For he was grounded in astronomie.
He kept his patient a ful gret del
In hourès by his magike natural.
Wel coude he fortunen' the ascendent
Of his images for his patient.

He knew the cause of every maladie,
Were it of cold, or hote, or moist, or drie,
And wher engendred, and of what humour,
He was a veray parfite practisour.
The cause yknowe, and of his harm the rote,
Anon he gave to the sikè man his bote.*
Ful redy hadde he his apothecaries
To send him draggès, and his lettuaries,
For eche of hem madę other for to winne;
Hir frendship n'as not newè to beginne.
Wel knew he the old Esculapius,
And Dioscorides, and eke Rufùs;
Old Hippocras, Hali, and Gallien,
Serapion, Rasis, and Avicen;
Averrois, Damascene, and Constantin;
Bernard, and Gatisden, and Gilbertin.
Of his diete mesurable was he,
For it was of no superfluitee,
But of gret nourishing, and digestible.
His studie was but litel on the Bible.
In sanguin' and in perse 8 he clad was alle
Lined with taffata, and with sendalle.
And yet he was but esy of dispence:
He kepte that he wan in the pestilence.
For golde in phisike is a cordial;
Therfore he loved gold in special.


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1 Make fortune. 1 Blood-red color.

2 The ascendant. 3 Root. 8 Sky-colored, or bluish grey.

4 Remedy. 9 Thin silk.

5 Drugs.
10 Expense.

6 Electuaries.
11 Gained, got.


The Miller was a stout carl for the nones,
Ful bigge he was of braun, and eke of bones;
That proved wel, for over all ther he came,
At wrastling he wold bere away the ram.'
He was short shuldered brode, a thikke gnarre,
Ther n'as no dore, that he n'olde heve of barre,
Or breke it at a renning with his hede.
His berd as any sowe or fox was rede,
And therto brode, as though it were a spade.
Upon the cop“ right of his nose he hade

1 The prize.

hard knot in a treo.

3 A running.

4 Top.

A wert, and theron stode a tufte of heres,
Rede as the bristles of a sowés eres.
His nosè-thirlès - blackè were and wide.
A swerd and bokeler bare he by his side.
His mouth as wide was as a forneis.
He was a jangler, and a goliardeis,?
And that was most of sinne, and harlotries.
Wel coude he stelen corne, and tollen thries.
And yet he had a thomb of gold parde.
A white cote and a blew hode wered he.
A baggèpipe wel coude he blowe and soune,
And therwith all he brought us out of toune.

6 Nostrils. 6 Prater. 7 Buffoon. 8 9 He was as honest as other millers, though he had, according to the proverb, like every miller, a thumb of gold.

14. JOHN BARBOUR, d. A. D. 1396. (See Manual, p. 51.)


[Old Orthography.]

[Modern Orthography.]
A! fredome is a nobill thing! Ah! Freedom is a noble thing!
Fredome mayse man to haiff lik- Freedom makes men to have lik-

Fredome all solace to man giffis : Freedom all solace to man gives :
He levys at ese that frely levys! He lives at ease that freely lives !
A noble hart may haiff nane ese, A noble heart may have none ease,
Na ellys nocht that may him plese, Na elsé nought that may him

Gyff fredome failythe: for fre lik- If freedom faileth: for free liking

Is yearnyt our all othir thing. Is yearnéd? oure 3 all other thing.
Na he, that ay hase levyt fre, Na he, that aye has livéd free,
May nocht knaw weill the prop- May not know well the property, *

The angyr, na the wretchyt dome, The anger, na the wretched doom,
That is cowplyt to foule thyrldome. That it coupléd to foul thyrldom.
Bot gyff he had assayit it,

But if he had assayéd it,
Then all perquer he suld it wyt; Then all perquer he should it

And suld think fredome mar to And should think freedom more to

prize Than all the gold in warld that is. 'Than all the gold in world that is.



1 Pleasure.

& Desired.

3 Over, above.

Q Exactly,

4 Peculiar state or condition.

1 Know.

6 Thraldom.


15. CHAUCER (Prose). Tale of Melibæus (from the

Parson's Tale).


Whan dame Prudence, ful debonairly and with gret pacience, had herd all that hire husbonde liked for to say, than axed she of him licence for to speke, and sayde in this wise. My lord, (quod she) as to your first reson, it may lightly ben answerd: for I say that it is no folie to chaunge conseil whan the thing is chaunged, or elles whan the thing semeth otherwise than it semed afore. And moreover I say, though that ye have sworne and behight' to performe your emprise, and nevertheles ye weive to performe thilke same emprise by just cause, men shuld not say therfore ye were a lyer, ne forsworn: for the book sayth, that the wise man maketh no lesing, when he turneth his corage for the better. And al be it that your emprise be established and ordeined by gret multitude of folk, yet thar* you not accomplish thilke ordinance butó you liketh: for the trouthe of thinges, and the profit, ben rather founden in fewe folk that ben wise and ful of reson, than by gret multitude of folk, there every man cryeth and clattereth what him liketh : sothly? swiche 8 multitude is not honest. As to the second reson, whéras ye say, that alle women ben wicke: save your grace, certes ye despise alle women in this wise, and he that all despiseth, as saith the book, all displeseth. And Senek saith, that who so wol have sapience, shal no man dispreise, but he shal gladly teche the science that he can, without presumption or pride: and swiche thinges as he nought can, he shal not ben ashamed to lere" hem, and to enquere of lesse folke than himself.

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16. SIR JOHN DE MANDEVILLE, 1300-1371. (Manual, p. 54.)

And therfore I schalle telle zou, what the Soudan tolde me upon a day, in his Chambre. He leet voyden out of his Chambre alle maner of men, Lordes and othere : for he wolde speke with me in Conseille. And there he askede me, how the Cristene men governed hem in oure Contree. And I seyde him, Righte wel : thonked be God. And he seyde me, Treulyche, nay: for zee Cristene men ne recthen righte noghte how untrewly to serve God.

Ze scholde zeven ensample to the lewed peple, for to do wel; and zee zeven hem ensample to don evylle. For the Comownes, upon festyfulle dayes, whan thei scholden gon to Chirche to serve God, than gon thei to Tavernes,

and ben there in glotony, alle the day and alle nyghte, and eten and drynken, as Bestes that have no resoun, and wite not whan thei have y now. And also the Cristene men enforcen hem, in alle maneres that thei mowen, for to fighte, and for to desceyven that on that other. And there with alle thei ben so proude, that thei knowen not how to ben clothed; now long, now schort, now streyt, now large, now swerded, now daggered, and in all manere gyses. Thei scholden ben symple, meke and trewe, and fulle of Almes dede, as Jhesu was, in whom thei trowe: but thei ben alle the contrarie, and evere enclyned to the Evylle, and to don evylle. And thei ben so coveytous, that for a lytylle Sylver, thei sellen here Doughtres, here Sustres and here owne Wyfes, to putten hem to Leccherie. And on with drawethe the Wif of another: and non of hem holdethe Feythe to another: but thei defoulen here Lawe, that Jhesu Crist betook hym to kepe, for here Salvacioun. And thus for here Synnes, han thei lost alle this Lond, that wee holden. For, for hire Synnes here God hathe taken hem in to oure Hondes, . noghte only be Strengthe of our self; but for here Synnes. For wee knowen wel in verry sothe, that whan zee serve God, God wil helpe zou: and whan he is with zou, no man may be azenst you. And that knowe we wel, be oure Prophecyes, that Cristene men schulle wynnen azen this Lond out of oure Hondes, whan thei serven God more devoutly. But als longe als thei ben of foule and of unclene Lyvnge, (as thei ben now) wee have no drede of hem, in no kynde: for here God wil not helpen hem in no wise. And than I asked him, how he knew the State of Cristene men. And he answerde me, that he knew alle the state of the Comounes also, be his Messangeres, that he sente to alle Londes, in manere as thei weren Marchauntes of precyous Stones, of Clothes of Gold and of othere thinges; for to knowen the manere of every Contree amonges Cristene men. And than he leet clepe in alle the Lordes, that he made voyden first out of his Chambre; and there he schewed me 4, that weren grete Lordes in the Contree, that tolden me of my Contree, and of many

othere Cristene Contrees, als wel as thei had ben of the same Contree; • and thei spak Frensche righte wel; and the Sowdan also, where of I

had gret Marvaylle. Allas! that it is gret sclaundre to oure Feythe and to oure Lawe, whan folk that ben with outen Lawe, schulle repreven us and undernemen us of oure Synnes. And thei that scholden ben converted to Crist and to the Lawe of Jhesu, be oure gode Ensamples and be oure acceptable Lif to God, and so converted to the Lawe of Jhesu Crist, ben thorghe oure Wykkednesse and evylle lyvynge, fer fro us and Straungeres fro the holy and verry Beleeve, schulle thus appelen us and holden us for wykkede Lyveres and cursed. And treuly thei sey sothe. For the Sarazines ben gode and feythfulle. For thei kepen entierly the Cömaundement of the Holy Book Alkaron, that God sente hem be his Messager Machomet; to the whiche, as thei seyne, seynt Gabrielle the Aungel often tyme tolde the wille of God.

17. WiCLIFFE, A. D. 1324-1384. (Manual, p. 58.)


Forsothe when Jhesus hadde comen doun fro the hil, many cumpanyes folewiden hym. And loo! a leprouse man cummynge worshipide hym, sayinge; Lord, gif thou wolt, thou maist make me clene. And Jhesus holdynge forthe the hond, touchide hym sayinge, I wole; be thou maad clene. And anoon the lepre of hym was clensid. And Jhesus saith to hym; See, say thou to no man; but go, shewe thee to prestis, and offre that gifte that Moyses comaundide, into witnessing to hem. Sothely when he hadde entride in to Capharnaum, centurio neigide to hym preyinge hym, And said, Lord, my child lyeth in the hous sike on the palsie, and is yuel tourmentid. And Jhesus saith to hym, I shal cume, and shal hele hym. And centurio answerynge saith to hym, Lord, I am not worthi, that thou entre vndir my roof; but oonly say bi word, and my child shall be helid. For whi and I am a man ordeynd vnder power, hauynge vndir me knigtis; and I say to this, Go, and he goth; and to an other, Come thou, and he cometh; and to my seruaunt, Do thou this thing, and he doth. Sothely Jhesus, heerynge these thingis, wondride, and saide to men suynge hym: Trewly I saye to you I fond nat so grete feith in Yrael. Sothely Y say to you, that manye shulen come fro the est and west, and shulen rest with Abraham and Ysaac and Jacob in the kyngdam of heuenes; forsothe the sonys of the rewme shulen be cast out into vttremest derknessis; there shal be weepynge, and beetyn togidre of teeth. And Jhesus saide to centurio, Go; and as thou hast bileeued be it don to thee. And the child was helid fro that houre. And when Jhesus hadde comen in to the hous of Symond Petre, he say his wyues moder liggynge, and shakun with feueris. And he touchide hir hond, and the feuer lefte hir: and she roose, and seruyde hem. Sothely whan the euenyng was maad, thei brougte to hym many hauynge deuelys: and he castide out spiritis by word, and helide alle hauynge yuel; that it shulde be fulfillid, that thing that was said by Ysaie, the prophete, sayinge, He toke oure infirmytees, and bere oure sykenessis. Sothely Jhesus seeynge many cumpanyes about hym, bad his disciplis go ouer the water.

And oo scribe, or a man of lawe, commynge to, saide to hým, Maistre, I shal sue thee whidir euer thou shalt go. And Jhesus said to hym, Foxis han dichis, or borowis, and briddis of the eir han nestis; but mannes sone hath nat wher he reste his heued. Sotheli an other of his disciplis saide to hym, Lord, suffre me go first and birye my fadir. Forsothe Jhesus saide to hym, Sue thou me, and late dede men birye her dead men. And Jhesu steyinge vp in to a litel ship, his disciplis sueden him. And loo! a grete steryng was made in the see, so that the litil ship was hilid with wawis; but he slepte. And his disciplis camen nig to hym, and raysiden hym, say.

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