quality, an elementary book should display greater clearness, method, and precision.

Science occupies too large a place in life for us not to respond to the taste of the public, which desires to know its beauty and utility. On the other hand, there is room for a certain amount of scepticism as to how much science it is possible to communicate to minds (even the best) unfamiliar with laboratory research. What is to be done? Excessive simplification and unnecessary detail must alike be avoided. To popularize is to select. The rule is in the technical portion to pass over all that is devoid of educational value; to explain what is essential in terms which professional scientists would not repudiate; to present science as liberal and humane; to aim at something higher than the immediate interest of curiosity, and to offer to those whom their occupations keep at a distance from scientific work sound ideas as to the place and power of man in Nature. To popularize science would be labour in vain if, besides its instructive value, such work did not possess the merit of contributing to the general progress. by cultivating the mind.






I.-Present state of investigations upon treatment of tuber-

culosis differences between a vaccine and a serum, 53,

54.--Characteristics of the tubercle bacillus : tuberculosis

a chronic disease, 56.—Tuberculosis attacks the organism's

means of defence, 57.

Toxin of the tubercle bacillus, or tuberculin; its discovery

by Koch, 57.-Mode of action of the toxin, 58.—Differ-

ences between tuberculin and the toxins of diphtheria and

tetanus, 58.—Tuberculin poisonous only to an animal

already suffering from tubercle, 58.-No counter-poison

yet produced; the anti-tuberculous serums, 59.—Explana-

tion of alleged favourable results from the latter in certain

cases, 60.-Pseudo-immunity of organisms which become

used to tuberculin, 61.

The fatty, waxy envelope of the tubercle bacillus, 61.-The

latter an acido-resistant microbe, 62.-Failure to obtain a

vaccine from tubercle bacilli, 63.

Three classes of tuberculosis and tubercle bacilli-those of

mammals, birds, and cold-blooded animals, 64.—Attempts

at transforming these different kinds, 65.

Principle underlying von Behring's bovo-vaccination: experi-

ments and observations to determine whether the human

bacillus is pathogenic to cattle, 67.-Clinical observations

bearing on the question whether the bovine bacillus is

pathogenic to man, 68.—Von Behring's bovo-vaccination,

or vaccination of cattle with human bacilli, 70-71.-Early

results, 71.-Conversely, can human beings be vaccinated

with the bovine bacillus? Experiments upon human

beings and monkeys, 72-73.


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Various forms of tetanus, 98-99.-Old observations; opinions

of army doctors, 102.-Influence of the soil and variations

in temperature, 102-103.-First experiments, 104.

Experimental investigations on tetanus; discovery of the

bacillus, 105.-Pure cultures of the bacillus, 106.-Spores,

106.-Presence of the bacillus in the soil and manure-

heaps; role of the horse in the propagation of tetanus,


Tetanus a toxic disease, 108.--Experiments by Kitasato,

and Vaillard and Vincent, 108.-Diphtheritic and tetanic
toxin, 109.—Extraordinary activity of the latter, 110.—Sen-
sibility of different species of animals, 111.-Experimental
reproduction of the disease in its various forms by means
of tetanic toxin, 111.-Mode of absorption of the toxin, 113.




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