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to the matrix m 2 2 n of the collective degree (w-1). Hence the degree of the involutant will be (w2 — 1) (w− 1) + (w− 1) or w2(w—1) as before.

Hence the product of IJ is of the degree 22(w—1), or the same as R, and consequently (at all events to a numerical factor près) R and IJ coincide, which is the essential thing to be proved.

N. B. As regards 1= 3, the above proof is exact, for higher values of w to make it valid, it must be demonstrated as a Lemma that the two general twin involutants (even were they decomposable forms, which they undoubtedly are not,) could not have any common factor nor either of them contain any square factor. The Resultant of F, G, H may be compared to a cradle just large enough to contain the twin forms in question, so as to give assurance that no other form is mixed up with them; and the proof given above shows that this must be the case if neither twin is doubled up upon itself, and if the two do not grow into one another, but like such creatures each possesses a perfectly distinct organization.

A single instance will serve to establish the fact that the Resultant of F, G, H is the very product IJ itself, without any numerical multiplier. I have made this verification for binary and ternary matrices, and as the point is not one of an essential importance need not dwell here further upon it.

To pass to a much more important subject, I am inclined to anticipate as the result of a long and interesting investigation into the relations of the involutants of a certain particular corpus of the third order that the sum of the two involutants of any corpus admits of being represented by means of invariants similar in kind to that which expresses the single involutant to a binary corpus (m, n), viz., the content of (i. e. the determinant to) the matrix mn - nm which itself (as previously observed) may be written as the determinant to the matrix {m}, or say (m, n),; and in some similar way it is, I think, not unlikely that the product also of the two involutants (the resultant of F, G, H) is capable of being expressed; but I must for the present content myself with exhibiting the bare fact of the existence of invariants of the kind referred to for matrices of any order. Suppose then that m, n is a corpus of the third order. minant



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Form the deter

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The determinant to this matrix will be of the total degree 18 in the two sets of elements belonging to m and n respectively, i. e., of the degree 9 in respect to each set of elements per se. And so in general if m, n be of the order w the determinant (m, m2, ... mw-1, n, n2, ...n-1)2 will contain only 2()2 effective terms, of which half will bear the positive and the others the negative sign.

The determinant to this matrix will be of the order

w {2(1+2+ . . . +(w— 1) ) } i. e. (w — 1)w2,


in regard to the combined elements in m and n, i. e. equi-dimensional with either involutant to the corpus m, n.

Whatever else may be its properties (on which I do not dare yet to pronounce,) it is certain that such determinant (and over and above that, every term in the matrix of which it is the content) will be an Invariant to the corpus in the same sense in which either Involutant has been previously shown to be entitled to bear that name. And here for the present it becomes necessary for me to break off, bidding au revoir to any reader who may peruse this sketch, and trusting to meet him again in the broader field of the American Journal of Mathematics, where I hope to be spared to set out this portion of the theory with more certainty, and the whole doctrine of multiple quantity with much greater completeness and

in more ample detail than is possible within the limits of the Circulars and in the short interval remaining between the present time and the date of my intended departure for Europe.

Note on Weierstrass' Methods in the Theory of Elliptic Functions. By A. L. DANIELS.

[Abstract of a paper in the American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. VI, No. 2]. This article was written to place before the readers of the Mathematical Journal a sketch of the entirely original and valuable methods which Weierstrass employs in these theories, and which have not yet been madeaccessible through the journals. Weierstrass approaches the periodic functions of one variable from the point of view of the function theory. The first general result of the investigation is the "sigma function" which is developed at first as the continued product of an infinite number of prime functions, each of which vanishes for one finite value of the argument, has one essential singularity at infinity, and is of the form

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s is found to be the p function of u. The sigma function proves to possess many points of resemblance to the and of Jacobi. The relations of the sigma functions among themselves are, as might have been expected from the natural and fundamental character of their origin, especially simple and few in number. Lastly, for the purposes of computation, two very convergent series are used, the argument of one of which is a simple function of the differences of the roots e1, eg, ez. This obviates entirely the necessity for extensive tables of the elliptic integrals or anything of the sort.

A Transformation of a Differential Operator. By A. S. HATHAWAY.

[Abstract of a communication to the University Mathematical Society, November 7, 1883]. The present transformation was suggested by a theorem given in Clebsch's "Binare Formen" ( 7) which is substantially as follows: (1) ƒ=Σa′(x ̧Y2—Y2¤ ̧)" X'—' rk—' (X ̧¥‚— X,Y1)'ƒ ;


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XyYx+|xy||XY, (= II say).
Now X,Y= (XyYx)x constant + Y, and
YxYy x const.

= XxYy-(XyYx)x const... II=Yy(Xx+1), which, operating on the homogeneous function f, of degree m in the x's and n in the y's respectively, alters it only by the factor n(m + 1). Again II expanded to the kth power under the supposition that y is constant, takes the form

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Concerning the Existence of a Third Form of Oxygen. By PROFESSOR REMSEN.

[Abstract of a communication to the University Scientific Association, November 7, 1883]. In a paper published last year in the American Chemical Journal, Vol. IV, p. 454, some experiments which had been performed by Mr. E. H. Keiser and the speaker were described, the results of which showed that air in the presence of moist phosphorus has not the power to oxidize carbon monoxide. Leeds and Baumann in earlier experiments had come to exactly the opposite conclusion. As neither ordinary oxygen nor ozone has the power to oxidize carbon monoxide, Baumann further concluded that when air comes in contact with moist phosphorus the oxygen is changed to active oxygen distinct from ozone. The paper above referred to has called forth replies from Leeds (Chemical News, Vol. 48, p. 25,) and from Baumann (Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 16, p. 2146,) in which the respective authors describe new experiments and claim that these only confirm their first conclusion. As the work of Mr. Keiser and the speaker had been carried on with all possible precautions against.error, and the paper embodying the result obtained had been published only after reflection, it did not seem probable that a repetition of the work would lead to different results. Nevertheless the very positive statements of Baumann, and the fact that his method of experimenting as described in his last paper is quite different from that described in his first, and different in some respects also from Mr. Keiser's, made a repetition appear desirable.

The feature in Baumann's latest experiments which first attracted attention, is the very large volume of air which he now finds necessary to conduct over the phosphorus before he gets evidence of oxidation. In his first paper (Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 5, 251,) the description indicates that the oxidation is very easily effected. He says that the baryta water into which the gases were conducted, after having been brought in contact with the moist phosphorus, became turbid in a short time, and that in the course of an hour there was formed an abundant precipitate (reichlicher Niederschlag). Now, however, having taken the precautions suggested by Mr. Keiser and the speaker, avoiding the use of corks and rubber connectors, his result is quite different. Instead of getting an abundant precipitate in the course of an hour, he says that after the first two hours there was a distinct turbidity in the baryta water, and that in ten hours more the escape tube in which the precipitate was principally formed was stopped up. In another experiment he used a mixture of 700 c. c. carbon monoxide very much diluted with air, so that its passage through the apparatus required fifteen hours; and in another the passage of a mixture consisting of 30 litres of air which contained 2.45 litres carbon monoxide was continued for twelve hours. The quantity of carbon

dioxide obtained in one experiment was .0366 gram, in another .0646 gram.

In repeating the earlier experiments Mr. Keiser has obtained exactly the same results as before-that is, no evidence of oxidation could be obtained. On continuing the passage of the mixture of carbon monoxide and air over the phosphorus for several hours, so that volumes of the gases varying from 15 to 30 litres were used, the formation of a small precipitate in the baryta water was observed. A parallel experiment was now made with air alone, from which, of course, all carbon dioxide had been removed. After passing 15 litres through the apparatus, the formation of a slight precipitate was observed, and this increased, seeming to be formed in the same quantity in the case of air alone as in that of air and carbon monoxide. The apparatus used was so constructed as to completely prevent contact of the gases with all organic substances. Whence then came the carbon dioxide? Thinking it possible that it might come from organic matter in the air which had passed through the three wash bottles containing caustic soda and baryta water, and then been oxidized by the ozone formed in the presence of the phosphorus, a final precaution was taken for the purpose of avoiding this possible source of error.

The air used was first passed over heated copper oxide, placed in a hard glass tube on a combustion furnace, and then through wash bottles to remove all traces of carbon dioxide, care being taken to avoid all contact with rubber and cork. This air, passed over moist phosphorus and then washed by passage through water, gave the same precipitate in baryta water as that used in the preceding experiments. The precipitate was carefully examined for the presence of phosphorus compounds but not a trace of them could be found. It could have been nothing but barium carbonate. Acids liberated a gas, and the whole conduct of the substance was that of a carbonate.

The only possible source of the carbon dioxide is the phosphorus, and it hence follows that the phosphorus used by us certainly contained carbon in some form. As the air slowly burns up the phosphorus, the carbon is also slowly converted into carbon dioxide. The amount of the precipitate should then vary with the amount of phosphorus exposed and the temperature. Some experiments since performed show clearly that this relation exists. Without going into further details in this place, it may be stated that as the result of a large number of experiments, it can be stated with certainty that ordinary phosphorus contains a small quantity of carbon, probably in chemical combination, and that it is to the presence of this carbon that the small precipitate obtained by Baumann is due. Efforts have been made to remove the carbon from some specimens of phosphorus, but without success.

The experiment as described by Leeds certainly does cause the formation of a precipitate, but the same precipitate is formed if air alone be placed in the vessel.

It will be seen that the conduct of moist phosphorus towards a mixture of air and carbon monoxide furnishes no evidence of the existence of a third form of oxygen.

A paper containing a detailed description of the experiments together with drawings of the apparatus used will soon be published in the American Chemical Journal.

Oxidation of ß-Cymenesulphamide. By PROFESSOR REMSEN and W. C. DAY.

[Abstract of a paper in the American Chemical Journal, Vol. V, p. 149]. The experiments described in this and the following papers form a continuation of an investigation which has been in progress in this laboratory for the past seven years. The object in view is the determination of the law governing the conduct of a large class of substitution products towards oxidizing agents. It has been shown in the earlier papers of the series that when, in aromatic hydrocarbons, the marsh gas group bears a certain relation to an acid group, its oxidation by chromic acid is prevented, while in the two other possible positions it is not protected, but apparently conducts itself just as if the acid group were not present. The first experiments referred only to the simplest marsh gas group, viz., methyl CH3. It was subsequently shown by Remsen and Noyes that under the same conditions the larger group ethyl, C2H5, is just as completely pro

tected as methyl CH3. Continuing the same line of investigation, the next question to be answered was whether the complex group, propyl, C3H,, can be, in the same way, fully protected from oxidation.

The chief difficulty involved in the investigation was the obtaining of the proper substances. The principal substance necessary was one containing propyl, С3H,, and some acid group as NO2, SO,NH2, etc., in the ortho position with reference to each other, and, at the same time, some oxidizable group, as CH,, C2H,, etc., occupying either the meta or para position relatively to the two groups present. Such a substance was obtained by starting from cymene, C.H.{CH(p) This hydrocarbon was converted into the monobrom substitution product, which has been shown

C3H7 to have the structure represented by the formula CH3 Br (m). This CH3(P)

was converted into a sulphonic acid, which, according to theory, might be either

C2H, SO2OH(m) Br (m) (m) (CH, (P)

C3H7 SO2OH(0)

(m)(o), C% H.

CH, (P)

(m) (p)'
CH, (p)

or C&H,


C.H. Br

If it should prove to be either of the first two the removal of the bromine would yield a sulphonic acid furnishing the proper conditions for the experiment, that is, it would contain propyl, C3H,, in the ortho position relatively to SO,OH, and would also contain the oxidizable methyl CH, in an unprotected position. The experiment showed that the product obtained was the one desired, viz., brom-cymene-sulphonic acid repreC3H7 sented by the formula C, H, SO,OH(o). The acid was transformed into CH, (P)

C3H, the amide CH, SO,ŃH,(0), and the amide subjected to oxidation with CH3 (P)

the usual mixture of potassium bichromate, sulphuric acid aud water. The product obtained was shown by very careful analyses to have the C3H7 composition required by a substance of the formula C.H, SO,NH2(0). CO2H (P) It is thus shown that the complex group propyl, C3H7, containing three carbon atoms, is protected from the action of chromic acid in exactly the same way as methyl, CH,, and ethyl, C2H,. The most important point to be noted in connection with the investigation is the fact that the entire propyl, C3H7, is protected—a fact which is in perfect harmony with the views which were advanced some time ago by one of us, and the correctness of which is being more and more satisfactorily demonstrated by the investigations carried on in this laboratory. In fact, the conduct of the two cymene sulphamides towards chromic acid furnishes the most striking illustration of the working of the law of protection. The a-amide, C3H7


CH, SONH2(m), in which the sulphamide group is situated in the CH, (P)

ortho position relatively to methyl, yield sulphamine-paratoluic acid, CO2H


CH, SO,NH,(m), whereas the B-amide in which the sulphamide group CH3 (P)

is situated in the ortho position relatively to propyl yields the acid, C3H7


CH, SO,NH,(o), that particular group being in each case protected CO2H (P)

which is situated in the ortho position relatively to the acid constituent.

Oxidation of Para-dipropyl-benzene-sulphamide. By PROFESSOR REMSEN and E. H. KEISER.

[Abstract of a paper in the American Chemical Journal, Vol. V, p. 161].

The investigation described in this paper had an object similar to that of the preceding. The question was tested by the aid of other substances. The hydrocarbon para-dipropyl-benzene, C.H. {CH formed the C2H7(p)'

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The oxidation was effected in the usual way. It took place with considerably greater difficulty than that of B-cy mene-sulphamide referred to in the preceding abstract. The analyses of the carefully purified product showed conclusively that its composition is that of a substance having C3H7

the formula C.H, SO,NH2(0). Thus an additional proof of the fact CO3H (P)

that the complex group, propyl, C3H7, is protected, is furnished. On the other hand, while the theory indicates very clearly that the product obtained in this case should be identical with that referred to in the preceding, the two proved to be quite different in their properties. The explanation of this fact which at first sight appears very remarkable, may perhaps be looked for in the transformation, during the course of investigation, of the propyl group of some one of the compounds experimented upon into isopropyl. Such transformations have been observed not unfrequently, but as yet the conditions most favorable for them have not been pointed out. Further work will be necessary in order to decide whether such a transformation has taken place in the case under consideration. The solution of the problem could probably be reached if it were possible to make the hydrocarbon para-diisopropyl-benzene. Experiments performed with this substance, like those described above, should lead to the formation of a product, either identical or isomeric with that obtained in this investigation. Unfortunately it is not possible to make the hydrocarbon necessary for these experiments, at least by the usual method. While normal propyl bromide is easily decomposed by sodium in the presence of bibrombenzene, isopropyl bromide may be left under the same circumstances for weeks without undergoing change.

The protection of the propyl was found not to be complete in the case under consideration. While the chief product obtained was the acid mentioned above, a small quantity of another product was obtained. This

CO2H proved to be a derivative of sulpho-terephthalic acid, CH, SO,OH, CO2H which had evidently been formed by further oxidation of a small quantity of the sulphamine-propyl-benzoic acid.

Estimation of Sulphur in Organic Compounds. By E. H. KEISER.

[Abstract of a paper in the American Chemical Journal, Vol. V, p. 207]. The estimation of sulphur in carbon compounds is an operation which requires the greatest possible care, and not unfrequently gives unsatisfactory results on account of sources of error which it is difficult to avoid. The author describes a modification of the method employed by Liebig, the main object of which is to prevent the presence of silver in the precipitate of barium which is finally weighed. After fusing with potassium hydroxide and potassium nitrate until the fused mass is clear and colorless, the contents are dissolved in water and the solution neutralized with hydrochloric acid. It becomes perfectly clear, but if allowed to cool and then be diluted with a large volume of water (3 to 1 litre), all the silver chloride is precipitated. This is filtered off and the sulphuric acid determined in the usual way. A substance containing 14.88 per cent. sulphur was found by this method to contain 14.90, 14.81, and 14.88 per cent. Other results almost equally good were obtained with other substances of known composition.


Civil Government in Iowa. By JESSE MACY, Professor of Historical and Political Science, Iowa College.

[Abstract of a paper read before the Historical and Political Science Association, November 2, 1883.]

That which is of chief interest in the study of the local institutions of Iowa is the manifest discrepancy between the central government and the local government. In the first place, settlers rushed into the territory across the Mississippi as soon as the Indian title was extinguished, in 1833. The land belonged to the United States and was not, according to law, open to settlement. Before the United States government made any provision for selling the land to settlers, it was occupied by thousands of squatters; towns were built; expensive improvements were made. For years men bought and sold "claims," and the only shadow of a title was to be found in the records of a local "Claim Association," not authorized by any law whatever.

These claim associations sprang from the necessities of the time. The settlers had crossed the river to stay. To do this they must have land. Each neighborhood organized an association, the object of which was to parcel out the land into convenient lots and make such provisions as were necessary to secure each settler in the possession of his portion until he should get for it a title from the United States government. The claim laws were not uniform throughout the territory. If the majority in a neighborhood were poor, and believed that they would not be able to pay the government for more than one hundred and twenty or one hundred and sixty acres, they regulated the size of a claim accordingly. If a majority were more wealthy, three hundred and twenty or four hundred and eighty acres was the amount fixed as the size of a claim. If the timber land was scarce in the neighborhood, a small amount of timber was selected as a part of each claim. The guiding principle in these local associations was to give each man a fair and equal chance. If a man was not satisfied with the amount of land allotted him as a member of the association, he could buy out his poorer neighbors, who, being thus liberated, could take and improve another claim. In this way many a poor man was provided with cash against the dreaded day when the United States government would declare a land sale, and every claimant was expected to be ready with one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre to secure a title to his home.

After these claim associations had become established facts, the territorial government legalized their acts, and thus the by-laws of these little organizations, called into existence to supply a temporary need, came to be recognized as the original homestead laws of Iowa.

Another case of discrepancy between laws passed by the central government and the local institutions among the people is seen in the early school laws of Iowa. While Iowa was attached to Michigan, from 1834 to 1836, and afterward while it was attached to Wisconsin, from 1836 to 1838, all the laws of those territorities nominally extended over Iowa; but, in fact, the people of Iowa governed themselves in local associations of their own. They established schools wherever they were needed without any reference to the school laws of Michigan or Wisconsin. In 1838, when a separate territorial government was established for Iowa, the first legislature adopted elaborate school laws providing for the education, at public expense, of all white children between the ages of four and twentyone; there was provision also for the organization of districts, with seven school officers in each district. At each session of the legislature these school laws were modified and extended.

In 1846, when a State constitution was adopted, the maintenance of a public school system was made obligatory upon the legislature. One who followed simply the laws of the State would reach the conclusion that there was never a time in Iowa when the education of her youth was not carried on at public expense. Yet when we examine the actual local institutions of the people, we find that there were no public schools for more than ten years after the public-school system was adopted. We learn from the early legislators that they did not expect the early school laws to be carried into effect; that they were designed as an advertising medium to induce immigration from the East. They were a sort of prophecy of what they hoped sometime to have, and in the meantime they were used to help bring about their own fulfilment.

The actual public-school system is a thing of slow growth, and was not thoroughly established until after the adoption of the new constitution, in 1858. Previous to 1850 the work of education was carried on in each locality without any reference to the school laws. From that time on, the public schools gradually took the place of private schools, and about 1860, with the new school law under the new constitution, public schools were established in all parts of the State.

What is true of the public-school system is true of other local institutions. The people do what seems to be most convenient at the time with little reference to general statutes. A habit of attending to a local affair in a certain way remains for years after the act becomes entirely illegal through a change in the statute.

Introduction to the Study of the Local Institutions of Virginia. By EDWARD INGLE.

[Abstract of a paper read before the Seminary of Historical and Political Science, November 16, 1883].

The institutions of Virginia differed externally from those of Massachusetts, yet in the Revolution the men of these two sections had similar ideas of local government and fought in a common cause. As certain circumstances caused the town idea to predominate in New England, so different environments influenced the Virginians in the adoption of the county form of government. The men who exercised a formative influence upon the government of Virginia, were in many instances sons of country gentry in England. The later charters of the colony seem to point towards an organization similar to the English county. The plantations were small at first. As the number of inhabitants increased they pushed farther and farther into the wilderness, along the natural highways, the rivers, which had for ages been preparing the soil for rich cultivation by alluvial deposits. As the country became less diversified by streams, settlements were more widely scattered and plantations became larger. Plantation life for which the soil and climate of Virginia were so favorable, was one of the secondary causes of the adoption of the county system in Virginia. Attempts to legislate towns into being met with failure, for there was really little use for them. It was natural that the planters, owners of large landed estates, with servants at their beck and call, should have become proud of their position, and rather haughty in bearing. But the same causes tended to create a strong feeling of independence. The backwoodsmen were another element in bringing about a local sentiment. A mountainous region is always the home of independence. What was the result when such a region was peopled by men naturally independent of each other and the world? For a time they governed themselves, where there was occasion, by elementary regulations; after a while the lowland country sent sheriffs, etc. among them, but there was little need of such officers and little heed paid to them. But while there was a tendency to exclusiveness, it was somewhat counteracted by the assembling of nearly everybody on Court day, (a custom still in vogue,) also in vestry meetings and in convivial assemblies. At the outbreak of the revolution, burgesses, wardens, planters, hunters, every class, took up arms in defense of their rights. Virginia statesmen and commons united in the struggle for local government which was ended in reality by a victory won on Virginia's soil by Virginia's sons. When the war closed and the question of the government of the Northwest Territory was mooted, Thomas Jefferson had not a little to do in the framing of a form of government on which is based the present institutions of Illinois and other Western States. He was an advocate of the New England system and tried to induce its adoption in Virginia. But the people of the State were not ready for it and did not need it. At present there are signs of a change. Small settlements are springing up in many quarters, the counties have been subdivided for schools, poor, and road administration, and now there is really nothing lacking but a larger number of inhabitants. The State offers inducements to trade, manufactures and agriculture and when the proper time comes, the Virginians will be able to create institutions suited to their needs.

Translation of a Treaty between the Athenians and the Chalcidians, 445, B. C. With a Note by the Translator, ALFRED EMERSON.

[Presented to the Seminary of Historical and Political Science, December 7, 1883].

The original of this ancient diplomatic instrument, of the time of Pericles, engraved on a slab of Pentelic marble, was found on the 28th of June, 1876, during excavations made by the Royal Archaeological Society of Greece, in the southern wall of the Acropolis. A fac-simile in plaster was prepared at the instance of the Minister Resident of the United States at Athens, General J. Meredith Read, and was sent by him as a gift to the Department of State; it is now preserved in the Library of that Department and lately attracted the attention of a member of the Johns Hopkins University as a fine illustration of Grecian Diplomacy for the students now engaged in the historical study of International Law. Theodore F. Dwight, the Librarian of the State Department, kindly furnished a copy of the English translation, made by the translator of the Department; but the following version, made by Dr. Alfred Emerson, Fellow in Greek, is believed to be in some respects more accurate.

H. B. A.

THE TREATY. "Passed by the Council and the Assembly; Prytany of the tribe Antiochis, Dracontides presiding.

1. Resolution carried by Diognetus. "Diognetus brought in the resolution: That the Council and the judges of the Athenians should take the oath as follows: I will not drive the Chalcidians from Chalcis, nor will I lay waste the city, nor will I take from any one his rights of citizenship, nor will I banish, nor arrest, nor kill any one, nor, unless it be by decree of the Athenian People, will I without trial seize upon any one's property, nor will 1, without summons to trial, put a measure against the commonwealth or any individual citizen to the vote; and when holding the office of Prytanis I will bring a Chalcidian embassy, before the Council and Assembly, within ten days after its arrival, if it be in my power. This will I guarantee to the Chalcidians as long as they remain in their fealty to the Athenian People. That the Athenians with the assistance of the proper functionaries shall administer the oath to the embassy come from Chalcis and make out a list of those who shall have taken the oath. And let the Generals see to it that all take the oath.

"That the Chalcidians shall swear as follows: I will not revolt against the People of Athens by any device or contrivance, by word or deed, nor will I be persuaded to sedition by anyone, and if anyone makes the attempt, I will denounce him to the Athenians; and I will pay tribute to the Athenians on the terms I shall obtain, and will be, as far as I can, the best and most just of allies, and will stand by the Athenian People both for offence and defence against whoever shall undertake to injure the Athenian People, and I will own allegiance to the People of Athens. That all adult Chalcidians shall swear to this, and if anyone omit to take the oath, he shall be deprived of his civil rights and his property shall fall to the State, and one tenth of the goods shall be dedicated to Olympian Zeus. And that an embassy of Athenians shall go to Chalcis and administer the oath with the assistance of the Chalcidian functionaries and make out a list of the Chalcidians that shall have taken the oath.

? 2. Resolutions carried by Anticles.

"Anticles brought in the resolution: With the good fortune of the Athenians: let the Athenians and the Chalcidians take the oath as the Athenian People decreed should be done in the case of the Eretrians. And let the Generals see to it that it be done as quickly as may be. And let the Assembly immediately select five men who shall administer the oath upon their arrival in Chalcis. And as to the hostages, let the Chalcidians be informed that for the present the Athenians have determined to abide by the previous decree, but when they deem it best will take counsel and effect an arrangement such as shall appear suitable to the Athenians and Chalcidians. And let the foreigners residing in Chalcis, except such as pay their taxes to Athens or are exempt from taxation by decree of the Athenian People, let the rest pay their taxes to the Government of Chalcis like the other Chalcidians. And let this decree and the oath be inscribed on a stone slab by the Secretary of the

Council in Athens and placed in the Acropolis at the expense of the Chalcidians; in Chalcis let the Council have it inscribed and place it in the sanctuary of Olympian Zeus. Such be the decree in the case of the Chalcidians.

"And let three men which the Council shall select from among its own members, perform, with the assistance of Hierocles, the sacrifices directed in the oracles for the subjection of Euboea. And let the Generals see the sacrifices performed as soon as may be, and let them furnish the funds required for this purpose.

3. Supplement to Anticles' resolutions, carried by Archestratus. "Archestratus brought in the resolution: That the rest shall be as proposed by Anticles, with the specification that, (except for sentences involving exile, death and loss of civil rights,) the Chalcidian magistrates shall be accountable to their own courts as the Athenian magistrates to the Athenian,In these, let the appeal be to the Supreme Court of Athens, according to the previous decree of the People. And that the Generals be instructed to keep guard over Euboea to the best of their ability, in such wise that everything shall be for the best interests of Athens.-Oath."

Note by the Translator.-On the left side, the stone is cut in such a way as to show that it was coupled with an earlier inscription on another slab of like size, without doubt the copy of the previous decree twice alluded to. The top of the stone exhibits a dowel, showing that the customary decoration of such records, a bas-relief, representing by typical figures the contracting parties, surmounted this stone or both. The Greek text may be found in the Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, vol. IV, p. 10, and in Hicks, Greek Historical Inscriptions, p. 33. Anticles is probably identical with the naval commander mentioned by Thucydides 1, 117. Hierocles is the oracle-monger ridiculed by Aristophanes in the Peace, v. 1038, sqq.


A. E.

Syntax of the Past Participle with avoir in French Poetry of the XII Century. By JAMES A. HARRISON, of Washington and Lee University.

[Abstract of a communication to the University Philological Association, November 2, 1883].

The basis of the following investigation is Hoffmann and Vollmöller's Der Münchener Brut: Gottfried von Monmouth in französischen versen des XII Jahrhunderts. Halle, 1877.

This work consists of an incomplete poem 4178 lines in length; the dialect is a misch-dialect difficult to classify with precision, inasmuch as the vowel system is unstable, the imperfect form in -oie holds good for all conjugations, with mixture of oi and ei, iée and ie, &c.

The specially pertinent point in the investigation is to ascertain how far the modern rules of agreement of the past participle had established themselves in the XIIth century as evidenced by this interesting poem. The French translator, familiar with Vergil and Cato, Ovid, Hieronymus, the Historia Miscella, and Gildas, has worked up parts of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniæ with the alternate literalness and freedom of the early translators (cf. Aelfric's version of the Pentateuch, &c.). He has nothing in common with Wace and the Roman de Brut, except the source: a glance will show the individuality and independence of each writer. Geoffrey was a common ground of plunder to both: each has utilized his plunder in a manner peculiar to himself. Throughout each translates with the fleetness and uncertainty characteristic of the time: now tongue-tied to the original, now opulent in divergencies from it, using the text with all the freedom of an improvisatore at the piano. The Münchener Brut winds up with the romance of Lear and the downfall of the luckless Cordelia. Certain circumstances bring the construction and translation of the poem into French about the dates 11501190. It is thrown into an octosyllabic rime-form, the couplet being the fundamental formula, though there are tercets here and there (2399-2401, 3152-54).

1. Does the past participle (when the verb is conjugated with avoir) agree with the direct object?

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