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testifies, Omnia sunt transitoria, præter amare et diligere Deum ac Virginem Mariam,' with a free and spontaneous will, gives purely, simply, and irrevocably to the monastery," &c.* So also Gerard, canon of Reims, son of the great knight Arnulph de Ruminiac, founded the monastery of Florins, where the chil dren of Sion should rejoice in their King, and praise his name in the choir, while their sacred relics rest under the altars; "for monasteries,” adds the diploma, are towers erected in Sion, where the wonders of God may be declared, and his name adored from generation to generation +." Duke Robert Guiscard and his wife Sicelgaita speak as follows in the beginning of his donation to the infirmary of the monks: "If in a due order we attend to the divine worship, and to the honour and utility of the holy Church, we ought with all devotion to extend the greatest care and consolation to the holy Church of God, that the supernal piety may so much the more graciously protect us as we more fervently endeavour to exalt as far as we can, and protect his Church. Therefore, through the love of Almighty God, and of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of his holy Mother, the Virgin Mary, and of blessed Benedict, and for the salvation of our soul, and of the souls of all our relations, and also through the intervention of our beloved wife, we grant,” &c. ‡ In accordance with such motives, the foundation on which monasteries are placed expressly by the charter of their founders is Christ. So the diploma of foundation of the monastery of St. Maria in the country of Friuli, in the year 662, begins thus: " Having resolved to found a monastery by means of which we may increase in the study of God, and propose examples of life to others, we must seek a beginning from the foundation of all good, which the Apostle explains, saying, Fundamentum aliud nemo potest ponere præter id quod positum est, quod est Christus §.'" Founders being thus actuated by the motive of love for our Lord, we shall discover without surprise that monasteries were built and enriched also in consideration of the holiness attached to particular orders or men. The historian of the Cistercians declares expressly that it was in consequence of their eminent sanctity that in a short time about 1800 monasteries of men, and 1040 of nuns of that order were constructed ||. Each benefactor seemed to say with Guido of Duca,

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"But since God's will is that so largely shine
His grace in thee, I will be liberal too ¶."

So Margaret, queen of Naples, in her privilege to the monas

*D. Gatt. Hist. Abb. Cassinens. x. 624.
Triumphus S Joan. Bapt. 183.
Hist. Cassinens. vi. 276. § S. Paul. Aquil. Op. Appendix ii.
Aubertus Miræus, Chron. Cisterciens.
Purg. 14.

tery of St. Anne of Aquavira, of Mount Dragon, says that she wishes" to support those who, for the salvation of the human race -qui pro salute humani generis-continually labour and watch in prayers with God, and considering that this is a stable and firm possession which any one raises for himself by conferring benefits and favours on the churches*." "At Meinvelt, in the diocese of Treves," says Cæsar of Heisterbach, "is a monastery of a Black order, called Lake, having its name from the adjoining water, a house very rich and flourishing. One day, a certain Saxon was received there to hospitality, who departed much edified by the charity with which he had been received. Not long after, a rich friend of his in Saxony, being at the point of death, and about to write his will in his presence, said, I wish to bequeath somewhat for my soul, if I knew in what place it would be best applied.' To whom he said, Near Cologne is a monastery of great religion, in which, as I can testify from experience, there are men of God most charitable. You cannot leave your alms to a more worthy place.' By his advice the Saxon bequeathed forty marks of silver to them, and died. This was told me by a certain religious convert of our order †."

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Again, we find that monasteries were built and enriched with a view to the good of the soul, and through a desire and love of spiritual riches. Henry VI., offering to build several convents for the Observants, in order to prevail upon St. John Capistran, then vicar-general, to come over to England, that holy man in his reply wrote as follows: "Moreover, concerning the building of new monasteries to the honour of God and the memory of St. Bernardine of Sienna,' I add no more, but that, as I have said, faith without good works is not available. Wherefore, if you pleased to build the said monasteries, I would have you to know that you build not for me nor for others, but for yourself, so many everlasting palaces in heaven; for our days are short, and in a little space of time death cuts us off from all that is here below, and we poor wretches carry nothing away with us but the virtues and vices, the good or evil, which we have acted in this life. If, therefore, your majesty intends to provide for your soul by building the said monasteries for the Observants, I will write to the most reverend father vicar of France, and to some guardian in the neighbourhood, with whom you may consult in this affair ."

But let us again open the diplomas, and simply transcribe them. They are written, it must be confessed, in stunning Latin, but the sense is sufficiently intelligible. What first follows is dated in 1018. 66 'I, John Giso, and Cono, 'espontanea

+ iv. 71.

Hist. Cassinens. x. 619.
Collectanea Anglo-Minoritica, 203.

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nostra bona boluntate,' having thought of the day of death and eternal judgment, and remembering the mercy of Almighty God, for the redemption and salvation of our souls, that the pious and merciful Lord may grant us indulgence for our sins, and that eternal light may encompass us in the future life, by this charter give and grant to the Church of St. Angelo *," &c. Again, in 1078: "I, Dauferus, and I, Altruda, his wife, inhabiting the city of Troja, being moved by the mercy of Almighty God, have thought within ourselves, ut quid prodest homini si totum mundum lucretur anima ejus detrimentum paciatur,' and elsewhere what the Scripture saith, in omni opere tuo memorare novissima tua, et in eternum non peccaberis;' and again what it says, mensura quam mensi fueritis remecietur vobis ;' therefore, for the remedy of our souls, in order that we may obtain rest with the most high Lord, and dwell with him, we give†," &c. Again, in 1087: I, Herbius de Johex, born in Brittain, and now living in the city of Troja, whilst I assiduously reflected on these present things, which would be nothing to a mortal man, I foresaw those things existing which avail to the salvation of the soul, and chose rather to embrace the latter than the former; for nothing transitory can be compared to what endures for ever- Nil enim transitorium comparabitur permanenti,' nothing mortal can equal what is immortal; since also, I remember that which Truth declares in the Gospel, saying, Nihil proficuum esset animæ lucrum hujus seculi unde anima perimitur;' on account of this, I and my wife, the daughter of Landulf, agree to give," &c. Again in 1057: 'I, John, the son of Beczo, having in mind the day of my death and eternal judgment, desire and hope, through the great mercy of Almighty God, the redemption of my soul, and that of the soul of my brother Paul, and all my relations, that to us our Lord Jesus Christ may grant pardon, and that he may recal us to his holy grace, and when that future judgment comes, when the Lord will say, Venite, benedicti Patris mei,' we may be able to obtain recompense from the Lord. Therefore I deliver up to this holy church," &c. Take again a fragment of the testament of Dagobert, in which he leaves certain goods to the abbeys of St. Vincent, now St. Germain, at Paris; of St. Peter, now St. Geneviève; of St. Denis, of St. Columban, and of St. Lupus, at Sens. "As far," he says, as the sense of the human understanding can conceive with a sagacious mind, and perpend with acute investigation, there is nothing better in the light of this life, and in the fugitive joy, than that we should study to expend in the support of the poor or venerable places what we derive from transitory

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Hist. Abb, Cassinensis, vi. 321.

Id. vi. 278.

VOL. VII.

+ Id. vi. 277.

§ Id. vi. 320..

I

things, we who suffer generally the fragility of nature, before a sudden transposition takes place, that we should watch for the salvation of our souls, that we may not be found unprepared, or depart from the world without any respect; but that while we have liberty of action we may transfer things from being perishable substances into eternal tabernacles, so as to obtain perpetual life and a place amidst the desirable assembly of the just. Therefore, moved by these considerations *," &c. A charter of an English king is as follows: "Nihil intulimus, ut Apostolicum testatur oraculum in hunc mundum, nec auferre quicquid possumus; idcirco terrenis ac caducis æterna et mansura mercanda sunt.' Therefore I, Ethelred, king of the Mercians, for the remedy of my soul, give," &c. A charter of King Ceadwall begins thus: “Omnia quæ videntur temporalia sunt, et quæ non videntur eterna sunt. Idcirco visibilibus invisibilia, et caducis cœlestia præferenda sunt.' Therefore I, Ceadwall, have resolved to confer certain emoluments on this monastery +." "This year, 1258," says Mathieu Paris, "the Lord John Mansel, provost of Beverley, clerk and special counsellor of the king, a man prudent, circumspect, and rich, considering that the favour of kings is not hereditary, and that the prosperity of this world does not always last, founded near Romney, two miles from the sea, a house of regular canons, and enriched it, knowing that we only pass through temporal goods, and that by these means we may avoid losing eternal goods." The donation of Count Richard Fundanus in 1176, to the convent of St. Magnus, begins thus with these words: Since we shall all stand before the tribunal of Christ to receive according as every one has done in the body, whether good or evil, we ought to expect the day of final harvest, and to sow those things on earth by which we may gather the fruit of eternal beatitude in heaven. Therefore we, Ricardus," &c. In fine, we have remarked that monasteries were founded through the desire and the love of heaven. Such is the motive of the Emperor St. Henry in granting a charter to Mount Cassino, which begins with these words: "It behoves the imperial majesty to hear the petitions of the servants of God, and willingly to grant what they justly seek, through love of the saints, in whose veneration the places are dedicated; and in proportion as each one endeavours to do this, so much mercy will he obtain, passing with more facility through present things, and more securely obtaining the eternal happiness §." The charter of Count Roland of Lucca to Mount Cassino contains these words: "This we have learned from the authority of

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* Ap. Yepes, Chron. Gen. Ord. S. Ben. ii. 489.
† Mon. Vit. S. Aldhelmi.
§ Id. i. 120.

Hist. Cass. vi. 260.

the divine law, that I ought in such manner to enjoy this world and the things which are frail and transitory, that we may pass from this wicked world to that glorious and celestial Jerusalem, in the building of which living and perfect stones are bound together by the bonds of the utmost love; for so, after the dissolution of this flesh, we trust we may have felicity in heaven, and gloriously be united with the society of the saints, if, mindful of the evangelical precepts, we transfer the things of this world thither, where neither moth nor rust will corrupt them, but where they will be preserved for ever in the palace of the supreme King, so that our riches will become of a great and inestimable value, when for temporal we shall gain eternal, for earthly celestial, for mean sublimest things from God who is the giver of all good. Therefore, with a view to the attainment of that good which will remain with us for ever, I, Roland, by this charter, offer to God and to the church," &c.

The charter of Boamund expresses the same motive; for these are its words: "If we extend care and solicitude and the benefits of my service to holy and venerable places, to their rulers and servants, I hope that I shall obtain the joys of eternal retribution from God the giver of all good,-'qui filium suum carnem sumere, et patibulum crucis subire mortemque pro nobis gustare fecit.' Therefore, by these presents I confirm to the monastery of St. Benedict," &c. † St. Leopold, the son of Leopold the Fair, marquis of Austria, and of Itha, daughter of the Emperor Henry III., founding, as we have seen, Cloister Neuburg, expresses the same motive when giving to it a great part of his patrimony. His charter commences thus: "In the name of the holy and undivided Trinity, Leopold, Oriental marquis, founder of this church since, hindered by secular affairs, we are unable to please God to the utmost by ourselves, we wish to love, to congregate, to cherish, and in every manner to provide for the wants of those who enjoy peace exempt from worldly studies; for, by so doing, not only may we hope for safety in the present life, for peaceable times and all prosperity, but also that we shall not for ever be deprived of the good things which are reserved in heaven. Therefore, I Leopold, with my most noble wife Agnes, with the unanimous consent of all my sons and daughters, and without any contradiction from any mortal whomsoever, with a Davidic devotion and simplicity of heart, joyfully offer all these things to God and to the church of Neuburg," &c. In fine without even such evidence, it clearly is an historical fact, that monasteries in general were built by

+ Id. i. 205.

* Hist. Abb. Cassinens. i. 195.
Ap. Rader. Bavaria Sancta, iii. 148.

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