Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition
Ronald S. Burt, Hobart W Williams Professor of Sociology and Strategy Graduate School of Business Ronald S Burt
Harvard University Press, 1992 - 313 pagina's
This work describes the social structural theory of competition that has developed from the 1970s to the 1990s. The contrast between perfect competition and monopoly is replaced with a network image of competition more closely keyed to the actual settings in which people live and work. The theory describes how the network structure of a situation offers competitive advantage to certain players. The basic element in this description is the structural hole: a gap between two individuals with complementary resources or information. When the two are connected through a third individual as entrepreneur, the gap is filled, creating important advantages for the entrepreneur. The distribution of structural holes in a competitive arena determines the flow of information and control benefits to certain players. Competitive advantage is a matter of access to structural holes.
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advantage aggregate alternative analysis argument association attributes average benefits boundaries capital Chapter close cluster competition concentration connected constraint contacts contains corporate correlation cost customers defined density dependence describes develop discussed distribution dotted early promotion embedding empirical entrepreneurial entry-rank equivalence establishments estimates evidence example expected extent Figure firm four friends graph hierarchy higher hole effects hole signature hypothesis illustrated important increases indicate individual investment kinds less manager's managers mean measure negotiating observed opportunity organization person player population position predicted preferences primary producers proportion provides question rank rates of return redundant relations relationship responsible role significant social social structure specific strategic partner strong structural autonomy structural holes supplier t-test Table tertius third tion transactions Type variable vary volume women