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could not legally alienate his arms from his posterity.” Jean le Terre, Toison d'or, stated in evidence, “qu'on ne peut vendre, ne aliener les armes de son lignage." In the absence of lineage, however, a possession in fee simple seems to have been admitted, though in some parts of the empire, on the extinction of a family the arms were interred with the last of the race, and strangers in blood were not allowed to assume them. This is strongly laid down in “ Jurisprudentia heroica” of Belgium in 1616. At present, in such cases the Germans do not inter, but only reverse the funeral escutcheons.

To avoid confusion between members of the same family, it became necessary to “difference” or distinguish their several arms. This was anciently done sometimes by changing the colours, as in the Hastings family, in which the elder brother bore “or a maunch gules," and the younger "argent a maunch sable;" sometimes by retaining the ordinary, but adding a charge; thus Gray of Codmor bore “ Barry of six argent and azure ;" Gray of Ruthyn,“ the same, but in chief three torteaux;" Gray of Rotherfield as Gray of Codnor, but “on the B. azure bars six fleur-de-lys or.” The difference was sometimes made by assuming wholly or in part the mother's coat. No fixed rule, however, obtained; it was only essential that the distinction should be such as would be apparent at a glance. The best marked and most numerous examples of these ancient -differences are to be found in the arms of the prolific family of Basset, ennobled as early as the year 1200 in no less than six branches, besides

very many of knightly rank. We have space but for a few only here:

1. Basset, the Lord Chief Justice, " or three bars wavy gules.”

2. Basset of Rydel, or three piles gules, over all a bendlet azure.” This coat bears reference to that of Rydel, the wearer's mother.

3. Basset of Weldon, or three piles gules, on a border argent eight Bezants.

4. Basset of Drayton," or three piles gules, a quarter ermine;" the latter taken from his mother, a daughter of the Duke of Britanny.

5. Basset of Warwick, or three piles sable.”
6. Basset of Sapcote, “argent two bars wavy sable."
7. Basset of Chedle, “argent two bars wavy sable, a label gules."

8. Basset of Newplace, " argent two bars wavy sable, on each wave a Bezant."

.9 Basset of Sapcote, a second coat, or three piles gules,a quarter vair." 10. Basset of Blore, " or three piles gules, on a quarter argent a griffon segreant sable. Besides about a dozen similar changes introduced by cadets of the above houses. Differing much in the same manner are the coats of the fourteen great families of Grey, of the Scropes, Staffords, Rosses, Nevilles, and the like. Instances are on record in which the

difference adopted not being sufficiently well marked, one brother was taken for the other, with fatal results.

In later times, when the introduction of gunpowder rendered close armour less general, the knight depended less upon his armorial bearings for recognition; and a system of differences, regularly arranged indeed, but less strongly marked, came into use. According to this system the eldest son, during the life of his father, added to his coat a file or label of three points, one for each parent and one for himself; the second son added a crescent, denoting that he was to increase the consequence of the family; the third, a spur-rowel, denoting the profession of arms; the fourth a martlet,“ temple-haunting bird,” marking his destination for the church. The children repeating the differences,-a third son of a fourth son giving the rowel upon the martlet, and so on. The Earl of Harrington thus bears a crescent upon a crescent. The earliest and best example of these “modern differences” is seen upon the shields of the six sons of Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, as blazoned in the windows of his chapel there. The French call these differences “brisures." The painful ingenuity of the herald Gibbon has reduced these “brisures" into the following extraordinary verses.

Dum pater in vita est. Lemnisco triplice primus
Filius utetur-mittens post funera patris ;
At nota semper erit accrescens Luna secundi ;
Tertius a stella, radiis cum quinque, notatur :
A merula quartus notescit, quintus anello;
Lilia dant senos, septenas dat rosa natos ;
Octavus natus molari fit cruce notus :

Flos octo-foliis fratrem solet edere nonum. The Bastard, being “filius nothus or nullius," found no place among the differences of legitimate folk. Sometimes he took his father's coat with a border, as may be seen on the escutcheons of the Somerset and Richmond families; in other cases he assumed altogether a new coat, as in the case of Sir Roger Clarendon, son to the Black Prince, who bore “or on a bend sable three ostrich feathers argent, their quills through as many scrolls or," in allusion to his father's badge. More commonly, however, the bastardy is marked by a short bend or bâton drawn sinisterwise across the shield, and called the mark or bend of bastardy. This is seen in the arms of most of Charles the Second's ducal descendants.

Arms were originally borne singly, but to this succeeded at an early period the practice of combining with the arms of the man those of his wife, and such coats were said to be those of “baron” and "femme." In the earlier examples, the mode of combination often varied. Our space does not permit us to touch upon the subject of quartered coats, which indeed belong aln ost as much to genealogy as

to heraldry; but before we conclude, we will add a few words upon the general subject of the blazon or description of coats of arms.

The blazon commences with the colour of the field, and then describes the charge laid upon it, as thus, “Sir Thomas Bardolph he beareth, B. azure, three quater-foils or."

Metal is not to be placed upon metal, or colour upon colour; and a violation of this rule is false heraldry, though the rule is not absolute.

Metal on metal is false heraldry,
And yet the well-known Godfrey of Bologne's coat

Shines in defiance of the herald's vote.
Sir Walter Scott frequently violates this rule. Marmion's falcon

Soared sable on an azure field;
and in Ivanhoe we have " a fetter-lock and shackle-bolt azure on a
field sable." Solomon moreover blazons “apples of gold in pictures
of silver," which as John Gibbon observes, is very singular, because
as Solomon was the wisest of men, so he could not be ignorant of
heraldry. And we read in Stowe of a Carmelite Prior of our Lady
of Thoulouse who, induced doubtless by the bad example of Solo-
mon, displayed a figure of our Lady in gold, set in a banner of silver.
This error, however, could plead benefit of clergy.

The term “proper,” in heraldry, has nothing to do with propriety in morals or behaviour, but simply expresses that the object is to be represented of its natural colour. Thus, in the insignia of the Ionian order of St. George and St. Michael, we have “the Archangel Michael encountering Satan all proper;" that is to say, sable; though the German family of Teufel display “a Teufel or Divel, gules.”

Arms, say the old writers, are not perfect, unless they contain gold or silver, The Captal de Buch, so famous in the pages of Froissart, bore “de l'or plein," and the Bandinel family display the same chrysoaspidous bearing. The various combinations of colours and metals are all emblematic; thus gold with silver represents victory over the Saracens; with red, a man ready to shed his blood for worldly pelf; with blue, one able to hold his pelf when gotten, and so on.

Gules, or red, according to Feron, was the armorial bearing of Adam, but after the fall he charged it "d'une pomme de sable demonstrant le vilain peché par lue commis-qui est le motif que ces armories sont faulses on coleur domine autre coleur, qui à esté observée jusques a present."

The reasons given for the introduction of certain bearings are scarcely less original. Thus, the lion is placed above every heraldic beast, because " il est de si franche nature, et de si haulte, que si'l trouvoit filly de Roy de loyal pere et de loyale mere ja nul ne luy feroit;" and " in peril your lion is then most gentle and noble ; for

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when he is pursued with hounds and hunters he then desireth not to lurk, nor hideth himself, but sitteth in the fields where he may be seen, and arrayeth himself to defence. When he is wroth, first he breaketh the earth with his tayle, and afterward as the wrath increaseth, he smiteth and beateth his own back ;" for which reasons he is accounted a most honourable heraldic bearing.

The two-headed lion is an emblem of circumspection, two heads being better than one. The heraldic lion also is often queuee furchee, or provided with a second tail, which he owes to a piece of imperial attention. The Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was materially aided in war by Udislaus, King of Bohemia. “My crown and honour,” said he, “belong of right to you, who have been the head and tail of my success; suffer me therefore, as a perpetual memorial of my love, to change your eagle into a stern lion.” The king assented, and the imperial painter produced a lion, but with his tail between his legs. The Bohemians however objected to this, and so the emperor ordered a second tail to be painted, leaving the first also. Edmund Crouchback used a tricorporate lion.

Perhaps the most marvellous feat that ever gave rise to an heraldic bearing, is that of the valiant man who, meeting a lion, thrust his arm into his mouth, “and soe on to his tayle," which taking he turned him wrong side outwards, to the manifest discomfort of the beast. In token whereof, he bore to his coat “a lion everted."

Of English coats of arms, not a few date from the crusades, a still larger number were assumed during the wars of Edward the Third, and a proportion equal to both the rest were granted by the house of Tudor. With the single exception of that of Mortimer, called the heraldic puzzle, the old coats are remarkably simple. Such are the saltire of Nevill, the maunch of Hastings, the cross of Bigod, the chevron of Stafford, the bend and fusils of Scrope and Montacute.

To the crusades themselves are attributable the bright star of De Vere," the crosses that accompany the chevron and fess of Berkeley and Beauchamp, or the “chief a capiendo et tenendo” of Clinton. Under Edward the Third rose the bulk of the old landed gentry of the country, not only such illustrious names as those of Howard, or De la Pole; but the milites and militule, the barones minores of England, a class described as noble in Scotland and on the continent, but for which we have no corresponding term. The arms granted under the house of Tudor, were for the most part to men who had risen in the church or by commerce ; they are recognized at once by the herald, from their confusion and complexity; and they are the latest which the admirer of noble blood condescends to notice.

ART III.- Critical and Historical Essays, contributed to the Edin

burgh Review. By T. B. MACAULAY. 3 vols. Longman. In the preface, lIr. Macaulay offers an apology which is quite unnecessary, in so far as the reader is concerned, for the republication of these Essays; although it would have been an injustice to himself had he withheld the statement; at the same time that there would have been denied an opportunity of complimenting him for its proper tone and tasteful modesty. After confessing his sense of the defecis of the papers, he declares that he has been reluctantly brought to consent to their appearance in the present shape, from a feeling of what is due to the protection of the property of others. The fact is, the Essays have been reprinted by American pirates, copies being continually carried to England, while a still larger importation is expected. Now, the author is of the mind that there is nothing unreasonable in the publishers of the Edinburgh Review being anxious to protect “their own," nor fulsomely pretending in his desire, “that his writings, if they be read, may be read in an edition freed at least from errors of the press and from slips of the pen."

A remark readily suggests itself with regard to the reprinting, without the author's consent and revision, of such papers as those now before us, even if freed from errors of the press and slips of the pen. These Essays appeared in a periodical publication, and were probably not only written on the spur of the moment, in the heat of some transient controversy, and only for an ephemeral purpose ; but the writer may have altered his mind on the subjects discussed, seen reason for wishing that his hasty speculations had never been obtruded on the public; or circumstances may have undergone such an alteration, that neither for his own credit nor the benefit of any class, is the revival advisable. But the injury and injustice done by an unauthorised re-publication of periodical articles are greatly enhanced by the fact that the pirate ransacks the numbers of a journal extending over many years, makes a selection without adequate judgment, and then binds up in a collected form the heterogeneous mass, without systematic arrangement; nay, without enabling the reader to discover the progress of the author's mind in the process of development, or the revolutions of opinions and events that may have characterized the different periods of the era over which the speculations, criticisms, and records may extend.

The unpresuming character of the re-publication will be appreciated when it is known that the present collection contains no papers which have not been pirated by Americans; a few however having been excluded, to which the author attaches little value. It is due also to Mr. Macaulay, that the following statement be circulated:He has been urgently pressed “ to insert three papers on the Utilita

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