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salt down a bullock to-day.'-,'Don't trouble yourself,” said Crab ; Ive got some salt in my pocket-in this kangaroo jacket, which the bushrangers gave me for mine. I dare say they've missed the salt before now, confound them.' With this he inserted his fingers into a recess of his hairy garment, and produced a small quantity of a blackish and gritty substance.—“Ah!" said our hostess, that's come from Saltpan Plains. Well, any is better than none.
And so, friend, the bushrangers have had hold of you ; did they treat you ill ?!"
ART. XXII.-The History of the Scottish Episcopal Church from the Rero
lution to the present time. By G. P. Lawson. This is a work of research and of high historical importance: but could hardly ever have appeared at a season of more distraction in the Church, Presbyterean as well as Episcopalian, and therefore been more likely to meet with an earnest reception. Circumstances have hitherto prevented us from laying before our readers some account of the views which it urges, and of the narrative, with some of the curious documents which it furnishes. In the mean while a snatch here and there supplies us with some matters that may be new to many. Bishop Rose, of the Scottish Church, arrives in London immediately after the Prince of Orange has gained the throne, and is employing every method to establish its foundation. Bishop Compton is the channel of communication with the King.
“ The Bishop of London now addressed himself in an almost official manner to the Bishop of Edinburgh.—My Lord,' he said, “you see that the King, having thrown himself upon the water, must keep himself a-swimming with one hand. The Presbyterians have joined him closely, and offer to support him; and therefore he cannot cast them off unless he could see how otherways he can be served. And the King bids me tell you that he now knows the state of Scotland much better than he did when he was in Holland; for while there be was made to believe that Scotland, generally all over, was Presbyterian, but now he sees that the great body of the nobility and gentry are for Episcopacy, and it is the trading and inferior sort that are for Presbytery. Wherefore he bids me tell you, that if you will under. take to serve him to the purpose that he is served here in England, he will take you by the hand, support the Church and order, and throw off the Presbyterians.'
The Scottish Universities come to be purged of all who refuse to subscribe the Westminster Confession of Faith.
“In no University city was this more conspicuous than in Edinburgh. Proclamation was made, and printed edicts posted, at the Cross and on the College gates ; as also in Stirling, Haddington, and other provincial towns, charging the Principal and Professors of the University, and the schoolmasters of the city, county, and neighbouring counties, to appear before the committee of visitors on the 20th of August 1690, to answer upon the points contained in the Act of Parliament; also summoning and warning all the
lieges who have anything to object against the said Principal and Professors, and others, to appear before them on the said day and place to give in objections. • After an edict,' observes Arnot, which bespoke that the country, although it had been subjected to a revolution, had not acquired a system of liberty, nor the rudiments of justice--after an invitation so publicly thrown out by the commissioners of Parliament in a nation distracted by religious and political factions, it is not to be supposed that informers would be wanting.”
We quote some particulars relative to the ejection of Mr. David Lindsay the Episcopalian ianminister of Glenorchy.
“Mr. Lindsay would not conform. Pressed by the Synod of Argyll, the noble proprictor (the earl of Breadalbane) of the country reluctantly wrote a letter of invitation to a Presbyterian probationer in the shire of Fife, to be minister of Glenorchy. He accepted, came on the close of a week to the parish, but could find no room to receive him, or person to make him wel
In his distress he was drove to the house of the man whom he came to supplant, and was received with a cordiality and kindness becoming a minister of the gospel. Over the whole parish there was a strong ferment. People of all ages and conditions assembled from all quarters in the churchyard on Sabbath, long before the usual hour of worship. At the appearance of the stranger, accompanied by their own pastor, there was a general murmur of indignation. Twelve armed men with drawn swords surrounded the astonished intruder. Two bagpipes sounded the March of Death. Unmoved by the tears and remonstrances of Mr. Lindsay, in this hostile and awful form, they proceeded with their prisoner to the boundary of the parish and of the county. There, on his bended knees, he solemnly engaged never more to enter the parish, or trouble any person for the occurrences of that day. He was allowed to depart in peace, and he kept his promise. The Synod of Argyll were incensed ; time cooled their ardour ; the proprietor was indulgent, Mr. Lindsay was deserving, and the people loved him. He continued in the undisturbed possession of his charge till •his death, more than thirty years after the foresaid event."
The descendants of the Covenanters will hardly credit that such persecuting measures towards the Episcopalians were resorted to, as are described in the following paragraph.
“The Duke of Cumberland, in his march to the North, visited all the Episcopal chapels in Forfarshire, Kincardineshire, Morayshire, and Banffshire, with military law. They were ordered to be shut up, and in many places the people were incited to destroy the seats and other furniture, and to set fire to the humble edifices. These ravages were carried into some districts of Aberdeenshire ; and scarcely a week had elapsed after the battle of Culloden, before his Royal Highness had succeeded in prohibiting any congregation from assembling for divine service, in which a Nonjuring clergymen officiated. The most shameful and wanton outrages were committed, and the clergy and laity were often personally maltreated and insulted. In other counties the mob did the work of the military in the North. The chapel in Cupar-Fife, in which Bishop White officiated, was
assailed and gutted, and the seats, pulpit, reading desk, and communion table, burnt in the streets. On Sunday the 27th of April there was divine service in very few of the chapels in Edinburgh, and before next Sunday they were all ordered to be shut up by the Sheriff.”
ATR. XXIII.--The Confectioner. “ The Confectioner" is one of the best of the series of Guide-books to which it belongs ; is to the purpose quite sufficient, and not unamusing from the gravity with which is forth the qualifications and requirements of a pastrycook. For example :
“The person adapted for this business should be neat and cleanly in his habits, of a lively and ingenious mind, have a quick conception of design, a delicate taste, with a general knowledge of architecture, mythology, and the fine arts; for they are as requisite in the construction of a pièce montée, or an allegorical subject to embellish the table, as to an architect or sculptor in the construction of a splendid building or monument. I do not mean to infer that his informatian must be so extensive, or that he will be required to make the tour of Italy, Rome, and Greece, to study the original masters; but let him take Nature for his guide, with a peep at the Grecian and other statues in the British Museum occasionally, if possible ; and if he possess the rudiments or principles of the art of design, he cannot fail, with a little attention and perseverance, to become an adept in the higher or ornamental branches of his business.
Art. XXIV.-Classical Studies; Essays on Ancient Literature and Art.
With the Biography and Correspondence of Eminent Philologists. By Barnas Sears, President of Newton Theological Institution ; B. B. EdWARDS, Professor in Andover Theological Seminary; and C. C. FELTON,
Professor in Harvard University. Boston, (United States.) This is rather a heterogeneous collection,- miscellanies in a greater degree than readily accords with one's notions of philosophical arrangement, or systematic scholarship. The publication, however, must be highly gratifying to the comparatively few ardent lovers of ancient learning, of whom the
go-a-head" people on the other side of the Atlantic can make boast; and it ought to excite such an interest and sympathy among the classical students of the old world, as will stimulate such enthusiastic labourers in the reluctant American soil, as those whose names are mentioned in the title. There is delightful reading in the book. For example, the Youth of Heyne.
"Heyne was a native of Chemnitz, in the kingdom of Saxony. His parents lived in the greatest poverty. Want was the earliest companion of his childish sports. The first impressions made upon his heart were those produced by a mother's tears, on returning to her house, at the close of the week, without having sold enough of the cloth woven by her husband, to furnish bread for their children. His earliest employment was to wander about endeavouring to force the sale of this article, in times of great commer
cial depression. Indeed, his father's condition was not unlike that of the starving English operatives at this moment.
The heart of young Heyne was driven to desperation, and the hungry boy was naturally enough a violent Chartist in feeling; and he afterwards attributed to the kindness of Providence, that there was no popular tumult to set fire to his patriotic soul. He entered the school in the fauxbourg, and, during the first year, gave lessons to little children, in order to raise money to pay his own tuition. At length, the ordinary instruction in the school no longer met his wants, and, to take lessons in Latin, would cost three cents a week more, which neither he nor his parents could provide. One day, as he was sent to a distant relative for a loaf of bread, his countenance showed that he had been weeping. On inquiry, it was ascertained that poverty kept him from those studies which he longed to pursue, and the three cents a week were at once promised him. The boy returned, tossing his loaf into the air, and bounding with his bare feet, like a lamb. As he made rapid progress in his studies, the time soon came, when he could learn no more at the school in the suburbs. At this period, if there had been the least encouragement to industry he would have become a weaver like his father. His fondest desire was to enter the Latin school within the walls of the town; but whence could he obtain his gulden a week for tuition, his books, and his blue mantle ? A pastor in the fauxbourg had received good accounts of the boy's talents and scholarship, and was, moreover, his second sponsor. These circumstances induced the good preacher to have the youth examined by a competent instructor; and the examination turning out favourably, he sent him to the Latin school, at his own expense. In this school he remained seven years, during which period he made great progress in his studies.
“At the age of nineteen, he went to Leipsic; but, on arriving at the university, he learned, for the first time, that his support was to be discontinued. Indeed, he had earned his living, for some time, by giving private lessons ; hut he had been encouraged to expect the continued aid of the old preacher. Thus, with but two guldens in his pocket-less than two dollars—with a slender wardrobe, and with no books, he found himself a stranger, in a large city, about to enter the university. Most boys would have returned home at once and have abandoned a pursuit beset with so many difficulties. Heyne was willing to endure any hardship, if he might go on with his studies. His sufferings, at this period, were almost incredible. He was reduced to such extreme distress, that a waiting maid was moved to compassion, and actually supplied him daily with food from her own wages. Dear creature,' he afterwards exclaimed, when at the head of the critics of his age, 'could I now but find thee among the living, how gladly would I repay thee !' Some of the professors admitted him gratuitously to their lectures; one of them lent him books, and gave him advice; and, among other things, advised him to follow Scalliger's example, and read the Greek authors through, in chronological order. He followed the advice with such ardour, or, in his own language, with such folly,' that, for more than six months, he slept only two nights in the week. But another professor sent the beadle to demand the tuition for a course of lectures, a part of which only he had attended. Heyne was in distress. He had never succeeded in obtaining a stipend. He often had to buy his dinner with less than 3 pfennigs, or about 1 cent. At
this time, he had an opportunity of becoming a private tutor in a family, • But I perceived,' he observes, in his autibiography, that to leave the university then, would ruin my scholarship for life. For several days I struggled under these contending influences. I cannot now comprehend bow it was, that I had the courage to decline the offer, and to pursue my studies at the university.' These are among the most interesting incidents in Heyne's early life.
But his evil star followed him to the very day of his appointment to the most important philological professorship in Germany. Even after he had finished his course in the university, and while he was in Dresden, living on promises of promotion, he could not afford to hire lodgings. A friend permitted him to stay in his room, but could offer him no bed. He slept on the floor, with books for his pillow. Heeren his son-in-law, and biographer, says, that 'a sort of soup made of the empty pods of peas, was often his only repast.' After a few years, when the place of Gesner, the celebrated professor of languages in Göttingen, became vacant by his death, Ruhnken, of Leyden, was invited to fill it. But he preferred not to leave Holland, where he had resided so long, and was so advantageously situated, and declined the appointment, adding the inquiry, why the university should think it necessary to go out of the country to find a worthy successor of Gesner; and affirming, that there was a young man in Saxony, who would soon fill Europe with his fame; that his name was Christian Gottlob Heyne."
Art.-XXV.-Orion : an Epic Poem. By R. H. HORNE. “ An epic poem in three books for one farthing." This announcement may stir speculation and catch curiosity. But the passages we quote without a word of comment ought to create a still more generous interest. As this of Philosophy,
The wisdom of mankind creeps slowly on,