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CHESAPEAKE ZOOLOGICAL LABORATORY.
REPORT OF the direCTOR FOR THE YEAR 1884. [Reprinted from the Ninth Annual Report of the Johns Hopkins University]. To the President of the Johns Hopkins University:
SIR: I take pleasure in handing to you, at your request, the report of the seventh annual session of the marine laboratory of the University.
The laboratory was open for research, at Beaufort, North Carolina, from June 1st to September 19th, and its facilities were used by the following naturalists:
W. K. BROOKS, Director.
H. W. Conn, Assistant in charge.
E. A. Andrews, Fellow J. H. U.
Wm. Bateson, University of Cambridge, England.
H. H. Donaldson, J. H. U.
E. A. Hartwell, Teacher, Fitchburg, Mass.
G. F. Kemp, J. H. U.
J. Nelson, J. H. U.
H. F. Nachtrieb, Fellow J. H. U.
H. L. Osborn, Instructor in Zoölogy, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.
Owing to the illness of the director he was able to spend only one month at the laboratory, and it was, for two months, in charge of H. W. Conn, Ph. D., Professor of Zoology at the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. Our experiment, of a year since, in the Chesapeake Bay, has demonstrated that Beaufort is the best available locality for our work, and our outfit was accordingly moved back from Hampton to Beaufort, in June, and the house which we had occupied in 1880-81 and '82 was again rented for occupation as a laboratory. The expenses of removal, together with the illness of the director, compelled us to make our season much shorter than usual, and the laboratory was occupied for only fifteen weeks.
The building at Beaufort furnishes accommodations for only six persons, and as our party of ten crowded it so much as to hamper our work I was compelled to refuse several applicants.
The following subjects among others were studied by the members of the party: The embryology of Echinoderms; the systematic zoology and anatomy and embryology of Annelids; the embryology of Medusae. Dr. Conn has completed his work on the development of Thalassema, and his paper is ready for publication. He has also made many additions to a subject upon which he has been engaged for three years past,—a monograph upon the Crabs of Beaufort. This work is now nearly completed and ready for publication, and will form a large volume with about twenty-five quarto plates. He has also studied the development of Serpula, and an abstract of his observations is now in press. The most important points are that the blastopore elongates and closes in such a manner that one extremity becomes the mouth and the other the anus, while the closed lips form the ventral surface. Mr. Conn has also prepared a paper on larval forms, which is to appear in the Studies from the Biological Laboratory.
Dr. Donaldson was occupied for three months in the study of the physiology of marine invertebrates. He made many experiments to determine the relative susceptibility of the different classes of invertebrates to poisons of vegetable origin. He also carried on a series of experiments to determine whether the current theory of digestion in the Actinozoa is correct. These experiments failed to support the theory.
The results of Mr. Bateson's work upon Balanoglossus last year, were published in England last winter, and were regarded as of such importance that a grant of money was given by the Royal Society, to enable him to return to Beaufort this season and complete them. His more recent researches seem to show that Balanoglossus presents many features of relationship to the Echinoderms and also many points of resemblance to the Vertebrates. An abstract of his conclusions was read at the Montreal meeting of the British Association.
Dr. Osborn has studied the embryology of Fulgur and Neptunia, and a short abstract of his results is now in press. A longer illustrated paper will be ready for publication this winter. His results show that the gill of Neptunia arises as a series of perfectly simple folds, upon the outer surface of the animal, and before the mantle cavity is formed, and as the mantle cavity is formed these folds are carried into it. He believes that this is the primitive condition of the gills of Gasteropods, and that the formation of a
"ctenidium" is secondary. He has also studied the origin of the body cavity and reproductive organs of Gasteropods.
The early stages of Teleosts, and of Limulus have also been studied. I have made many additions to my notes on the Medusae of Beaufort, and my monograph upon this subject, upon which I have been engaged for five years, is now sufficiently advanced for publication, as soon as a publisher can be found. It will form a large volume, with about thirty quarto plates. I have now in press an abstract of my observations, made this summer upon the embryology of Eutimia. The following are some of the more important points. Delamination takes place over the whole inner surface of the blastoderm, and the digestive cavity is not obliterated. After the endoderm has been formed, the ectoderm becomes deeply invaginated, to form the adhesive gland of the planula. The planula does not become converted into a hydranth, but becomes a root, from which hydranths are formed by budding.
An illustrated paper upon the embryology of Eutimia and Liriope is now in preparation for the Studies from the Biological Laboratory, and it will be ready for publication this winter.
I was also able this summer to make a few observations upon the metamorphosis of Stomatopods, and these will be incorporated in my report on the Stomatopods of the Challenger Expedition, which will be ready for the press in March, 1885.
I have also in preparation, a paper, based on observations made this summer, on the origin of alternation in hydroids. This will be ready for publication in the Studies this winter, and I shall give facts which I believe to show that in this group, alternation has not originated through polymorphism, or division of labor, but through the asexual multiplication of immature larvae.
The following papers, based upon researches which are carried on at the marine laboratory have appeared since my last report, and five or six other papers are now in press, and will appear immediately.
On the Gill in some forms of Prosobranchiate Molluscs, by H. L. Osborn. Studies from the Biological Laboratory, vol. iii, no. 1, with three plates. Life History of Thalassema, (abstract), by H. W. Conn. Studies from the Biological Laboratory, vol. iii, no. 1, with one plate.
The Significance of the Larval Skin of Decapods, by H. W. Conn. Studies from the Biological Laboratory, vol. iii, no. 1, with two plates. On the Osteology of Syngnathus Peckeanus, by J. P. McMurrich. University Circulars, iii, 27.
An Instance of Sexual Variation in Crustacea, by H. W. Conn. University Circulars, iii, 27.
Abstract of Observations on the Development of Balanoglossus, by Wm. Bateson. University Circulars, iii, 27.
On the Osteology and Development of Syngnathus Peckeanus, by J. Playfair McMurrich. Quart. Journ. Mic. Sc., vol. 23, (October,) 623–650, with two plates.
Upon the Ears of Fishes, with reference to the Function of Equilibrium, by H. Sewall. Journal of Physiology, iv, 339.
The Early Stages in the Development of Balanoglossus, by Wm. Bateson. Quart. Journ. Mic. Science, no. xciv, 208, with four plates.
Dr. H. J. Rice, a former Fellow of the University, writes that he has, in a pond at Cold Spring Harbor, a fine set of young oysters, which he has reared from the egg by methods which were first made known at the laboratory.
environment causes an increase in the number of births of female children, while an unfavorable environment causes an increase in the number of male births.
His evidence seems to prove that we must accept his conclusion as a scientific generalization, and every one will recognize its very great value. I wish however to say a few words regarding its significance, for I believe that it is only a part of a still wider generalization, and that its true meaning can be seen only when it is viewed as a part of a still more fundamental natural law.
If while living under favorable conditions of life, a species is able to prosper and multiply with few males, or even in the case of many animals and plants, with no males at all, multiplying by parthenogenesis or by asexual reproduction; why should males become necessary when the environment becomes unfavorable?
I believe that we have, in this fact which is so well brought out in Düsing's papers, an adjustment, which has been evolved by natural selection, for the purpose of securing variation when it is needed.
I have attempted to show, from another sort of evidence, that the two sexual elements have, by division of labor, acquired, in all the higher plants, and in most of the metazoa, specialized functions; and that the male cell causes variation, while the ovum transmits the hereditary characteristics of the species.
My reasons for this conclusion, are briefly as follows:
1. The homology between the ovum and the male cell is no reason for believing that their functions are now alike, for it only shows that they were alike at some time in the past.
2. The possibility of parthenogenesis shows that the ovum can transmit all the established characteristics of the species.
3. The study of reciprocal crosses shows that the ovum and the male cell do not have the same influence, and gives many reasons for believing that the ovum transmits established characteristics, while the male cell transmits more recent modifications.
4. When a female hybrid is crossed with the male of either one of the pure parent forms, the children are less variable than those which are born from a pure female crossed with a male hybrid.
5. Organisms born from fertilized eggs or seeds are very much more variable than those which are produced asexually, and the parthenogenetic bees are the least variable of domesticated animals.
6. A variation which first appears in a male is much more likely to become hereditary than one which first appears in a female.
7. Organs which are confined to males, or which are of more functional importance in males than in females, are very much more variable than organs which are confined to females, or organs which are of more functional importance in females than in males.
8. Throughout the whole animal kingdom, with very few exceptions, we find, wherever the sexes are separate and different from each other, the males of allied species differ more from each other than the females do, and the adult male differs from the young more than the female does.
9. We also find that males are more variable than females, and that the male leads and the female follows, in the evolution of new species. This cannot be due to sexual selection, for it holds true, to a remarkable degree, in domestic pigeons, which are paired by the breeder, and are not selected, as fowls are, for the sake of any sexual peculiarity.
I believe that it is shown by these facts, and by many others, that the function of the ovum is to transmit the characteristics of the species, and to hold on to what has been acquired in the past; that the union of two sexual elements has been evolved for the purpose of securing variability; and that the male element has gradually acquired, by division of labor, the peculiar function of exciting variability to meet changes in the condition
Now it is plain that, so long as the conditions of life remain favorable there is no need for variation, but whenever any unfavorable change takes place variation becomes necessary in order to restore the harmony between the organism and its environment.
If my view is true, we have in Düsing's results, an exemplification of the action of one of the most grand and beautiful and far-reaching of all the adjustments which have ever been discovered in nature; an adaptation by means of which each organism remains unchanged so long as no change is needed, while it begins to vary whenever variation and race modification are called for.
The excess of male births among captive birds of prey and carnivorous mammals, and in uncivilized human races, which have been suddenly thrown into contact with the civilization which has been the growth of thousands of years in Europe, is to be regarded as the last effort of nature to produces a modification which shall fit them for their new surrounding. It is true that Düsing himself gives a different explanation, and says that the excess of male births, under unfavorable conditions is for the purpose of preventing close inter-breeding. This is no doubt true, but I believe that it is only a part of the truth.
He says that inter-breeding causes decreased fertility, small size, and general loss of vitality and vigor, and that the purpose of crossing is to prevent this. He shows that the evil effects are greatest when the environment is unfavorable, and that a very favorable environment may entirely overbalance them. Crossing is therefore most necessary and important when the conditions of life are least favorable, and least important when they are most favorable, and an organism may, under a very favorable environment, multiply asexually or by parthenogenesis for an indefinite number of generations, although males and fertilized eggs appear as soon as the season of prosperity comes to an end.
This is all true, but we must remember that an injurious quality cannot be evolved by natural selection, and that the injurious effects of interbreeding cannot be primary. The property which has been evolved is the usefulness of crossing, and the injurious effects of inter-breeding are secondary.
Now why should crossing be more advantageous under an unfavorable than under a favorable environment? Clearly because crossing gives variability, and because variation is not advantageous when everything else is favorable, while it is advantageous when other things are unfavorable.
If two species or varieties are living under the same unfavorable conditions of life, and the crossed offspring are the most vigorous and fertile in the one, while the children of closely related parents are most fertile in the other, the establishment of a hereditary favorable variation will be much more probable in the first than in the second, and the chances are that the first will ultimately exterminate the second. If, however, the conditions of life are favorable and no variation is needed, the products of a cross will have no advantage, and will not be thus selected.
Again, it is for the advantage of the species that all the individuals shall be vigorous and fertile, unless there is some especial reason why some of them should be weak and infertile. When the conditions of life are favorable, there is no such reason, and all are alike fertile; but when the conditions become unfavorable, variation is needful; and it is therefore advantageous, to species as a whole, that those individuals in which there is most chance of variation,-those born from a cross-shall be most healthful and prolific; and those where least variation can be expected, least prolific.
Hence we find that, where the conditions of life are very favorable, the children of closely related parents, or those with only one parent, or those born asexually, are as strong and prolific as those born from widely different parents; and we also find that males are scarce, or even absent.
When the conditions of life are unfavorable, blood relations become infertile, an excess of males is produced, and the children of a cross are peculiarly prolific.
Method of Formation of Trochosphere in Serpula. By H. W. CONN.
Very few of the Annelids have a development which seems to be primitive. A great majority show undoubted evidence of a great modification in their embryology, so great as usually to give no evidence of the history of the group. There are a few, however, which for some reason have escaped this modifying influence, and still give us indications of their early history. Among these is Serpula. The development of Serpula has hitherto been studied by a single naturalist, Stossich, who published an account in 1878, so peculiar in some respects as to cause it to be held in question. Although his results have been incorporated into text books, it has yet remained desirable to investigate the matter further. On two points, in particular, have the results of Stossich been questioned. He described a regular complete segmentation, a type nowhere else found among the Annelids. (It has since been observed in several forms). But
the most peculiar point according to the work of Stossich, was the history of the blastopore, which is stated to become the anus. In some animals it is true that this undoubtedly occurs, but in no other Annelid is it known, and this history in Serpula, whose history is known to be primitive, is highly remarkable.
During the last summer I have been able, with the assistance of Mr. Andrews, to investigate these and many other points with very interesting results. In the main Stossich is right. The segmentation is regular and complete, and in most of the other minor points the work this summer confirmed the previous results. But the history of the blastopore is very different from that described by Stossich, and is in brief as follows. A regular segmentation is followed by a typical invagination, giving rise to a gastrula. A band of cilia now makes its appearance around the blastopore and a tuft of sensory cilia at the opposite end. Now that part of the body within the circumblastoporal ciliated ring, and therefore containing the blastopore, begins to elongate obliquely, causing an elongation of the blastopore. The axis of this elongation does not fall through the centre of the blastopore, but through one edge of it, and the elongation is therefore such that one end of the elongated blastopore remains near the ring of cilia while the other is carried away at the end of the elongated portion of the body. As this elongation progresses the blastopore, which has become drawn out into a long slit, closes, and its lips fusing together become what proves to be the ventral median line of the full grown larva. The endoderm is entirely within the body cavity, connected with the ectoderm, however, throughout the whole extent of the closed blastopore. Soon the two extremities of this closed blastopore open again, the one near the ciliated band becoming the mouth, the other eventually becoming the anus, while the endoderm between these two points loses all connection with the ectoderm, except at the mouth and anus, and becomes hollowed out to form the alimentary canal. The blastopore is not, therefore, converted into the anus as Stossich asserts, but it elongates, one extremity eventually becoming the mouth, the other the anus, while the intermediate portion closes to form the median ventral line of the larva and full grown adult.
This result is very significant. In the first place it is an important corroboration of the far-reaching theory of Adam Sedgwick as to the primitive history of the blastopore, with which it agrees in nearly every particular. To myself it was particularly interesting because it formed the final link in a chain of evidence as to what appears to me to be the true relation of larvae to each other and to adults. I have already indicated (University Circular No. 22), partially, the conclusions to which I have been led by the study of Thalassema, and this result in the case of Serpula, together with much other evidence which I have been able to collect, has led me to the formation of a new theory as to the relations of larvae, an account of which is to appear in the next number of the "Biological Studies." In brief it is as follows: As a simplest type of larva, and the most universal is found a form which agrees in essential respects with the young pilidium of Nemertians. It consists of a gastrula with a circumblastoporal band of differentiated tissue usually bearing cilia and with a tuft of cilia at the extremity opposite the blastopore mouth. It is in fact just such a gastrula as we have seen in Serpula. This type is found very widely distributed, being present in Coelenterata, Polyzoa, Brachiopoda, Vermes and Mollusks, and in a slightly modified form, i. e., without the circumblastoporal ring, in Echinoderms. This form is therefore taken as a starting point and a comparison is instituted between the methods by which this larva is developed into the full grown larva and the adult in the different forms. Leaving aside the Echinoderms, which for certain reasons are classed with the vertebrates and Balanoglossus, it is found that the above mentioned groups of animals are divided into two radically distinct classes. In the first class the body of the larva and the adult is formed by the elongation of that part of the gastrula body situated in front of the circumblastoporal ring, between it and the anterior ciliated tuft. The Coelenterata, Polyzoa, and Brachiopoda conform to this type. To produce the adult Coelenterata the larval type attaches itself by its anterior end, the body elongates, the circumblastoporal ring grows out into tentacles and the blastopore remains as the mouth. The Polyzoa have a like history, except that the two extremities of the blastopore are separated into mouth and anus. The Brachiopoda are a still more modified form.
In the second class the body of the larva and the adult is formed by the elongation of that part of the gastrula body situated behind or within the poral ring. The Mollusks and Annelids and probably other
worms conform to this type. The development of Serpula as above described illustrates how this elongation takes place and an essentially similar history is found in other primitive Annelids (Thalassema and Polygordius). In Mollusks the same general change is seen, the body elongating in the same direction and the blastopore closing to form the ventral surface. In Mollusks, however, the ventral surface grows out to form the foot, the dorsal surface develops a shell, while the whole animal remains relatively short and the resulting form is very different from the Annelid, although they originally arise from the same larva by the same modification.
Gill in Neptunea. By H. L. OSBORN.
Some facts observed in studying the development of a species of Neptunea abundant at Beaufort, N. C., are of interest in connection with a study of the gastropod Gill which I presented in the Circular for July last. A brief recapitulation of the main features of the development will conduce to clearness. The head, foot and vela arise as ectodermal thickenings upon one end of the oval egg and soon upon one side, thereby designated as dorsal and opposite to the foot, the shell gland appears. The shell gland, at first a small ring, increases in size and its rims spreads over the yolk at the end opposite the head, vela and foot until it has covered half the egg, but the area immediately around the head, vela and foot is still unencroached upon. This area is in part the region of the future mantle, and just in front of the margin of the shell area it forms a thickened ridge. This mantle area is now broadly convex as though greatly bulged out upon the dorsal surface of the body. Upon its surface there appears a row of finger-like processes, these being mere folds or thickenings of the surface which form an interrupted ridge running antero-posteriorly upon the dorsal surface of the body. Later this dorsal surface begins to roll inward by an involution which begins near the head, and the mantle cavity is thus formed with the gill which has been carried along during the involution lying upon its roof. We have thus here the formation of a gastropod gill reduced to its simplest terms, namely, a series of dilatations upon the outer surface of the body. I do not know that it has ever been pointed out that the gills arise in any prosobranch before the mantle cavity is formed, but this mode of the formation of a mantle cavity is not unique, for Rabl has described much the same sort of thing in Planorbis. This mode of the formation of the prosobranch gill on the surface of the body and its infolding with the mantle cavity is flatly opposed to the conjecture of Spengel that the prosobranch gill is a ctenidium which has secondarily became fused with the wall of the mantle cavity, and bears out the view which I proposed in my previous paper.
Some Observations opposed to the Presence of a Parenchymatous or Intra-cellular Digestion in Salpa. By C. S. DOLLEY.
Dr. A. Korotneff has described (Zeit. f. Wiss. Zoöl., XL, 1, 1884) a huge amoeboid cell or plasmodium, which he figures as occupying the oesophagus and stomach of Salpa. He regards it as a rhizopod-like digestive organ, into the protoplasmic substance of which food is directly ingested, and he concludes that we have in Salpa (and in Anchinia) a true parenchymatous digestion, and he therefore questions the high genetic position of the Tuni
I have made a number of series of sections for the purpose of finding this body, and while it is true that these bear a very close resemblance to those figured by Korotneff, I feel confident that he has utterly mistaken their significance. I was able to trace the so-called plasmodium not only through the oesophagus and stomach, but also through the oesophagus into the branchial sac, and through the intestine into the cloaca, and have been able to show clearly that, instead of an amoeboid cell, it is actually the mucous excretion from the endostyle, with its entangled particles of food.
In studying a series of transverse sections of a Salpa which was well fed, we find, as we approach the oesophagus, a mass of material answering to the description and figures of Korotneff's rhizopod. It takes staining readily, and may be traced backwards into and through the oesophagus, stomach and intestine. As the sections approach the rectum, however, the mass gradually ceases to take staining, and is much more distinctly marked out from the
intestinal wall, håving had all the organic matter digested out, and consisting only of the inorganic remains which do not stain.
In the fore part of the intestinal canal the mass contains great numbers of food-organisms, such as radiolarians, foramenifera, minute crustacea, and microscopic vegetable organisms, and it takes staining almost as readily as the walls of the gut itself, seeming to merge into the illy-defined epithelium of the latter, and it is scarcely possible to say where the food-bearing mucous thread ceases and the intestinal epithelium begins, especially as this has a rugous arrangement.*
That we have here to do with a form of digestion entirely anomalous and unprecedented I cannot believe, for I have several series of sections from animals which must have been without food for some time previous to death, in which the lumen of the intestine is not only free of food but of any obliterating mass of cells or plasmodium. The only protoplasmic bodies, not food, are certain Gregarina-like organisms adhering to the walls in various parts of the intestine, and which I consider to be parasites. These give, in sections, the appearance of the large "scattered cells entirely free from their surroundings" which Korotneff figures, and regards as "analogous to the great stomach-cell of Anchinia."
I am therefore forced to conclude that he has endowed the food-bearing mucous thread with a power it does not possess, and that Salpa does not exhibit any unusual form of digestion, and that there is no reason, on this account, for questioning the high genetic place occupied by the Tunicates.
Note on the Structure and Affinities of Phytoptus (Duj.). By J. PLAYFAIR MCMURRICH.
The genus Phytoptus was established by Dujardin in 1851 (Ann. d. Sci. Nat.) for two forms of mites which he found on the Linden and Willow respectively, and which he characterized as possessing only two pairs of legs, an annulated abdomen and degenerated mouth-parts. These mites had been previously mentioned by Réaumur (Mem. pour servir á l'Histoire des
Insectes, 1737), and by Dugés (Ann. d. Sci. Nat., 1834), who considered them larval forms of Dermanyssus, holding that all adult Acarina never possessed less than four pairs of legs. Dujardin perceiving ova in the abdomen considered the mites adult forms, but his observations were later called in question by Scheuten (Arch. f. Naturg., 1857), who agreed with Dugés that they were larval. It was left for Landois (Zeit. f. wissen. Zoöl., 1864), to set at rest the question as to their adult nature by a complete study of a form occurring on the leaves of the vine, but at the same time he confirmed Dugés' views that all adult mites possess eight legs by showing that two almost aborted limbs were present in addition to those described by earlier authors. So the matter remained for ten years, the additions to our knowledge of the Phytopti made in the interval being altogether faunistic, but in 1874, Löw disputed the presence of the rudimentary legs.
By a careful examination of P. pyri, Sch., I have been able to confirm Landois' statments. A pair of small tubercles may be seen on either side just anterior to the genital plate. They are smaller in the form observed than they are represented in Landois' figures, but nevertheless decidedly larger than the wart-like structures which support the body-setae. That these tubercles exist I have no doubt, but that they represent rudimentary legs is not quite so clear though, on a priori grounds, they must be supposed to be of that nature.
In classifications of the Acarina the Phytoptidæ have usually been placed close to the Trombididæ probably from the mode of life being in, both cases similar. Morphologically, however, great differences exist between these two groups which can hardly be explained by degeneration. It appears to me that the Phytopti are much more closely allied to Demodex than to any other forms. In both there is the annulated cuticle of the abdomen; in Demodex the tracheal system is only very slightly developed, while in Phytoptus it is absent; the mouth-parts of the latter may be compared to the maxilla and unpair stylet-like structure of the former, the mandibles having disappeared in accordance with the mode of life. Demodex differs in being less degenerate as shown by the presence of eight equally developed legs, and the occurrence of eyes, but on the whole the resemblance is greater than obtains between the Phytoptidae and other Acarina.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.
[Reprinted from the Ninth Annual Report of the Johns Hopkins University].
To the President of the Johns Hopkins University:
SIR: In accordance with your request that I would prepare a connected statement of what has been done during the past year in this University to encourage the study of Archæology, I send you the following report:
A course of public lectures on Classical Archæology was given in Hopkins Hall during the spring months. The opening lecture, (January 14), by Dr. Waldstein, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, (England), treated of the Influence of Athletic Games on Greek Art, from the time of its transition from the archaic stage to a closer study of the human form, until finally professional athleticism signalled a decline in the standard of taste and of art.
Mr. Joseph T. Clarke, who was in charge of the American archæological expedition to Assos, began his course (March 10) with a Plea for Practical Archæology, showing how the practical work accomplished in the present century has raised this study to the rank of a science; whereas, in the past, the immense material at hand could not be put to its proper use from the want of critical spirit. His two following lectures (March 12 and 14) were devoted to an account of the city of Assos, as disclosed by the excavations carried on for more than two years by the Archæological Institute. Besides the well known temple, with its interesting reliefs, the buildings of the Agora or market-place are unique for the insight they give us into the Greek methods of construction. They comprise the immense Stoa, the Bouleuterion, and the Bath. The series is completed by the Theatre, the Gymnasion, and the interesting street of tombs. The concluding lecture (March 17) on the Cyrenaica showed the exceptional advantages which would attend excavations in this early Greek colony, as yet almost unex
plored. The city of Cyrene, with its extensive ruins above ground, offers peculiar attractions to the explorer.
Mr. W. J. Stillman, late U. S. Consul in Crete, lectured on March 19, 21 and 24. Prehistoric Research in the Classical Field formed the subject of his first lecture. He expressed the view that the ruins in Italy and Greece, that are commonly called Cyclopean or Pelasgic, were the work of a Pelasgic civilization which, having its seat in lower or central Italy moved southward leaving traces of its passage in Sicily, along the Illyrian shore, and especially through the Peloponnessus and Crete. The second lecture treated of the State of Research in Greece, and the great harm done to Art history and investigation by repressive laws concerning archæological researches. A well organized American school-not exciting like those of other nations the susceptibilities of the Greeks-would be the most potent possible agency to bring about a modification of the present law. In his third lecture, on the Relations of Art to Archæology, Mr. Stillman argued that true art was not imitation of nature, but the expression of an ideal of the human mind.
Dr. A. Emerson, Fellow in Greek, gave six lectures on Olympia, (March 26 to April 7.) He first gave an historical sketch of the Olympic festival, and described the various contests which took place on each of the five days during which the festival lasted. The people of Elis were the managers of the games, and this curatorship preserved to Elis its early independence. The character of the games declined greatly during the Roman period, until they were finally prohibited by Theodosius in 394. Although burned in 426, the temple of Zeus does not seem to have been fully destroyed until the great earthquake of 551. Of the architectural monuments of the Altis, the Heraion and the temple of Zeus were the most important. The former building, of uncertain but early date, establishes the wooden derivation of
the Doric style. The temple of Zeus was founded in the 77th Olympiad by the Eleian architect, Libon. Paionios was the author of the sculptures of the Eastern pediment, and Alkamenes filled the Western pediment; the whole being under the direction of Paionios, who was awarded the prize in the competition. The sculptures of both pediments have been so far recovered by the German explorers that restorations in general unessential have been sufficient to complete them. Two chefs d'œuvre of free sculpture were also found in the excavations: the colossal marble Victory, by Paionios, and the Hermes holding the infant Dionysos, an early work of Praxiteles.
The concluding lecture (April 9) was by Professor Gildersleeve on the Relations of Literary and Plastic Art. The history of both these incorporations of national life shows many points of resemblance which were dwelt on in some detail. Our age has a better appreciation of both literature and art and these studies ought not to be dissociated.
In February, an Archæological Society was formed at the University for the voluntary prosecution of this study. Its meetings, which took place monthly, included the reading of papers on Ancient and Christian Art and reports on recent discoveries and investigations. At the first meeting (February 16), Dr. Frothingham discoursed on the study, past and present, of Christian Archæology, and its importance for obtaining a comprehensive view of history. Dr. Emerson reviewed the history of the study of Classical Archæology among civilized nations, especially during the last forty years. Maj. J. W. Powell, Director of the U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, gave an address on the Archæology of the Aboriginal Races of the United States, sketching the condition of handicraft among the different tribes. The meeting of March 14 was addressed by Mr. Clarke on the subject of the Entasis in Greek architecture, giving the results of original researches on the nature of the curved outlines of columns, employed by the Greeks to overcome an optical deception. Mr. Hoskins made a report on the collection of casts in the Peabody Institute. Mr. Stillman addressed the next meeting (March 22) on the Acropolis of Athens, describing its site, the means of access, and the principal buildings (the Parthenon and the Erechtheum); the lecture was illustrated by numerous photographs. A report on the works regarding ancient art contained in the Peabody Library was made by Dr. Emerson. At the last meeting (May 9) Dr. Frothingham read a paper on the history of Mosaic-painting since the Christian era, emphasizing the important place it holds in art-history, as it furnishes an almost unbroken series of well-preserved works during a period of twelve centuries. Dr. Emerson showed the interest of a well-organized and classified collection of electrotype reproductions of ancient coins.
In connection with the Society, Dr. Frothingham organized several circles for the study of various phases of Art, illustrated by photographs and artbooks. At weekly meetings the following subjects were examined: Romanesque Architecture. (March 1).
Gothic Architecture. (March 8).
Italian Sculpture during the XIII-XIV centuries. (March 22).
The object of these informal lectures was to give a general idea of the subject studied, supported by such numerous representations as should give familiarity with the most characteristic works of the period.
The Archæological Institute of America which was founded five years ago for the promotion of archæological research and discovery on classical and American soil, has been during this time centred in Boston, although New York also furnished a considerable number of members. Feeling the danger of an interest too much centralized to be long efficient, the Council of the Institute at its meeting in Boston (May 17, 1884), proposed a new constitution by which the Institute should consist of affiliated societies in various cities. Wherever at least ten members organize they may form an affiliated society and send a member to the general council; a membership of fifty gives the right to a second delegate. Beside sharing in the general advantages of the Institute and influencing the work undertaken by it, these societies may create local interest by meetings, publications, etc. In order to further the formation of such a society in Baltimore, the
University Archæological Society appointed Drs. Emerson and Frothingham as a committee. In a short time an organization of twenty-four members was formed and the "Baltimore branch of the Archæological Institute of America" was organized on June 5, with Mr. J. W. McCoy as president, and Drs. Emerson and Frothingham as recording and corresponding secretaries.
This newly formed society is quite distinct, both in its organization and in its aims, from that of the Johns Hopkins Archæological Society. The object of the University society is to excite among students in the various departments, an interest in the subject of art history and the first manifestations of early civilizations. It aims to attract the student of psychology by aesthetics, the student of history and philology by the valuable aid and suggestions it affords to both these departments.
The Baltimore branch of the American Institute, on the other hand, if it continue the custom which has hitherto been followed, will have but two meetings in the year. It consists both of those who take an active part in archæological work and of the patrons of art who are interested in furthering the efforts of American workers in a field so well cultivated by other nations. There can be no doubt that Baltimore will take, as is its due, an important share in giving this encouragement.
The valuable Cohen collection of Egyptian Antiquities, which has recently been acquired by the University, will be of great interest, not only for art, but for the historical study of the customs and laws of Egypt. It was begun in 1832 by Col. M. I. Cohen during his travels in Egypt, and consists of six hundred and eighty nine objects procured mainly in the localities where they were originally discovered. A number of objects, however, belonged to the famous collection of Mr. Salt, H. M. consul in Egypt, which was sold in 1835. The collection consists chiefly of small works illustrating the history of the minor arts in Egypt from the XVIII dynasty to that of the Ptolemies.
The University has also purchased plaster casts, on a reduced scale of 1:10, of the two pediments of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. They had recently been executed at Berlin, under the direction of Curtius and Hirschfeld, by the sculptor Grüttner.
The University, in connection with other American institutions, has continued for several years its subscription for the maintenance of the school of Classical Archæology at Athens.
A word may be now said on future work. One great difficulty in giving an educational impulse to studies in art history, especially for beginners, is the lack of reproductions from the originals. A systematic collection of photographs would be a most efficient and practical means of education, producing that familiarity with the monuments which is the first requisite towards gaining an insight into the study. This system was tried with success at the art circles described above. For the sum of three hundred and fifty dollars, a fine collection of about one thousand good sized photographs could be procured, which should illustrate all art periods, e. g.: Assyria, 60 ($35); Egypt, 60 ($35); Greece, 125 ($65); Rome, 100 ($25); Early Christian (Arch. Sculp. Paint.), 100 ($30); Romanesque and Gothic (Arch. Sculp. Paint.), 200 ($50); Renaissance, 150 ($35); Italian Painting, 200 ($60). Such a collection would be in continual use for the illustration of lectures or the inspection of art circles.
Most necessary also for classical archæology—as Dr. Emerson has shown —is a select collection of electrotype reproductions of ancient coins. It would illustrate admirably the history and literature of Greece and her colonies, and often also the condition of art in various provinces at the same period. The British Museum has, under the direction of Mr. Barclay V. Head, made such a collection of electrotypes divided into chronological and geographical sections. Specimens of the most important of these sections, consisting of a hundred and fifty coins, could be procured for the sum of $125; these would represent chronologically the history of the numismatic art from its beginnings in Greece (c. 700) to the age of Alexander, and geographically, the East, Greece proper, and the West.