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DAVIS, E. W. Some Remarks on Unicursal Curves, 123.
FRANKLIN, F. Elementary Proof of Stirling's Theorem, 57.
PHILOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY, ETC.
ADLER, C. The City of Harran: notes on its name and history, 126.
CLARKE, J. T. The Introduction and Fundamental Principle of the
HARRIS, J. R. On the Exemplar of Cod. C in the Apocalypse, 6;-an Ety-
HARRISON, J. A. Syntax of the Past Participle with avoir in French Poetry
LEHMANN, C. F. On the Dialectic Equivalence of n to s in Proto-Baby-
MILLER, C. W. E. Rhythmical Pronunciation of Greek and Latin Prose
NETTLESHIP, H. The Noctes Atticæ of Aulus Gellius, 84.
FR, E. G. A Study of Dinarchus, 124.
C. The New Revision of the New Testament, 44.
STILLMAN, W. J. The Acropolis of Athens, 83; Prehistoric Research in the
American School of Archæology at Athens, 13.
Archæological Institute of America: Organization of the Baltimore Society,
Anglo-Saxon and English: Enumeration of Classes, 26, 68;-Work of
Shemitic Languages: Enumeration of Classes, 25, 67;-Programmes for
sleeve, 64;-by G. S. Hall, 64;-by J. R. Harris, 45, 95;- by H. von
138; -Philological Association, 46, 70, 96, 114, 137;-Scientific Asso-
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The Seminary Method, by H. B. ADAMS.
[Abstract of a paper read at a meeting of the University Historical and Political Science Association, September 28, 1883].
The Seminary, like the College and University, is of ecclesiastical origin. Historically speaking, the Seminarium, or, as the German students call it, the Seminar, was a nursery of theology and a training-school for Seminary priests. The modern theological seminary has evolved from the medieval institution, and modern seminary students, whether at school or at the University, are only modifications of earlier types. The Church herself early began the process of differentiating the ecclesiastical seminary for secular purposes. Preachers became teachers, and the propaganda of religion prepared the way for the propaganda of science. The Seminary method of modern Universities is, therefore, merely the development of an old institution into new uses, among which is the professional training of historical students, and the discovery of new truth in the training process.
At the University of Heidelberg, as elsewhere in Germany, there are Seminaries for advanced training in various departments of learning, chiefly, however, in Philology and in other historical sciences. The Philological Seminary, where the use of the Latin language for formal discussion is still maintained at some Universities, is, perhaps, the connecting link between medieval and modern methods of scholastic training. In the Greek Seminary of the late Professor Koechly, at Heidelberg, the training was preeminently pedagogical. The members of the Seminary took turns in occupying the Professor's chair for one Philological meeting, and in expounding a classical author by translation and comment. After one man had thus made trial of his abilities as an instructor, all the other members took turns in criticising his performance, the Professor judging the critics and saying what had been left unsaid.
In the Historical Seminary of Professor Erdmannsdoerffer the method was somewhat different. It was less formal and less pedagogical. Instead of meeting as a class in one of the University lecture-rooms, the Historical Seminary, composed of only six men, met once a week in a familiar way at the Professor's own house in his private study. The evening's exercise of two hours consisted in the critical exposition of the Latin text of a mediæval historian, the Gesta Frederici Imperatoris, by Otto, Bishop of Freising, who is the chief original authority upon the life and times of Frederick Barbarossa. As in the Greek Seminary, so here, members took turns in conducting the exercises, which, however, had less regard for pedagogical method than for historical substance. Each man had before him a copy of the octavo edition of Bishop Otto's text, and the conductor of the Seminary translated it into German, with a running comment upon the subject matter, which he criticised or explained in the light of parallel citations from other authors belonging to Bishop Otto's time, who are to be found in the folio edition of Pertz's Monumenta Germaniae Historica. From this method of conducting the Seminary, it would appear as though one man had all the work to do for a single evening, and then could idly listen to the others until his own turn came once more. But it was not so. Subjects of discussion and for special inquiry arose at every meeting, and the Professor often assigned such subjects to the individual most interested for investigation and report.
An illustration of Seminary-work relating more especially to Modern History and Politics, was given from similar experience in the private class of the late Dr. J. C. Bluntschli, Professor of Constitutional and International Law at Heidelberg. In his Seminary, the exercises were in what might be called the Comparative Constitutional History of Modern European States, with special reference to the rise of Prussia and of
the New German Empire. He himself always conducted the meetings of the Seminary. Introductory to its special work, he gave a short course of lectures upon the History of Absolute Government in Prussia and upon the influence of French and English Constitutional Reforms upon Belgium and Germany. He then caused the Seminary to compare in detail the Belgian Constitution of 1830 with the Prussian Constitution of 1850. Each member of the Seminary had before him the printed texts, which were read and compared, while Bluntschli commented upon points of Constitutional Law that were suggested by the texts or proposed by the class. After some weeks' discussion of the general principles of Constitutional Government, the Seminary, under Bluntschli's skilful guidance, entered upon a special and individual study of the relations of Church and State, in the various countries of Europe, but with particular reference to Belgium and Prussia, which at that time were much disturbed by conflicts between the civil and the ecclesiastical power. Individual members of the Seminary reported the results of their investigations and interesting discussions always followed. The result of this Seminary-work was an elaborate monograph by Bluntschli himself upon the Legal Responsibility of the Pope, a tractate which the Ultramontane party thought inspired by Bismarck, but which really emanated from co-operative studies by master and pupils in the Heidelberg Seminary.
Some account of methods of work in the department of History at Harvard College, in the University of Michigan, in the University of Wisconsin, and at the Johns Hopkins University, will be published in the January number of the "University Studies in Historical and Political Science," as an introduction to the Second Series. This paper, entitled "New Methods of Study in History "-the Special or Topical Method, the Comparative, the Co-operative, and the Seminary Methods-was read before the American Social Science Association at Saratoga, September 4, 1883.
The Records of the Virginia Company and Notes on Early Maryland History, by EDWARD D. NEILL, President of Macalester College, Minnesota.
[Abstract of a communication to the University Historical and Political Science Association, October 5, 1883].
Rev. Dr. Neill, author of “Terra Mariae,” “The Founders of Maryland," "English Colonization of America," and of a "History of the Virginia Company," called the attention of the seminary to two folio volumes now in the Congressional Library, which contain material upon the basis of which the early history of Maryland, Virginia, and perhaps other colonies is yet to be reconstructed. They contain the transactions of the Virginia Company from 1619 to 1624, and have had an eventful history. During the period of the Spanish marriage-complications in England, Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador, intrigued to have these records destroyed. Before his object could be accomplished, however, Nicholas Ferrar, one of the adventurers, had copies of them taken, which were deposited with the Earl of Southampton. They then came into the possession of the father of Col. William Byrd, of Westover. The Byrd library was subsequently bought by Rev. Wm. Stith, president of William and Mary College, who made them the basis of his "History of Virginia." After his death they passed into the possession of his brother-in-law, Peyton Randolph, whose library was afterwards purchased by Thomas Jefferson, and they, finally came into the possession of the United States with the Jefferson papers which were purchased by our government. These two folio volumes are said to contain material hitherto unused and of fundamental importance to our early colonial history. The seminary will endeavor to make use of these origi
nal records. Dr. Neill suggested that influence be brought to bear upon Congress for their publication.
President Neill is preparing a notice of Thomas Cornwallis, councillor, and the guiding mind of the first Maryland colony, for publication in the magazine of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. This paper will show the difference between the charter of Avalon granted to the first Lord Baltimore and the charter of Maryland. The Avalon charter grants to Sir George Calvert, knight, "the patronages and advowsons of all churches which, as Christian religion shall increase, shall happen hereafter to be erected." The Maryland charter adds to this the restrictive clause that all churches, chapels and places of worship shall be "dedicated and consecrated according to the ecclesiastical laws of our kingdom of England.”
The paper will show that Cecil, Lord Baltimore, staked but little money in the first colony. His own words, in a letter to the Earl of Strafford, are that he had "sent a hopeful colony into Maryland, with a fair and probable expectation of good success, however, without any danger of any great prejudice unto myself, in respect that others are joined with me in the adventure." Father White, the zealous Jesuit missionary among the first colonists, wrote to his superior that three out of four of the first settlers were Protestants. Some writers have said the workingmen were only referred to, but that the gentlemen were adherents of the Church of Rome. It will be shown that Thomas Cornwallis and all of the leading minds of the first colony were opponents of the Church of Rome. It will be shown that the royalist Governor of Maryland fined Cornwallis for assisting Richard Ingle, who came in a Parliament ship and took Father White prisoner; also that Cornwallis in other ways showed his affection for Parliament.
Icaria-A Fragment of Communistic History, by ALBERT SHAW.
[Abstract of a paper read before the Historical and Political Science Association October 19, 1883.]
This paper consisted of a sketch of the career of the French communist, Étienne Cabet, with a detailed account of his communistic doctrines and his attempt at their realization by means of an experimental colony in America. The history of this so-called "Icarian Community brought down to the death of Cabet, in 1856, its subsequent story being reserved for a second paper. The study is based upon original French documents and sources not examined by previous writers, (Nordhoff, Hinds, et al.), and upon careful personal interviews with the few surviving members of the original migration. It is believed that this is the first attempt at an accurate and complete sketch of Icarian history.
Cabet was born in the year 1788, grew up an enthusiastic democrat, studied law, took active part in the July Revolution of 1830, was banished for his radicalism by Louis Philippe in 1834, and spent five years in England, where study and reflection made him a communist, and where he wrote his famous book, "The Voyage in Icaria." He returned to France in 1839, and published his book the next year. Its success was immediate and great, and within six or seven years his followers, known as Icarians or Cabetists, numbered several hundred thousand. "The Voyage in Icaria" is a romance in which is pictured in great detail the happy social life of an imaginary country called Icaria, which has adopted communism. Mechanics and workingmen were the chief adherents of Icarianism. Cabet, in 1841, founded a newspaper, Le Populaire, in which he defended his doctrines, and he wrote innumerable tracts and polemics. He decided to demonstrate the feasibility of his theory by a colony in Texas.
February 3, 1848, 69 pioneers left Havre for New Orleans, expecting to be followed by 1,500 in a few weeks. From New Orleans they proceeded to Shreveport, La., expecting to find that the lands they had bargained for were on the Red River. They learned that they must trudge more than 200 miles from Shreveport, and that the lands which they had supposed were purchased for them were only theirs subject to actual occupancy, and were, moreover, not contiguous but were the halves of alternate sections. These disappointments were followed by terrible malarial fevers. Meanwhile, in France the February Revolution of 1848 had changed the aspect of affairs, and the 1,500 men who were to have followed the Icarian pioneers as a "second advance-guard," dwindled to 19, who reached their unhappy brethren of the first guard in time only
to join in the abandonment of Texas and the retreat to New Orleans. Unaware of the extent of this Texas disaster, several embarkations followed, including Cabet himself, and early in 1849 there had gathered in New Orleans nearly 500 Icarians. The great Icarian school in Europe had been fatally severed by the events of the Revolution, one party desiring to abandon the colonization scheme and work for the realization of a communistic democracy in France, and the other party adhering to the emigration idea.
The question in New Orleans now was the practical one of a home. Inability to agree caused the withdrawal of nearly half the community, and the remainder, abandoning Texas forever, went up the Mississippi to Nauvoo, Illinois. Nauvoo had been recently vacated by the Mormons, and the Icarians were therefore able to rent houses and land at nominal figures, which, in their depleted financial condition, was most fortunate. The brief compass of this abstract will not permit a description of their social life at Nauvoo, further than the statement that they increased steadily in numbers and wealth, and maintained for six years a harmonious, happy communal life, characterized by industry, morality, and intelligence. Cabet was now nearly 70 years old, and his fondness for power had grown while his executive capacity had declined. His demand for a more arbitrary form of government produced a dissension which severed the community, one-half remaining at Nauvoo, and the other half under the leadership of Cabet, withdrawing to St. Louis. This was in the fall of 1856. Cabet had been in St. Louis scarcely a week when a stroke of apoplexy ended his strange and adventurous career. His followers formed themselves into a community near St. Louis, which they named Cheltenham; and the other wing, after remaining at Nauvoo a few years, removed to Southwestern Iowa. The story of their successes and failures after the death of their founder, and of their present fortune and condition, will furnish material for a concluding paper.
Christian Socialism in England, by R. T. ELY.
[Abstract of a paper read before the Historical and Political Science Association, September 28, 1883].
The Rev. Frederick D. Maurice may be considered the originator of this movement which began in England in 1849. His chief co-workers were young men like Mr. Thomas Hughes, Mr. Vansittart Neale, Mr. Ludlow and Rev. Charles Kingsley, whom he had gathered about him in his pastoral work in London and through his writings. He was a man of extreme diffidence but possessed of a wonderful magnetism which drew men to him and inspired confidence.
The immediate impelling cause of Christian Socialism was the wretched condition of the laboring classes in England as revealed by the disclosures following in the wake of the revolutionary year 1848. Parliamentary commissions conducted protracted investigations and inquiries, which Women performed revealed the intolerable wretchedness of the poor. the labor of beasts of burden, children who ought to have been at play were murdered by over-work, and the struggle for existence bore so heavily on men that they became old at thirty. It was at this time that the condition of the laboring men appeared to many like "a hell without hope and without escape."
Maurice told his young disciples that a continuance of such a state of things was impossible and set them to work among the poor of his own parish. They started a night school, which subsequently developed into the Working Men's College. This was endowed by Maurice with about all the property he ever had and is now doing an excellent work under the presidency of Sir John Lubbock.
About this time Mr. Ludlow went to France and became acquainted with the productive coöperative associations, started by Louis Blanc, which were in a flourishing condition. He returned to England and told his confrères what was going on across the Channel. Coöperation appeared to them a wonderful institution, and they "determined to have some of it in England." Coöperative undertakings were started with great enthusiasm and generous devotion. Mr. Neale, who has ever been a faithful friend of the working man, put his entire fortune into the movement. The business basis was bad. No examination was made of the character of applicants for admission to the undertakings, and money was lent to workers at four per centum with no other security than tools and mate
rials purchased by loans. Every band of workers failed and Christian socialism came temporarily to a stand-still. Mr. Kingsley became dis couraged and fell out of the ranks, but Mr. Neale, Mr. Hughes and others kept bravely on and allied themselves to the distributive coöperation of the north of England, which received a mighty impulse from the Rochdale Pioneers. This association and many others have formed themselves into a Union, a great organization which now embraces directly or indirectly four or five millions of Englishmen. It has thus become leavened by the notions of practical Christianity as taught by Maurice and his followers. The three principles as formulated by Maurice, are the following:
I. That human society is a brotherhood, not a collection of warring atoms;
II. That true workers should be fellow-workers, not rivals;
III. That a principle of justice not of selfishness should regulate ex
It is in the ultimate and complete triumph of cooperation that Mr. Hughes sees the salvation of England.
NOTE. A considerable part of the material for the paper of which the above is an abstract, was kindly furnished the writer by Mr. Hughes in personal conversation during his recent visit in this country.
NOTES IN BIOLOGY.
Abstract of Observations on the Development of Balanoglossus, by WILLIAM BATESON, Cambridge, England.
[Note from the Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory, 1883].
An unlimited quantity of this remarkable form was easily to be obtained at half-tide all along the shores in the neighborhood of Hampton, Virginia. The difficulties attending the investigation were far less than those that have been previously met with at other localities. Since the time during which I have been able to remain in America was exceedingly limited, I thought it best to confine my work at Hampton to the study of fresh specimens of the animal, and to the task of collecting and preserving them for subsequent examinations by means of sections. My observations are, therefore, very meagre and inadequate, especially as regards the organogeny of the form, owing to the extreme scarcity of the larva. These important deficiencies I hope subsequently to supply when I shall have been able to examine my material by sectional methods. The general appearance of the Hampton form presents many points of slight divergence from the species common at Naples (B. minutus), so that at first sight the two animals seem very different, but whether the anatomy of this form is essentially different, I could not decide by examination of fresh specimens alone. The principal result of my work has been to show that the form common on the Chesapeake coast does not pass through the Tornaria stage, which has been described by previous observers as the larva of Balanoglossus. The eggs of this animal are opaque, yellowish grey bodies, inclosed in a thin tough eggshell which is quite transparent. Segmentation is begun by the appearance of a median furrow which divides the egg into two equal halves. This is followed by another median furrow at right angles to the first, forming four segments. In the next stage that I have been able to observe segmentation was complete, having probably proceeded in a regular manner, though of this I have not been able to determine. One edge of this blastospore is next flattened and gradually depressed, causing the embryo to take the shape of a concavo-convex disk. The concavity becomes gradually reduced in size as its edges grow together to form the blastospore, appearing at the same time to become thickened. This process is continued until the blastospore becomes exceedingly small; whether it subsequently disappears or not I cannot say until I have cut sections of it. I believe, however, that it becomes the anus, which at all events is found in the same position. As this gastrula becomes shut off it resumes the spherical shape and begins to rotate about the axis, which eventually becomes the long axis of the animal, at the top of which the blastospore is placed. This rotary movement is caused by a uniform covering of fine cilia. After rotating in this way for some few hours, the body elongates and a ring of large cilia appears surrounding the posterior end. The animal then swims round the egg, rotating at the same time on its long axis. A nearly median transverse constriction next occurs, which is followed by another one anterior to it, giving the body the appearance of being composed of three segments. The anterior segments become the proboscis, the middle one forms the collar, and from the posterior portion the rest of the body is developed. Within the anterior constriction the mouth is subsequently formed. At the anterior end of the proboscis a tuft of fine long cilia grows out as in the larvae of many Chœbopoda, etc. A pair of depressions are at the same time formed posteriorly to the collar in a dorsal position. These depressions form the first pair of gill slits. In this condition the larva is
generally hatched, though I have found individuals already free before the appearance of the transverse constriction. On hatching these larvæ are still quite opaque, and live buried in the muddy sand which the adults inhabit. In this condition the animal remains for some time, increasing in size, until it is about an eighth of an inch long, the proboscis being about half the total length of the body. The tip of the proboscis is used by the larvæ to attach themselves by suction to foreign bodies, though apparently no special suctorial organ exists. As the body grows, the posterior band of cilia becomes wider and the cilia themselves longer and coarser, while the direction of the band alters slightly. From the appearance of fresh specimens in this stage, treated with acetic acid, I believe that several pouches arise from the gut which probably are destined to form the other gill slits, but this is quite uncertain, though of course sections will at once decide this question. I have been unable to procure any specimens older than these, and of the changes by which this larva becomes converted into Balanoglossus, I can therefore say nothing. Possibly the animal remains in this condition during the winter and awaits the spring for its final developments. I hope to be able to observe the subsequent stages at some future season.
On the Osteology and Development of Syngnathus Peckeanus (Storer), by J. PLAYFAIR MCMURRICH, M. A., Guelph, Ontario.
(This paper is an abstract of observations which were made during the past winter upon embryos obtained at Beaufort during the preceding summer).
The embryonic cranium is characterized by its relative shortness as compared with the adult, a character due to the bending up at their extremities of the coalesced Trabeculæ Cranii. As development proceeds this bending up does not diminish, but the mouth is carried forward by a growth of the horizontal portion of the trabeculæ and it is not until a comparatively late stage that the elongation of the snout is dependent upon the straightening out of the rostral cartilage. In the adult the occipital region extends comparatively far forwards while the proötic region is exceedingly compact. Basi-, ali-, and orbito-sphenoids are wanting, so that the canal for the passage of the orbital muscles is exceedingly large. There are no nasals, and the parietals are small and merit the term "dermo-epiotics.".
With regard to the suspensorial, hyoid and branchial apparatus, the symplectic is very long, and as a consequence there is a separation of the hyomandibular and metapterygoid elements. The ethmo palatine cartilage is at first quite separate from the pterygoid process of pterygo-quadrate but finally unites with it. Mr. J. A. Ryder has described these cartilages in Hippocampus as the intermaxillary and maxillary cartilages respectively, a nomenclature, which from our knowledge of the development of these parts, and as I have satisfied myself by tracing the subsequent history of the cartilages, is incorrect. In the adult the great elongation backwards of the metapterygoid and quadrate bones, the abortion of the genio-hyoid which is well marked in embryonic stages and the absence of intermaxillaries are traceable points. The branchial arches are never more than four and are exceedingly simple in structure.
The dermal scales appear as stout membranous plates in which ossification takes place concomitantly with that of the neural and transverse processes of the vertebræ, as a result of which the scales become supported