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thari, and other reforming and in fact Protestant-inclined sects of his era, are still more to be lamented. Neither is it to be forgotten, that it was in a great measure owing to his influence that the so-called
Holy” wars were embraced by the European princes; and (as may be reasonably presumed) fostered by the Pope he had himself formed, Eugenius III.
These foolish expeditions, alike useless and unjust, were productive of evils and calamities, the traces of which are hardly yet effaced. The population of Europe was exhausted-enormous wealth was transferred to Asia—the most noble families of the West became extinct or degraded—the most distressing enormities were perpetrated .by these holy marauders—and for what?-Let Neander reply. “In the enthusiasm which animated the nations for an object unintelligible to the senses, and the extraordinary efforts for an extraordinary end, we recognise the traces of man's illustrious origin. Lowest in the scale (of excellence), and false in the greatest degree to the primitive nobility of man, stands he, who in the coldness of intellect, looks down upon these times in a spirit of affected compassion, proceeding not from the overpowering influence of genuine reality on the mind, but from the circumstance of his assuming that only to be real, which is, in truth, the very lowest degree of seeming, and thus regarding as a delusion what is here the beautiful, the labouring and the venturing for an object which exists, and is of value for the heart alone."
This may be poetry; and Dr. Neander has certainly caught not a little of the enthusiasm he is lauding: but the question, how far the enabling, at the expense of so much Christian blood and Christian crime, future ages to "recognise the traces of man's illustrious origin," will exonerate the abbot of Clairval, is one must be left to the decision of each impartial reader.
Art II.-A General Armory of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
By J. and J. B. BURKE. London, 1842. LORD CHESTERFIELD, disputing some point of ceremonial with the “Garter” of his day, is reported to have said, you
man, you do not understand your own foolish business. This foolish business, however, seems to retain some secret hold even upon the wiser part of the community; and it is amusing, in this utilitarian, and in some sense democratic age, to see vehement contemners of title and grave abstract philosophers, when they gain wealth or station, going out of their way to adopt a usage so entirely aristocratic, and in modern times so abundantly useless, as that of bearing a coat of arms. Whig or Tory, dissenter or churchman, philosopher or soldier, every man who rises even to competence, wanting an hereditary right, is sure, either with or without the aid of the respectable functionary above
mentioned, to supply himself with a coat of arms. As in the case of the Galwegian, John o’the Scales, commemorated in Guy Mannering, the plain "G.G.” may, indeed, be seen upon the earlier seal or the first modest equipage; but some “Mr. Cumming of the Lion office" will sooner or later be consulted in the matter, and a future and more splendid panel will glitter with the ancient coat of “Tomkins of that lik," with a due difference of “a pair of hose, or a sugar cask, all proper” for the house of Cranbourne Alley or Billiter Lane: a method of grafting a roturier into an old stock much in vogue among the gentlemen of the Herald's office, and which reminds us of the ancient, but now exploded legal fiction, by which a “feodum novum” was granted to be held "ut feodum antiquum,” as descending from an imaginary ancestor of indefinite antiquity.
Mr. Timothy Vears goes to the herald on duty, and demands a coat of arms ; his father was an Essex ploughman, and Timothy made liis fortune by a successful contract in the scavenging line in Manchester.
pays his fee and receives the ancient coat of De Vere, with the addition of a “mud rake sable" in the first quarter. When Dr. Paley set up a carriage, the builder asked for his arms. The doctor had none, but he remembered that upon an old tankard there was a handsome lion ; this he delivered over to the tradesman ; "and so, sir," as he used to tell the story in his own broad accent," the lion has been the Pawley arms ever since.” The fact seems to be that whatever be a man's general opinions, few can resist the assumption of a distinction which was formerly a mark of gentle descent, and the absence of which is still plebian. The craving is natural, and it is ludicrous only when combined by such persons as the biographers of Lady Huntingdon or Mr. John Quincy Adams, with a pretended contempt for worldly or aristocratic honours.
We are surprised that among the illustrated, we believe we may now say illuminated works, which Mr. Murray and other spirited publishers of the present day have put forth, and which so elegantly adorn the drawing-room table, a work upon heraldry,--a subject so capable of being rendered amusing, and so peculiarly suited to the display of the richer species of illumination, should hitherto have found no place. A quarto after the fashion of Mr. Lockhart's Spanish Ballads, would form an appropriate pendant to that beautiful volume, and would be equally well suited with it to both drawing-room and library.
The “res heraldica," “the art noble and misterie of the Herehaults," is but very partially unfolded by Porny and the dry jejune writers of modern days. Those who wish to drink more deeply at the fountain of honour, must seek the aid of the Dame of Sopwell, of old Gervase Markham, or Guillim, or the quaint quartos of Ferne or Bosvile, rich in learning and humour, and treating their subject under the full impression that none can surpass it in dignity and honour.
VOL. II. (1843) no. I.
The "blazon of gentrie,” or the "glorie of generositie,” are very inadequately replaced by their modern successors. It is a very different business to be told briefly,-“The 'flaunch 'is made on each side of the shield, by the segment of a circular superficies, drawn from the corner of the chief to the base point; and the 'voider' is the diminutive of the flaunch;" and to learn "now, gentle reader, the • flaunch' taketh his name from Flaus the flank' that includeth the small guts which strut out quodam tumore,' as it were a blown bladder. Hence, the flaunch denoteth courage, the organs digestive being the seat of that virtue. Thus in Lancelot du Lac, when Arthur lay striken to death, 'aquis aus fist tant de proesse que tous seu esmerveillerent dont telle proesse venoit a l'homme de son age, car ja estoit vieil et ancien : mais ce luy venoit du grant couraige que il avoit au ventre. The 'voider' one liketh to a mirrour, and is therein a bearing proper to ladies, who are thereby advised to look frequently into their glasses, that they may be stirred up to make their minds to match unto their faces. If we turn to Mr. Burke, we shall read that the chevron is deduced from the bow of a warsaddle, and is formed of two parallel lines, meeting pyramidally, &c.; but if we go back a couple of centuries or so, we shall read that “heralds skilled dispute whether this chevron be derived from the roof of a house or the head-gear of a woman." It is difficult to say which, because “ modica alteratio in membro principali magnam alterationem facit;" but the former seems more probable, because in the close roll of the exchequer, 6 H. 3, the king gives Robert de Mare twenty chevrons of oak from the forest of Melksham; and according to Madore, Master Culumb was amerced in a hundred marks, because he took fourscore and eight chevrons from the royal forest by night. Nothing comes amiss to the old heraldic writers
. Like Bayle, Jeremy Taylor, or Burton, or the author of the “ Doctor," they bring forth from their store-house things new and old, relative or irrelative; and their way of showing respect to a man, alive or dead, was to provide him with a pedigree and coat armour, and impute to him a knowledge of heraldry. The same age that represented the Virgin Mary as perfectly versed in the canon law, declared that Solomon, as the wisest of men, must have been a good herald ; and describes the armorial bearings of Achilles and Hector. Hear Dame Juliana Berners, prioress of Sopwell
, speaking with the utmost gravity,—“Of the offspring of the gentilman Japhet, comes Habraham, Moyses, Aron, and the profetys, and also the kyng of the right line of Mary, of whom that gentilman Jesus was born very God and man.
After his manhode, king of the londe of Jude, and of Jues, gentilman by his moder Mary, prynce of coat armure. Mixed
with the most extraordinary fables and anachromisms, we find quaint discourses upon the hidden virtues of different colours and bearings, how gold signifieth faith and truth; silver, beauty and innocence; green, hope and free
dom; and how each colour and metal had its still more recondite meaning, and its hidden analogies and sympathies with the planetary bodies. How the bend sinister in a coat of arms denoted a rent or fissure dividing the shield, " quia ipse Bastardus finditur et dividitur a patrimonio patris sui ;” and how the voided or adumbrated bearing is fitted to be used by him, who having mortgaged and wasted his land, retains only the shadow as it were, and empty outline of his patrimony.
Messrs. J. and J. B. Burke, the title of whose ponderous tome stands at the head of this article, form no exception to their brethren in the bald and sapless manner in which they have treated their subject. We ought, however, in justice to these authors to state, that their " heraldry” is a mere prefix or introduction to the bulk or dictionary part of their volume. Of this latter, we can speak more favourably. It is both the most complete and most convenient dictionary of arms that has yet been published, and it forms a useful addition to their well-known genealogical work upon the British Commoners. As such, we can honestly recommend it, but as a treatise on heraldry it is stark naught and far inferior even to Porny,
It is not our intention, however, to fill up Messrs. Burkes' deficiencies, or to turn this article into a regular heraldic treatise; we propose only to pass in review some of the most amusing parts of the subject; and without further preface invite our readers with us, "desipere in loco," and to take a stroll among the saltires and fesses, lions, griffins, cockatrices and moldwarps of ancient heraldry, and invoking the shades of Blue-mantle and Rouge-dragon, with us to unfurl the banner, and mark with rapid but curious glance the rich emblazonry, gules, azure, and sable, upon its ample folds.
Particular symbols have in all ages been assumed by the various tribes of mankind; such, for example, as the Roman eagle, the Danish raven, or the white horse of Saxony, the latter of which still remains upon the chalk downs of western England. Heraldry, however, is a purely Teutonic institution, devised in Germany, received and polished in France, and adopted into this country from Normandy; all during the first half of the twelfth century. It has little or nothing in common with the older emblems, although they have occasionally been incorporated into its charges, and an apparent connexion has thus been established between the two. This practice misled the credulous writers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and caused them to attribute coats of arms to the heroes of sacred and profane history, who were certainly as innocent of heraldry as ever was Adam of genealogy.
Arms or armories, so called from their having been originally displayed upon defensive armour, are supposed to have been first used at the great German tournaments, and to have reached England under Henry the 2nd and Richard the 1st. Many of the terms of the art are
of German, and many more of French origin. To blazon, now meaning to describe a coat of arms in words, is the German “ Blasen," to blow the horn, because proclamation of the arms and style of each knight was thus introduced upon public occasions. The real use of the armorial bearing was obviously to distinguish between one individual and another, when all were shut up in close armour, or obscured in the press and dust of a melée.
The earliest extant examples of arms are probably to be met with upon the seals of the German emperors; those ascribed by Matthew Paris to earlier heroes are certainly fictitious, as are probably those upon the tombs of the Popes before 1180 or 1200. It was so common a practice in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries to attribute armorial bearings to the heroes of the tenth and eleventh, that it is necessary to regard all these early coats with the utmost suspicion.
The monk of Marmontia, probably a contemporary, describes Henry the First, upon the marriage of his daughter to Geoffrey of Anjou, in 1122, as hanging about his son-in-law's neck a shield decorated with painted lions, “pictos leoness præferens in clypeo;" but as it does not appear that their colour or position upon the shield was definitely fixed, this can scarcely be regarded as an example of heraldic bearings. The first great seal of Richard the First, in 1144, bears two lions combatant; but his second seal of 1189 bears two lions passant in pale, which with the third lion, added by John his successor, form the arms of England as they still appear. King Stephen is said to have assumed " Sagittarius, because he landed in England when the sun was in that sign; but this, if true, was an emblem only, and not a coat of arms.
The effigy of Geoffrey de Magnaville, Earl of Essex, who died in 1144, is still preserved in the Temple church, and bears a regular coat of arms upon the shield ; but effigies were often constructed long after the death of the person they represented, and are by no means equal as evidence to a seal.
A very early heraldic seal, probably the earliest now extant in England, is that of Stephen Earl of Richmond, as early as 1137, and bearing seven fleur-de-lys. Philip, Earl of Flanders, appears to have sealed with arms in 1159, as did Waleran, Earl of Mellent, who died in 1166. Duchesne gives the arms of the Montmorences upon a seal as early as 1182; and William, Earl of Essex, who died in 1190, seals with the same arms with those upon the shield of his predecessor in the Temple church; Geoffrey Paganel, a great Anglo-Norman baron, seals in 1187 with “ two lions passant,” which his descendants long continued to bear. With the thirteenth century evidence of arms begins to be more
Thus Baldwin de Bethune, Earl of Albermarle, who died in 1212, “ seals with three martlets upon a chief;" and many other examples are preserved in the Lansdowne and other collections of ancient charters.