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opportunity, and indeed they appear to want the qualities requisite for deliberated and extended combination. The Scottish Covenanters were the common people, the small farmers, and the sturdy labourers of the Lowlands; and they worked out their independence, as a Presbyterian body, if not altogether unaided by the great and the influential, yet mainly by the stern principles they held, and the steady attitude they took, so as to awe and to win. Theirs was a passive endurance rather than a devastating outbreak. No hostile landlord lived in fear of them for life or limb, for cattle or house; even the persecuting lord dreaded not a midnight visit or any murderous association. The Irish peasant has a different way with him in his desperate circumstances; at the same time that the oppressions he encounters are far more numerous and exasperating than the Scotchman has any conception of.

The following is Dr. Madden's account of those grievances :The various outbreaks of popular discontent which took place between 1760 and 1790, and got the names of insurrections and Popish rebellions, can only be regarded as agrarian outrages, the result of oppressive measures taken for the collection of exorbitant rents, the exaction of tithes, and the conversion of the small holdings of the peasantry into pastures. The destitution attendant on those measures, and especially the latter practice, in a country where the unfortunate people turned adrift had no manufacturing districts to fly to for the means of support, drove the persons thus beggared, and deprived of house and home, to those of violence and desperation which usually follow in the footsteps of distress and ignorance. The same interests which reduced the people to misery, were exerted in representing their condition as the result of their own turbulent and lawless proceedings, and the conduct of any of the gentry of their own persuasion who sympathized with their sufferings, or dared to attempt to redress their wrongs, as influenced by seditious and disaffected motives. Wherever agrarian outrages were committed, and their causes were inquired into by such persons, the landlords and the tithe-owners never failed to raise a clamour against their character for loyalty ; and even the writers of the day, who ventured to espouse the cause of the parties who had the courage and humanity to interfere in behalf of the unfortunate people, represented their advocates as well-meaning “but giddy and officious men."

Many of the wrongs and the misunderstandings which so irritate and distract the people of Ireland, cannot be fully appreciated in other parts of the empire without a deep acquaintance with the anomalies of feeling, condition, and government as witnessed in that country. Again, and with regard to the virtual, but tacit, construction put upon terms, laws, and overt acts in the sister kingdom, it is necessary to consult our author, or some one whose discrimination and opportunities for acquiring knowledge are equally ample. In one place he thus distinguisheth : “ In England we all know that treason means * conspiring and intending the death of the king,' &c., but in Ireland

VOL. II. (1813.) NO. 111.

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it means, and is by a party still understood so, conspiring and intending the overthrow of the English interest and the Protestant ascendancy.'” Such was the ascendancy construction assuredly during the times of the United Irishmen. But the Union' took place, brought about to fortify the English interest against any separation that might thereafter be threatened, and it would also appear, to enable the British Government to rule Ireland at less cost of money and trouble than could be done by bribing and swaying the Irish Parliament, or indirectly controlling the landlords.

It has often been asserted that the Union was carried by means of a dishonourable compromise between the British Government and the ascendancy faction; and that in order to have the seat of legislation transferred to London, the inordinate views and the grasping interests of that same faction were not to be interfered with. This at least is undeniable, the Union has not been productive of the benefits to Ireland which it promised, or to anything like an equal distribution between its Catholic and Protestant inhabitants; while pauperism, wretchedness, discord and heart-burnings have greatly increased. Even such measures of relief and reform as have been conceded, have been done grudgingly, and with provoking restrictions and limitations; passed in a shape that is either not workable in the way to meet the exigencies of the case, or that are sure to be thwarted when practically applied.

The English interest and the ascendancy of a minority in Ireland have been with slight exceptions the great objects of Imperial legislation and of the British Government, no matter who was in power, a Whig or a Tory Ministry. To be sure the late government set its face against ascendancy in the administration of justice, and 'sposed of its patronage in popular directions. But this was their one singularity and merit in Ireland, and but of a superficial nature. They dealt not with the radical ills of the nation, and therefore could not do more than for a season to avert the eyes of the Irish people, so apt to be quickly pleased as well as suddenly irritated, from the political and social maladies that are so deeply imbedded in a system of such aged growth. The effect of the superficial improvement however was completely to tranquillize the nation. What then is it that has almost instantaneously thrown the country into a ferment of Repeal, and that is hourly adding to the tumult? Part of the answer must be that the present administration has by its legal and clerical promotions gone contrariwise to the popular course of the Melbourne cabinet; while nothing has been, nor is promised to be done, in order to reach those radical evils which the late government left undone. Hitherto, at least, the Arms Bill seems to constitute the whole sum and substance of the Irish legislation for the Session. True, the language of conciliation has been used, and the principle of coercion is abandoned as an exploded thing; but where is the

positive deed or the positive intimation, that the one way of upholding the Union is to rest it on the affections of the people ? Surely such an intimation will not be found in the bare declaration of the Premier, that he saw no means of continuing to maintain the country in the great position which she held, and to preserve the power and influence which she possessed, but in the firm maintenance of the Union. Surely the mere despatching of troops upon troops, and all the appliances for physical suppression, will not gain affection, or inspire hope. The vast Irish majority will and do declare that they remember the disposition of Toryism of old, nay that they can have no very cordial confidence in the good will and liberality of the minister who granted the Emancipation Act on compulsion, when Ireland was on the brink of rebellion, and when he had some misgivings with regard to the fidelity of some of the troops.

Was Sir Robert Peel (meaning his party as a body) a hearty supporter or strenuous opponent when the Whigs on any occasion strove to carry out the policy and principle of the Emancipation Act ? What said he relative to the reform of the Irish Church, or of the close corporations in Ireland ? But it is foreign to our journal to. take any decided political part, and therefore we do not further pursue these questionings, which might be extended to a number of well-remembered and significant tokens of sentiment towards the people and rights of the Irish majority: Our only purpose by travelling a little beyond our usual line, is to lend, however slight it may be, some support to the long established maxim, that it is better to rule by justice and equal dealings than by ascendancies, by affection than by fear. We believe that it is not now too late to deal with the repeal movement; and that the mere exhibition of a hearty wish, a willingness to grapple with the evils of Ireland which lie below the surface, or which have never hitherto been touched by reform but to vitiate, would arrest the storm that rages. Every person should therefore throw the weight of his voice into the scale of peace, of concord, and union. Let but Dr. Madden's pages be read, the era of the United Irishmen be studied, and then an actual attempt at the severance of the two islands will be seen to involve terrific consequences. The author has with proper judgment refrained from comparing very closely the aspect of the passing scenes and of the present hour with those which he is particularly called upon to tracc and to describe ; but he has contrived to plant his readers upon those pinnacles for observation, and so to arrange his lights that each man may conduct a survey and a contrasting process for himself of the most impressive and instructive character.

The prominence which the emenald isle is offering, renders it unnecessary to speak about the process of clubbing publications together which have any thing like a common name or interest to unite

them therewith. “The Scenery and Antiquities of Ireland Illustrated,” independently of its pictorial merits, gives in its letterpress so much that is characteristic, beautiful, and attractive, that we should at any time be induced to draw upon its paragraphs, supposing the work to appear in a finished form. Frequently have we mentioned its part and parcel contributions to the boudoir table and library shelves in general terms of high laudation; but the splendid work deserves, at one period or another, a more decided recommendation, viz. that which its own plates and paragraphs supply. Having been engaged rather gravely and gloomily on the subject in the preceding pages, it may not be amiss to follow up our Hibernian notices for this month with specimens of the delightful and enticing, in regard to the scenery and antiquities, the traditions and archives of the land, not merely because of the interest attaching to the Western subject, but the singularly attractive features of Mr. Willis's pencillings. We steer at once towards the Cove, and thus find,

it, says,

Although several splendid views may be obtained of the Harbour and River of Cork from different points on the land: the tourist who wishes to behold them in perfection will step on board a boat, or one of the steamers which ply daily between Cork and Cove, as this course gives a perfect command of the picturesque scenery on both sides of the river, with infinitely superior effect. Arthur Young, an intelligent traveller, who visited Cork at a time when the shores of the river had received little improvement from the hand of art, remarks, “that the country on the harbour he thought to be preferable in many respects to anything he had seen in Ireland.” Inglis yields to the scenery the full tribute of his admiration. And Milner speaking of

“that neither the Severn at Chepstow, nor the sea at Southampton, -are to be compared to it.” Another writer adds, that "no part of the scenery is barren or uinteresting; a perpetual variety is presented along the whole course.

The eye, whilst lingering over some happy picture, is continually attracted by some new succession, possessing all the charms of the most romantic landscape.”

Leaving the quay at Cove, we pass the islands of Spike and Hawlbowline; the former is the larger and more important. It faces the entrance of the harbour, and acts as a breakwater, to shelter it from the violence of the southerly winds and the strong flood-tides. It is also happily situated for the defence of the harbour, and has been strongly fortified for that purpose. This island is at present garrisoned by a small military force.

Hawlbowline is a small, rocky islet to the west of Spike, which affords the same protection to the vessels in the harbour from the strong ebb-tides that Spike island does from the flood. At the commencement of the French war, government erected on Hawlbowline immense naval and ordnance stores, warehouses, and a barrack, which, in these "piping times of peace," are perfectly useless.

The southern shore of the great bason now extends to our left-hand, from the harbour's mouth to the village of Monkstown. The scenery here is es. ceedingly beautiful: demesnes rich in cultivated lawns, woods, and green

pastures, stretching down to the water-side, arrest and charm the eye ; while the broad expanse of the harbour, encircled by undulating hills, assumes all the feautures of a broad lake, and completes the noble picture.

Monkstown is a pleasant little village, delightfully situated in the opening of a lovely glen. Some modern cottages, built in the Swiss style, and a church of light and graceful proportions, on the slope above the town, give a highly picturesque appearance to the place when viewed from the river. The ancient castle of Monkstown

Bosomed deep in tufted trees" stands in a commanding situation on the overhanging hill. It is a plain, square structure, and was founded by an ancestor of the Jephson family, in the reign of James I. A popular tradition exists in this ncighbourhood, that the castle was built for twopence. It is explained in the following way. Anastasia, the wife of Sir John Jephson, during the absence of her husband, who was serving in the army of Phillip of Spain, resolved to surprise him on his return by building a stately castle, without diminishing his funds. To accomplish this, she compelled her tenants and workmen to purchase milk, vegetables, and other provisions, which were formerly given to them gratuitously by the former possessors of the estates: and, by this traffic, she realised a sum of money which enabled her to build the castle, and left her, on reckoning up the expense, a loser of only two-pence. The shore from Monkstown to passage is extremely beautiful. Rock Lodge, the residence of Mr. Galwey, midway between the places, occupies one of the most picturesque situations on the river ; viewed from thence, the wooded hill, rising precipitously from the water, has a noble appearance: a white walled bathinglodge, a rustic bridge, thrown across the deep channel of a brawling stream, a tea-house, and a mimic fortification, placed in different conspicuous parts of the wood, give a peculiar pleasing effect to the landscape: but the most remarkable feature of this “ romantic” spot are those immense masses of rock which nature has piled up from the water's edge, with such apparent regularity as to present, when viewed in profile, a striking resemblance to a succession of huge steps, from whence they have received the name of “ The Giant's Stairs.' Here, too, tradition has been busy; and the tales of the peasantry assign to a powerful giant, called Mahoon, the construction of these stupendous steps: they implicitly believe that he resides in a cave beneath the cliff, and they gravely relate the adventures of persons who have had the hardihood to enter his subterranean abode. Carrick Mahon, the seat of Mr. O'Grady, next attracts our attention: the house, though an unpretending building, forms, from its elevated situation, a pretty and remarkable object, from the river. The improvements around it, I have learnt, are entirely owing to the taste of the present possessor; and the luxuriant trees and shrubs that now clothe the rich slopes to the water's edge, are the immediate successors of the unprofitable heath and ragged furze, which a few years since were the sole possessors of the uncultivated soil.

The town of Passage now meets the eye, between which and Cork a constant intercourse is kept up by boats of the best description, affording scope for the taste for aquatic amusements which distinguishes the inhabitants of Cork.

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