3. KING ALFRED. Translation of the Pastorale of St.

Gregory. (Manual, p. 28.) (From Wright's Biographia Britannica Literaria, Anglo-Saxon period, p. 397.)

Ælfred kyning hateth gretung Alfred the king greets affecWulfsige bisceop his worthum tionately and friendly bishop Wulfluflice and freondlice, and the sige his worthy, and I bid thee cythan hate, thæt me com swithe know, that it occurred to me very oft on ge-mynd, hwylce witan geo often in my mind, what kind of wæron geond Angel-cyn, ægther wise men there formerly were ge godcundra hada ge woruld- throughout the English nation, as cundra, and hu ge-sæliglica tida well of the spiritual degree as of tha wæron geond Angle-cyn, and laymen, and how happy times hu tha cyningas the thone anweald there were then among the Enghæfdon thæs folces, Gode and his lish people, and how the kings æryndwritum hyrsumodon; and who then had the government of hu hi ægther ge hcora sýbbe ge the people obeyed God and his heora sydo, and ge heora anweald Evangelists, and how they both in innan borde gehealdon and eac ut their peace and in their war, and hira ethel rymdon; and hu him in their government, held them at tha speow, ægther ge mid wige ge home, and also spread their noblemid wisdome; and eac tha god- ness abroad, and how they then cundan hadas hu georne hi wæron flourished as well in war as in ægther ge ymbe lara ge ymbe leor- wisdom; and also the religious nunga, and ymbe ealle tha theow-orders how earnest they were both domas thi hy Gode sceoldon, and about doctrine and about learning, hu man ut on borde wisdome and and about all the services that they lare hider on land sohte, and hu owed to God; and how people we hi nu sceoldon ute begitan, gif abroad came hither to this land in we hi habban sceoldon. Swa search of wisdom and teaching, clæne heo wæs othfeallen on An- and how we now must obtain them gel-cynne that swithe feawa wæron from without if we must have them. beheõnan Humbre the hira the- So clean it was ruined amongst nunge cuthon understandan on the English people, that there were Englisc, oththe furthon an ærend- very few on this side the Humber ge-writ of Ledene on Englisc arec- who could understand their service can; and ic wene thæt naht monige in English, or declare forth an be-geondan Humbre næron. Swa epistle out of Latin into English; feawa heora waron, that ic fur- and I think that there were not thon anne ænlepne ne mæg ge- | many beyond the Humber. So thencan besuthan Thamise tha few such there were, that I cannot tha ic to rice feng. Gode almigh- think of a single one to the south tigum sy thane, that we nu ænigne of the Thames when I began to an steal habbath lareowa. For reign. To God Almighty be tham ic the beode, thæt thu do thanks, that we now have any swa ic ge-lyfe thæt thu wille, thæt teacher in stall. Therefore I bid thu the thissa woruld thinga to thee that thou do as I believe thou tham ge-æmtige, swa thu oftost wilt, that thou, who pourest out to mæge, thæt thu thone wisdome them these worldly things as often the the God sealde thær thær thu as thou mayest, that thou bestow hine befæstan mæge befæst. Ge- the wisdom which God gave thee thenc hwilce witu us tha becomon wherever thou mayest bestow it. for thisse woruld, tha tha we hit Think what kind of punishments na hwæther ne selfe ne lufedon, ne shall come to us for this world, if


eac othrum mannum ne lyfdon. I we neither loved it ourselves nor Thone naman

we lufdon left it to other men. We have that we Cristene wron, and loved only the name of being swithe feawa tha theawas. Tha ic Christians, and very few the duties. this eal ge-munde, tha ge-mund ic When I thought of all this, then I eac hu ic ge-seah ær tham the hit thought also how I saw, before it eal for-heregod wære and for- was all spoiled and burnt, how the bærned, hu tha circan geond eal churches throughout all the EngAngel-cyn stodon mathma and lish nation were filled with treasboca ge-fylled, and micel ures and books, and also with a mæniu Godes theawa, and tha great multitude of God's servants, swithe lytle feorme thara boca and yet they knew very little fruit wiston, for tham the hi hira nan of the books, because they could thing ongitan ne mihton, for tham understand nothing of them, bethe hi næron on hira agenge cause they were not written in theode awritene. Swilce hi cwæ- their own language; as they say don ure yldran, tha the thas stowa our elders, who held these places ær heoldon, hi lufedon wisdome, before them, loved wisdom, and and thurh thone hi begeton welan through it obtained weal and left and us lafdon.

it to us.



4. LAYAMON. Brut, 1150-1250. The Dream of Arthur.

(Manual, p. 32.)

(From Sir F. Madden's Edition, vol. iii. pp. 118-121.) To niht a mine slepe,

To-night in my sleep (bed), Ther ich laei on bure,

Where I lay in chamber, Mei maette a sweuen;

I dreamt a dream,
Ther uore ich ful sari aem. Therefore I am “full” sorry.
Me imette that mon me hof I dreamt that men raised (set) me
Uppen are halle.

Upon a hall;
Tha halle ich gon bestriden, The hall I gan bestride,
Swulc ich wolde riden

As if I would ride;
Alle tha lond tha ich ah

All the lands that I possessed

(had), Alle ich ther ouer sah.

All I there overlooked (them saw). And Walwain sat biuoren me; And Walwain sate before me; Mi sweord he bar an honde.

My sword he bare in hand. Tha com Moddred faren ther Then approached Modred there, Mid unimete uolke.

With innumerable folk; He bar an his honde

He bare in his hand Ane wiax stronge.

A “battle”-axe (most) strong; He bigon to hewene

He began to hew Hardliche swithe,

Exceeding hardily; And tha postes for-heou alle And the posts all hewed in pieces, Tha heolden up the halle.

That held up the hall. Ther ich isey Wenheuer eke, There I saw Wenhaver eke (the

queen), Wimmonen leofuest me:

" Dearest of women to me”; Al there muche halle rof

All the mickle hall roof Mid hire honden heo to-droh. With her hand she drew down;

Tha halle gon to haelden, The hall gan to tumble,
And ich haeld to grunden,

And I tumbled to the ground,
That mi riht aerm to-brac.

So that my right arm brake in

pieces, Tha seide Modred, Haue that! Then said Modred, “Have that!” Adun ueol tha halle

Down fell the hall; And Walwain gon to ualle, And Walwain gan to fall (was

fallen), And feol a there eorthe;

And fell on the earth; His aermes brekeen beine.

His arms both brake. And ich igrap mi sweord leofe And I grasped my dear (good)

sword Mid mire leoft honde,

With my left hand, And smaet of Modred is haft, And smote of Modred his head, That hit wond a thene ueld; So that it rolled on the field. And tha quene ich al to-smathde, And the queen I “cut all in pieces Mid deore mine sweorde,

With my dear sword, And seodthen ich heo adun sette And afterwards I” set “her” down In ane swarte putte.

In a black pit. And al mi uolc riche

And all my good people Sette to fleme,

Set to fight,
That nuste ich under Criste So that I knew not under Christ,
Whar heo bicomen weoren. Where (that) they were gone.
Buten mi seolf ich gond atstonden But myself I gan stand
Uppen ane wolden

Upon a weald,
And ich ther wondrien agon “And I there gan to wander
Wide yeond than moren.

Wide over the moors”;
Ther ich isah gripes

There I saw gripes, And grisliche fugheles.

And grisly (wondrous) fowls ! Tha com an guldene leo

Then approached a golden lion Lithen ouer dune.

Over the down; Deoren swithe hende,

A beast most fair, Tha ure Drihten make.

That our Lord made"; Tha leo me orn foren to,

The (this) lion ran towards (quickly

to) me, And iueng me bi than midle, And took “me” by the middle, And forth hire gun yeongen

And forth gan her move (he gan me

carry), And to there sae wende.

And to the sea went. And ich isaeh thae vthen

* And I saw the waves I there sae driuen;

Drive in the sea”; And the leo i than ulode

And the lion in the flood Iwende with me seolue.

Went with myself. Tha wit i sae comen,

When we came in the sea, Tha vthen me hire binomen. The waves took her from me; Com ther an fisc lithe,

But there approached (came swim

ming) a fish, And fereden me to londe.

And brought me to land; Tha wes ich al wet,

Then was I all wet, And weri of soryen, and seoc.

16 And”

weary “from sorrow," and

(very) sick. Tha gon ich iwakien

When I gan to wake, Swithe ich gon to quakien; Greatly (then) gan I to quake; Tha gon ich to binien

"Then gan I to tremble Swule ich al fur burne.

As if I all burnt with fire." And swa ich habbe al niht

And so (thus) I have all night

Of mine sweuene swithe ithoht;
For ich what to iwisse
Agan is all mi blisse;
For a to mine liue
Soryen ich not driye.
Wale that ich nabbe here
Wenhauer mine quene!


f my dream much thought;
For I wot (all) with certainty,
Gone is all my bliss,
For ever in my life
Sorrow I must endure !
Alas! that I have (had) not here
Wenhaver, my queen!

5. The Ormulum. (Manual, p. 33.)

(Edited by Dr. White, Oxford, 1852.) Nu, brotherr Wallterr, brotherr | Now, brother Walter, brother mine

min Affterr the flaeshes kinde;

After the flesh's kind (or nature); Annd brotherr min i Crisstenn- And brother mine in Christendom dom

(or Christ's kingdom) Thurrh fulluhht and thurrh trow- Through baptism and through wthe;

truth; Annd brotherr min i Godess hus, And brother mine in God's house, Yet o the thride wise,

Yet on (in) the third wise, [both Thurrh thatt witt hafenn takenn ba Though that we two have taken An reghellboc to folghenn,

One rule-book to follow, Unnderr kanunnkess had and lif, Under canonic's (canon's) rank

and life, Swa summ Sant Awwstin sette; So as St. Austin set (or ruled); Ich hafe don swa summ thu badd I have done so as thou bade Annd forthedd te thin wille; And performed thee thine will

(wish); Ice hafe wennd inntill Ennglissh I have wended (turned) into Eng

Goddspelless hallghe lare, Gospel's holy lore,
Affterr thatt little witt tatt me After that little wit that me
Min Drihhtin hafеthth lenedd. My Lord hath lent.

C.-OLD ENGLISH, 1250–1350. 6. HENRY III. Proclamation in A. D. 1258. (From Marsh's Origin and History of the English Language, pp. 192, 193.) Henr', thurg Godes fultume King Henry, by the grace of God king on Engleneloande, lhoaverd on in (of) England, lord in (of) IreIrloand, duk' on Norm', on Aqui- land, duke in (of) Normandy, in tain', and corl on Aniow, send (of) Aquitaine, and earl in (of) igretinge to all hise halde ilaerde Anjou, sends greeting to all his and ilaewede Huntendon' lieges, clerk and lay, in Huntingschir'.

donshire. Thaet witen ge wel alle, thaet This know ye well all, that we we willen and unnen, thaet thaet will and grant that what our counure raedesmen alle other the moare cillors, all or the major part of dael of heom, thaet beoth ichosen them, who are chosen by us and thurg us and thurg thaet loandes by the land's people in our king


folk on

ure kuneriche, habbeth dom, have done and shall do, to idon and schullen don in the worth- the honor of God and in allegiance nesse of Gode and on ure treowthe to us, for the good of the land, by for the freme of the loande thurg the ordinance of the aforesaid the besigte of than toforeniseide councillors, be steadfast and perredesmen, beo stedefaest and iles- manent in all things, time without tinde in alle thinge a buten aende, end, and we command all our and we hoaten alle ure treowe in lieges by the faith that they owe the treowthe, that heo us ogen, us, that they steadfastly hold, and thaet heo stedefaestliche healden swear to hold and defend the reguand swerien to healden and to lations that are made and to be werien the isetnesses, thaet beon made by the aforesaid councillors, imakede and beon to makien thurg or by the major part of them, as is than toforeniseide raedesmen other before said, and that each help thurg the moare dael of heom others this to do, by the same oath, alswo alse hit is biforen iseid, and against all men, right to do and to thaet aehc other helpe thaet for to receive, and that none take of land done bi than ilche othe agenes alle or goods, whereby this ordinance men rigt for to done and to may be let or impaired in any wise, foangen, and noan ne nime of and if any [sing.] or any (plural] loande ne of egte, where-thurg transgress here against, we will and this besigte muge beon ilet other command that all our lieges them iwersed on onie wise and gif oni hold as deadly foes, and because other onie cumen her ongenes, we we will that this be steadfast and willen and hoaten, thaet alle ure permanent, we send you these lettreowe heom healden deadliche ters patent sealed with our seal, to ifoan, and for thaet we willen, keep among you in custody. thaet this beo stedefaest and lestinde, we senden gew this writ open iseined with ure seel to halden amanges gew ine hord.

Witnesse usselven aet Lunden' Witness ourself at London the thane egtetenthe day the eighteenth day in the month of monthe of Octobr' in the two and October in the two and fortieth fowertigthe geare of ure cruninge. year of our coronation.

And this wes idom aetforen ure And this was done before our isworene redesmen:

sworn councillors : [here follow the signatures of several redesmen or councillors]

[Signatures] and aetforen othre moge.

and before other nobles [?] And al on tho ilche worden is And all in the same words is isend in to aeurihce othre shcire sent into every other shire over all ouer al thaere kuneriche on Engle- the kingdom in (of) England and Deloande and ek in tel Irelonde. also into Ireland.


17. King Alisaunder. (Manual, p. 34.)

(From Guest's History of English Rhythms, vol. ii. p. 142.) Averil is merry, and longith the April is merry, and length'neth day;

the day; Ladies loven solas and play; Ladies love solace and play; Swaynes justes; knyghtis turnay; Swains the jousts; knights the


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