IV. Sanskrit, etc.

Five courses in Sanskrit and a course in Comparative Philology were conducted by Dr. Bloomfield:

1. A beginner's class in Sanskrit, throughout the year. The most essential elements of the grammar were acquired in as short a time as possible, and then the student was brought face to face with the language, learning its structure and laws, not in the abstract, but in its living body. Five books of the Nala were read and thoroughly analyzed. The aim was either to prepare for the more advanced study of Indian philology in this university, or for private study, which is too difficult without such an introduction. 2. The advanced class in Sanskrit read during the greater part of the year the drama Çakuntala. The main effort was directed towards the Präkrit, which was constantly analyzed and compared with the Sanskrit. Toward the end of the year the class read selections from the Bramaņa literature.

3. Introduction into the Rig-Veda, throughout the year. After a short course of lectures, select hymns of this Veda were read. The language was studied from the point of view of the classical language; constant reference was made to the critical helps such as the padapāṭha, anukramaṇī and the metres.

4. During the first half of the session the Kauçika-sutra was read from the manuscripts and with the aid of a MS. commentary.

5. A practical exercise in Sanskrit Prose writing was conducted from Christmas to the end of the year, on the basis of Bühler's Elementarcursus des Sanskrit.

6. A course in the general principles of Comparative Philology was carried on throughout the year. It was introduced by ten lectures on the leading questions of Indo-European comparative grammar, (phonetic law and analogy, bi-syllabic roots, agglutination, etc.). For the rest of the year Prof. Whitney's "Language and the Study of Language" was made the basis of instruction, but this was constantly supplemented by lectures, which aimed to carry the subjects treated in the book up to the present day.

V. German.

Advanced courses were conducted as follows:

Gothic. Weekly, first half-year. DR. DIPPOLD.

Middle High German. Twice weekly. DR. DIPPOLD.

Deutsche Stilübungen and Essays. Monthly. MR. RADDATZ. History of German Literature, consisting of lectures in German. On alternate Saturdays. DR. DIPPOLD.

Lectures on The Beast Epic and Middle Low German were also given, weekly, during the first half-year, by DR. GERBER.

The undergraduate classes were conducted by Dr. Dippold, with Mr. Raddatz in charge of the classes in Prose Composition. In the first year's course Goethe's Egmont, Schiller's Maria Stuart, and Selections from Erler's Deutsche Geschichte, and from Scientific Prose were read. The first section read further Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm; and the second, Schiller's Wallenstein. In the second year's course Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea, Faust, selections from Wilhelm Meister, and Lessing's Nathan were read; with the addition of sight readings from Emilia Galotti. There were weekly exercises in Prose Composition in both the first and second year's courses.

Dr. Lehmann conducted twice weekly a class in German Conversation, for undergraduates and advanced students, and the major course students met each month, during the second half-year, under the direction of Dr. Dippold, for the reading and discussion of essays on works read in the course.

VI. Anglo-Saxon and English.

Advanced courses were conducted by Dr. Wood in:
Anglo-Saxon: Beowulf; Cadmon's Genesis. Twice weekly.
Old Saxon: Heliand. Weekly, first half-year.

The advanced students also met fortnightly, under the direction of
Dr. Wood, for work in general English philology, reports and

discussions. Three of the papers prepared during the year for these meetings, were subsequently read before the University Philological Association.

Additional classes, including the first and second year's courses for undergraduates, were conducted as follows:

Anglo-Saxon: Sweet's Reader; Cynewulf's Elene. Twice weekly. DR.

Early English (1300-1400). Twice weekly. DR. WOOD.
Chaucer. Weekly. DR. WOOD.

Shakspeare: Hamlet. Twice weekly, first half-year. DR. BROWNE.
English Prose Writers. Twice weekly, second half-year. DR. BROWNE.
Elements of English Phonetics. Weekly, first half-year. DR. WOOD.
Grammatical and Rhetorical Exercises. Weekly. DR. WOOD.
History of the English Language. Weekly, second half-year. MR.

Dr. Browne also conducted twice weekly a general introductory course (P. H. E.) in the History of English Literature, with readings. Essays have been written monthly, by each member of this class, and have been corrected and commented upon by the instructor.

Professor Corson gave twenty public lectures on the Poetry and Drama of the Restoration Period.

Four class lectures on English Literature at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th century, were given by Dr. Wood, who also gave eight public lectures on the literature of the period


Mr. Woodworth met students daily for training in Vocal Culture.

VII. Romance Languages.

Two advanced courses were conducted by Mr. Elliott during the year. For the first of these the work centred in the AngloNorman Dialect, for the second in a study of the earliest Old French Monuments. The following special subjects were treated: Anglo-Norman:-Chardry's Josaphaz (XIII century) was taken up and studied in its phonetic relations to earlier works in this dialect, and to the Franco-Norman and the Isle-de-France types. Weekly, first half-year.

Old French Seminary: The Oaths of Strasburg were examined, according to facsimiles of the original MS., in their historical and linguistic relations to the Capitularia Regum and their bearing especially on the earliest development of the Romance system of phonetics. Weekly, second half-year.


Low Latin: An Introduction, through the Inscriptions and Joca Monachorum given in P. Meyer's Recueil d'Anciens textes Bas-Latins, etc. Second half-year.

Provençal :-The Boethius Hymn, the Girard de Rossilho Epic, with divers extracts, taken according to age, from the literature of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries. Weekly, during the year. Old French as Introduction to French Philology :—Aucassin et Nicolète with special reference to its phonology and dialect character. Weekly, first half-year.

Portuguese-Os Lusiados de Camões was read, attention being given to Old Portuguese, Old Spanish and Latin forms. Weekly, first half-year. Wallachian:-An Introduction was given in Cionca's Practische Grammatik der rumänischen sprache together with extracts from Sionu, Alesandrescu and Alexandri. Second half-year.

Ladinian:-The Musso and Valtelline War Epics (XVI and XVII centuries) were read together with selections from the modern literature of Pallioppi, Caderas, Caratsch, and from the Folk Lore. Weekly, through the year. Lectures: (a) On Spanish and Portuguese Dialects, weekly, through the year; (b) On Comparative Romance Grammar, weekly, through the year; (c) On French Phonetics, thirty lectures; (d) On Dante's Divina Commedia, seven lectures; (e) On the History of the Past Participle in French, two lectures.

The students of the French Major Course have read with Mr. Todd:

[ocr errors]

In Classical (XVII century) French, Le Cid (Corneille); Athalie (Racine), L'Avare (Molière); - In Middle (XVI century) French, the most important selections (considerably more than half) of Darmesteter and Hatzfeld's Morceaux Choisis des Auteurs du XVI Siècle, with a précis of Middle French Grammar, twice weekly, first half-year;In Old French, the following selections from Bartsch's Chrestomathie de l'ancien français: Serments de Strasbourg, Cantilène de Ste. Eulalie, La Passion, St. Léger, St. Alexis, Chanson de Roland, Amis et Amiles, Roman de la Rou, Contes del Graal, Roman de Renart, Roman de la Rose, Conqueste de Constantinople, Chroniques de Froissart, Mémoires de Philippe de Comines, Perceforest, twice weekly, second half-year ;-Composition; exercises in style with the use of Gasc's Prose Composition. In the second half-year these were supplemented by original essay writing.

The students of the French Minor Course have read with Mr. Todd:

In Literary French, Le Roi s'amuse, by Victor Hugo; Les Demoiselles
de St. Cyr and Halifax, by Alexandre Dumas, père; Le Gendre de M.
Poirier, by Emile Augier and Jules Sandeau; and a part of La Chan-
son du Jardinier, by André Theuriet, twice weekly;-In Historical
French, one hundred pages of Voltaire's Histoire du Siècle de Louis
XIV, weekly;-In Scientific French, eighty pages of Milne-Edwards'
Précis d'Histoire Naturelle, weekly. In connection with the two latter
courses the class has studied nearly all of Breymann's French Gram-
-In Syntax and Idioms the class has had recitations and
mar; -
written exercises on the whole of Part I and twenty-five thèmes of
Part II of Chardenal's Exercises for Advanced Pupils, weekly.

Mr. Fontaine has met the students of the Minor Course five times weekly for French conversation, with systematic instruction and drill in the pronunciation.

Mr. Todd has conducted special courses in Spanish and Italian: The class in Italian have read the following authors:-Silvio Pellico: Francesca da Rimini and sixty chapters of Le Mie Prigioni; Goldoni: Un Curioso Accidente, Gl' Innamorati and La Sposa Sagace; and a short Storia della Letteratura Italiana. They have further read short selections from Tommaseo, Mamiani, Manzoni, Botta, Leopardi, Alfieri, Tassoni, Tasso, Ariosto, Petrarch, Boccaccio, and others, twice weekly. Short exercises in grammar have been given weekly, in connection with the above readings. A special class in Dante have read Cantos V, XII-XXVI of the Inferno, weekly.

The class in Spanish have read the following:-Lope de Vega: El Desdichado por la Honra; Calderon: El Alcalde de Zalamea; and the whole of Knapp's Spanish Readings, twice weekly. Short exercises in grammar have been given weekly, in connection with the above.

Two public courses on French Literature including twentythree lectures and readings (in French) were given by M. Rabillon. He also conducted classes in French conversation.

The JOHNS HOPKINS PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION has met monthly as heretofore. Papers have been read during the session by:

M. BLOOMFIELD.-On certain irregular Vedic subjunctives or imperatives; on a proposed edition of the Kauçika-sutra of the Arthava Veda; the probability of the existence of phonetic law.

M. W. EASTON.-Uniformity and analogy.

A. E. EGGE.-On inchoative or n-verbs in Gothic and other Germanic dialects.

A. M. ELLIOTT.-The Nahuatl-Spanish dialect of Nicaragua ; the development of verbal parasynthetics in a in the Romance Languages.

A. EMERSON.-A communication from Prof. E. Wölfflin on the formation of a new Thesaurus Linguæ Latinæ.

B. L. GILDERSLEEVE.-On Ribbeck's life of Ritschl; the Greek final sentence.

J. R. HARRIS.—On the exemplar of codex C and the apocalypse; notes on the Sinaitic and Vatican codices.

J. A. HARRISON.-The syntax of the old past participle and avoir in French poetry of the XIIth century.

P. HAUPT.-The Babylonian woman's language.

C. W. E. MILLER.-Rhythmical pronunciation of Greek and Latin prose and a few remarks on accent.

C. D. MORRIS.-The rights of a Greek metropolis over its colonies; on K. Brugmann's recent grammatical studies. E. G. SIHLER.-Studies in Dinarchus.

E. H. SPIEKER.-Note on a certain use of the Sanskrit word yathā.

A. S. TOLMAN.-Musical notation in the study of blank verse.

M. WARREN.-Note on Plautus Mercator.

H. WOOD.-On T. L. Beddoes, a survival of style.

C. B. WRIGHT.-Parallelisms in Beowulf.

The fourth volume of the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY has been completed during the year and the first number of the fifth volume has been issued.



I. Graduate and Advanced Courses.

1. Seminary of American History and Economics.


The Seminary, to which graduate students only are admitted, will be under the direction of Dr. H. B. Adams, assisted by Dr. R. T. Ely and Dr. J. F. Jameson. The regular weekly meetings of the Seminary are held on Friday evenings, each session occupying two hours. At these meetings oral and written reports are made of original investigations that have been carried on by instructors and students working in definite lines.

During the next year there will be three main lines of inquiry, represented by the three instructors in the department of Historical and Political Science and prosecuted with the co-operation of

students. The first line is in continuation of the work followed by Dr. Adams and the Seminary for several years and pertains to American institutions of Government, with special reference to certain local, municipal, state, and national types. The second line of original inquiry, under the direction of Dr. Ely, will be the History of Political Economy in the United States, with reference not only to the progress of the science but to the history of taxation and of economic administration in certain representative cities and States. The third line of investigation will be a study of representative State Constitutions, under the guidance of Dr. Jameson, with special attention to the constitutional history of one or two of the States.

The Seminary library of Historical and Political Science is now well supplied with materials for the prosecution of these researches. The collection of local, municipal, state, and national documents is rapidly increasing; and the necessary authorities, historical and economic, sets of journals, etc., are now at the student's command. In addition to the Bluntschli Library, presented to the Uni

versity by the German citizens of Baltimore and representing the history, politics, and laws of European States, the institutional and economic history of the United States is represented by a good collection of books.

Other libraries, easy of access, are the Library of Congress, the Peabody Library (numbering eighty thousand volumes, well adapted to certain departments of research), the Library of the Maryland Historical Society (especially rich in Americana), the Library of the Baltimore Bar (law reports), and the Maryland Episcopal Library (especially valuable for its original sources of church history).

2. History of Politics.

This course, conducted by Dr. H. B. Adams, will be open to graduate and law students only. It will consist of lectures on the History of contemporary European Politics, beginning with the present century, comparative studies in the History of European Institutions from an earlier date, and practical examinations upon select topics of general Political History. Three times weekly, through the year.

The following books are recommended to students proposing to follow this course: Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, Cicero's Republic, Dante's De Monarchia, Machiavelli's Writings, Grotius' Works, Montesquieu's Works, Bluntschli's Geschichte der neueren Staatswissenschaft and his Lehre vom modernen Staat, with the Works of Francis Lieber. Authorities upon topics for oral examination and special research will be named in connection with the lectures.

3. Finance and Taxation.

A course, adapted to students of law, and conducted by Dr. R. T. Ely. The general principles of Finance, Money, and Banking, and also the special subjects of Taxation in the cities and States of the American Union, together with a sketch of the Financial History of the United States, will be considered. Three times weekly, through the year.

4. Comparative Studies in European Administration.

A course of lectures by Dr. Ely on Methods of Administration in England, France, and Germany. Special subjects for consideration will be the organization of governments, their economic functions, sanitary legislation, poor laws, appointment and tenure of officers in the civil service. Once weekly, through the year. 5. Lectures on the Early Christian Church.

This course will consist of six lectures by Associate Professor J. Rendel Harris, upon the character, organization, charities, and other institutions of the primitive church.

II. Undergraduate Courses.

1. Physical Geography and History.*

After an entrance examination in Physical Geography and in the History of England and of the United States, the student enters upon the following courses, which, in connection with the study of English, are regarded as fundamental to further undergraduate study.

(a) Fifteen class exercises introductory to the study of History, with Dr. H. B. Adams. Once weekly, first half-year.

(b) Fifteen class exercises upon the relation of Physical Geography to History, with Dr. J. F. Jameson. Once weekly, second half-year.

(c) History of Greece and Rome (Republic and Empire), with Dr. J. F. Jameson. Twice weekly, through the year


Outlines of European History. Freeman's General Sketch of European History will be used as a text-book, with constant reference to other authorities. Twice weekly, through the year. 2. Two Years' Course in History.


Sources of Greek and Roman History.

The first year's course in History is to be taken with Professor C. D. Morris, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Spieker immediately upon

*Part of what is called the P. H. E. course, required of all undergraduates, and comprising Physical Geography, History, and English.

entering the University and consists in the reading of ancient historians,-Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy, and Tacitus,―partly in original texts and partly in translations, with special reference to accuracy in interpretation and to historical style. Five times weekly, through the year.


Mediaeval Church and State.

This will be a course with Dr. H. B. Adams in the study of the
relations of the Church to the Roman, Frankish, and German
Empires. The course will comprise lectures upon ecclesiastical
institutions, reports upon assigned themes, and examinations
upon Bryce's "Holy Roman Empire," Lea's "Studies in Church
History," portions of Milman's "Latin Christianity," and other
authorities. Twice weekly, first half-year.

The Italian Renaissance and the German Reformation.
This is a continuation of the preceding course and is devoted to
the study of the revival of learning, the history of the Italian
Republics and their influence upon Europe, the relation of the
German Reformation to Italian Humanism, the progress and
results of the Reformation. Essays are to be written by the
students in connection with this course and frequent oral exami-
nations are held. Twice weekly, second half-year.

History of France and England.

This is a course with Dr. J. F. Jameson in the parallel study of the mediæval and modern history of these two countries. Such textbooks as "The Student's France" and Green's "Short History of England" are used by the class, and other reading is required in connection with assigned topics. Three times weekly, through the year.

NOTE. For the completion of the two years' course in History, individual examinations are required upon an extended course of private reading, especially recommended to each individual; also the preparation of at least five historical essays, satisfactory in point of substance to the instructor in History, and, in point of style, to the instructor in English.

3. Two Years' Course in Political Science.


Elements of Political Economy.

A preliminary course of instruction with Dr. R. T. Ely comprising lectures, essays, and frequent examinations upon assigned topics. The basis of class-work will be Laveleye's "Elements of Political Economy" and Cossa's "Guide to the Study of Political Economy," with select portions of the writings of John Stuart Mill and other economists. Five times weekly, first half-year.

History of Political Economy.

A more advanced course of lectures by Dr. Ely upon the history of various economic systems, including a consideration of some of the contemporary social problems in England and America. Five times weekly, second half-year.


The English and American Constitutions.

A course with Dr. Jameson in the study of the development and present forms of constitutional government in England and the United States. Three times weekly, through the year.

The Modern State System.

A course of instruction with Dr. H. B. Adams upon International Relations, Modern Treaties (including those of the United States) and Modern Politics, preparatory to the study of International Law as embodied in Bluntschli's German Code. Twice weekly, through the year.

NOTE. The first year in Political Science is to follow the first year's course in History and is taken in connection with the historical courses on Church and State; Renaissance and Reformation; France and England. In no case can two years' work either in History or Political Science be taken together in one year; but, in cases where only one year can be devoted to these subjects, a half-year in History may be combined with a half-year in Political Science. A year in History may also be combined with a year in Political Science. For the completion of the full undergraduate course in Political Science a prescribed amount of private reading must be offered.


I. Seminary Work.

A. American Institutions and Economics.

The Seminary of Historical and Political Science has met regularly once a week for a session of two hours under the direction of Dr. H. B. Adams. During the past year, attention has been directed especially to the study of American Institutions and American Economics, with reference to specific topics suggested by the instructors in those departments of study.

Among the original papers presented and discussed by members of the Seminary are the following: The Seminary Method, by H. B. Adams; Christian Socialism, by R. T. Ely; Étienne Cabet and his Icarian Community, by Albert Shaw (Doctor's thesis, 1884); Virginia Institutions (three papers), by Edward Ingle; Judicial Procedure among Boys, by John Johnson; State and Local Taxation in Kentucky, by Arthur Yager (Doctor's thesis, 1884); Congressional Government, by Woodrow Wilson.

B. American Colonial History, by Dr. H. B. Adams. An extra session of the Seminary, one hour a week through the year, has been devoted to the study of the sources of American Colonial History and to the prosecution of certain lines of research suggested by the instructor.

Attention was first called to the history of American discoveries and to early American cartography. The first settlements of Virginia, of New England, and of other colonies were then investigated. Papers were prepared by students upon such subjects as the following: the Spaniards in Florida, the Swedes on the Delaware, the Economic Beginnings of Pennsylvania, the Institutional History of Pennsylvania, the Beginnings of Connecticut, the Institutions of Virginia, Maryland, California and the Southwest, Oregon and the Northwest, etc. Some of this Seminary work will be elaborated into studies suitable for publication. Particular attention was called by the instructor to the development of federal unity among the colonies. The phases of union before the Continental Congress were considered in detail, and some new lines of inquiry were pointed out.

II. Historical and Political Science Association. In connection with the Seminary, which consists of graduate students devoting their chief attention to History and Economics in this University, is an Association including a few honorary and non-resident members, not directly connected with this institution.

Among those who have addressed the Association during the past year are: Dr. H. Von Holst, on Slavery as an Institution; James Bryce, M. P., on De Tocqueville's Democracy in America; Dr. Charles Gross, on the Guild Merchant, an Introduction to American Municipal History; Major J. W. Powell, Chief of the Ethnological Bureau, on Indian Institutions; Dr. E. Channing (Harvard), on Town and County Government; Dr. J. Royce (Harvard), on the Development of Society and Government in California.

Among the original papers forwarded to the Association by nonresident members are: Indian Money in New England Civilization, by W. B. Weeden, and Town Government in Rhode Island. by W. E. Foster.

III. Publications.

Some of the principal papers presented to the Seminary or to the Historical and Political Science Association are published in the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, a monthly monographic journal, edited by Dr. H. B. Adams. The first volume, devoted to Local Institutions and comprising 470 pages, was completed in October, 1883.

The First Series is devoted, to "American Institutional History," more especially to forms of Local Government. A Second Series, devoted to Local Institutions and American Economics is now in progress. Among the monographs in this volume are Professor Hosmer's, on "Town Meetings"; Professor Macy's, on "The Institutional Beginnings of a Western State (Iowa)"; Dr. L. W. Wilhelm's "Old and New Towns in Maryland"; Dr. R. T. Ely's "Past and Present of Political Economy"; Dr. Henry Carter Adams's "Taxation in the United States, 1789-1816" (Doctor's thesis, J. H. U.) Many of the contributions to the Seminary and Association are published through other channels than the University Studies, e. g., in the Proceedings of Historical Societies, in the Magazine of American History, etc.

IV. Advanced and Collegiate Classes.


1. Historical Development of International Law. An advanced course, three hours weekly, first half-year, introduc tory to the study of Bluntschli's Völkerrecht in the German text. The instructor lectured upon the beginnings of international life as illustrated in ancient and medieval history. He considered such topics as the inter-tribal and inter-municipal relations of the Orient; the inter-municipal institutions of the Greeks; the international influence of Rome and of the Christian Church; the Italian beginnings of modern international law; and the rise of the state system. In connection with this historical survey of the growth of internationalism, various special papers were presented by members of the class, upon such subjects as Carthaginian treaties, the Roman municipal system, the municipal leagues of the middle ages, etc. In connection with the reading and exposition of Bluntschli's code, a great variety of practical questions pertaining to international politics were discussed by individuals, e. g., France in the Tonquin, the opening of China, the progress of Japan, the control of the Congo, international congresses and tribunals, the Panama Canal, the Monroe doctrine, etc.

2. The Old German Empire and the Rise of Prussia. This was an advanced course, three hours a week, second halfyear, after the conclusion of the course on International Law.

Lectures were given upon medieval Germany, the origin and development of Prussia, its territorial and dynastic history, its relation to the break-up of medieval unity and to the re-constitution of Germany. The course was designed to be introductory to the study of European Constitutions and Continental Politics, which subjects will be pursued during the next academic year. In connection with the lectures, oral examinations were instituted upon general topics of European history, which practical exercises will be continued during the coming year.

3. The Beginnings of Church and State.

An undergraduate course, twice a week, first half-year. The course consisted of lectures by the instructor and oral reports by members of the class, in which exercises ten graduate students participated. The instructor considered the origin and spread of Christianity, its relations to the Roman empire and the Germanic peoples; the origin and growth of ecclesiastical institutions, - bishops, presbyters, synods, councils, etc.; the history of the papacy in the middle ages; and the Holy Roman Empire. The students prepared essays and reports upon topics connected with the course and were examined upon the lectures, together with certain prescribed authors,-Bryce, portions of Gibbon, Milman, and Ploetz's Epitome.

4. The Italian Renaissance.

A continuation of the above undergraduate course, two hours a week, second half-year. The course consisted chiefly of lectures upon the history of the Italian republics, the revival of learning and of art, and the relations of Italian to European history. Reading was required in such authors as Burckhardt, Symonds, Grimm, and Hallam; reports were prepared upon assigned topics.

5. Introductory Historical Course.

Twelve lectures to undergraduates entering upon the course in Physical Geography, History, and English.

DR. R. T. ELY.

6. Advanced Course in Political Economy.

This course, three hours weekly, throughout the year, consisted of class-lectures, student-lectures, and occasional special lectures.

The subjects to which particular attention was devoted were as follows: The Historical Development of Economic Theory; the Fundamental Principles of Political Economy, including definitions; Production; Value and Price; Distribution and Consumption; the means of Transportation and Communication; Free Trade and Protection; Social Movements in America. Each student read a paper on some phase of economic history and a number of essays were prepared on the History of Political Economy in the United States. A paper was also read on Taxation in Baltimore, and a careful study of Taxation in Pennsylvania has been begun. An essay on "Icaria, a chapter in the History of American Communism," was prepared and part of it read before the class. This essay by Dr. Albert Shaw is now in press and will be published in book-form by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons.

7. Minor Course in Political Economy.

The first part of this course consisted of lectures on the Elements of Political Economy and a careful study of John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy, with frequent reference to Walker's "Political Economy," and other works. The second part consisted of lectures on Historical Systems of Political Economy. At least two papers were prepared and read by each member of the class. A few of the subjects treated were as follows: The Wage-Fund Theory; Trades Unions and Strikes; The Internal Revenue of the United States; the Income Tax; Com

munistic Experiments in the United States; The Independent Treasury System of the United States; the Theory of Value.


8. History of England and France.

This course, three hours weekly throughout the year, formed, with Dr. Adams's undergraduate work, the minor course in History. Green's England and Masson's Guizot's France were used as text-books. The recitations were accompanied by informal lectures. Reports upon topics, specially assigned, and studied under the direction of the instructor, were made. Additional reading in the standard authors was required. Formal lectures brought the course down to the present time.

9. History of Greece and Rome.

Twice weekly throughout the year. Text-books were used, informal and occasionally formal lectures were given, and selected topics were reported upon.

10. English Constitutional History.

Once a week.

Stubbs' "Select Charters and other Documents illustrative of English Constitutional History" was used; the period studied was that from 1066 to 1216, special attention being paid to the development of the principles established by Magna Charta. 11. Physical Geography.

Lectures on the relations of Physical Geography to History (with special reference to Greece and Italy) were given once a week, beginning in January.

Courses of public lectures were also given in Hopkins Hall :-on the Relation of History and Politics, by Professor H. VON HOLST, of the University of Freiburg, and on the Study of Roman Legal History, by Professor JAMES BRYCE, of the University of Oxford.



A. For Advanced and Special Students.


PROFESSOR G. STANLEY HALL will direct the studies of all advanced students who wish to take up the study of Psychology or Pedagogy upon the following plan.

1. He will lecture twice a week in the Biological Laboratory on Psycho-Physiology. Though in the main, a continuation of the course begun in February, 1884, these lectures will be open to other graduate students who have heard Professor Martin's course in animal physiology or done work elsewhere which can be accepted as its equivalent.

Beginning with compound reflex-action and instinct in animals, such topics as memory, association of ideas, attention, volition and feeling in their morbid and normal forms will be discussed as far as possible on a physiological basis. The contributions of psycho- and neuro-pathology to the understanding of the normal function and histology of the cerebro-spinal nervous system will receive special attention. In connexion with this part of the course demonstrative and observational exercises in human neurology will be offered to those who desire them. The psychology and pathology of speech and writing will be illustrated. The psychological parts of anthropology, the evolution of the psychic faculties in children and in the race, etc., will be summarized and will introduce the psychology of national and other comprehensive systems

of opinion and thought. In short, the endeavor will be to give as briefly as possible a general survey of the vast field of modern scientific psychology, with such details, demonstrations and illustrations as the time will permit.

This course is intended:

For those who desire to carry on the study of biology by experimental methods into the study of the psychic functions of animals and man: For those intending to give attention to the study of psychiatric medicine:

For those interested in medical jurisprudence or in linguistic psychophysics:

For special students of philosophy.

2. He will encourage and direct Psycho-Physic research with carefully selected original themes approved by him, with a view apart from results, to the educational significance of these methods as a field of applied logic.

3. He will lecture once weekly on the History of Modern Philosophical and Educational Ideas, beginning with the scholastic period.

The views of representative modern philosophers will be sketched; and, as the basis of educational ideas necessitates a broader survey, selected chapters from the history of science, medicine, and belief will be added. In tracing the application of these to education in the broader and higher sense, such topics will be discussed as e. g., the organization and operation of learned societies and scientific and other academies; the constitution and methods and history of European universities from the Renaissance; the educational value of philosophical systems; professional schools of law, medicine, theology, technological and industrial

« VorigeDoorgaan »