatics, excluding them from salvation, and persecuting them, when in their power, with the utmost barbarity; and 2. their mischievous state-activities, (as he quaintly styles their political intrigues) incessantly labouring to undermine and overturn, either covertly or openly, all protestant governments that have been so incautious or imprudent as to give them footing. The Pope, ever since we have shaken off his Babylonish yoke, incessantly endeavouring to destroy the government, and seduce and pervert the people from their allegiance. 3. The idolatrous nature of their worship, such as cannot be exercised publicly without grievous scandal to all conscientious Christians; and neither publicly nor privately, without the most heinous offence to a JEALOUS God, who abhors all manner of idolatry in public (Exod. xx. 5,) and in private, (Isa. lxvi. 17, Ezek. vii. 7-16.) Such abominations wherever they are licensed or countenanced by the state, tend, sooner or later, to draw down God's judgments upon that people or nation. [Witness the Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans, &c.]

II. The following were the methods he proposed for restraining the growth of Popery.

1. To remove the furniture of their idolatry, whether images, or the host, wherein they adore their God under bread and wine. If they say, that by removing their idols, we violate their consciences, he answers, We have no warrant to regard a conscience not grounded in SCRIPTURE. And they themselves confess in their late defences, that they hold not their images necessary to salvation, but only as injoined them by tradition.

2. The next means to prevent the seduction of our flocks, by their ever restless spirit of proselytism, is to circulate the HOLY SCRIPTURES among Protestants, as their best defensive armour. For as among Papists, it is chiefly their ignorance of the Scriptures that upholds Popery, so among Protestant people, the frequent and serious reading of the Scripture, will soonest prevent its growth.

3. The last means to avoid Popery is to REFORM OUR LIVES. For when a nation becomes generally irreligious and corrupt,

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