« VorigeDoorgaan »
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.
Opened for Instruction in 1876.
The Johns Hopkins University was founded by the munificence of a citizen of Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, who bequeathed the most of his large estate for the establishment of a University and a Hospital. It was intended that these institutions should coöperate in the promotion of medical education. The Hospital buildings are approaching completion.
The foundation of the University is a capital, in land and stocks, estimated in value at more than $3,000,000; the capital of the Hospital is not less in amount.
The University was incorporated under the laws of the State of Maryland, August 24, 1867. Power to confer degrees was granted by the Legislature in 1876.
Suitable buildings have been provided in Baltimore at the corner of Howard and Little Ross Sts., and are furnished with the necessary apparatus and books.
ACADEMIC STAFF, 1884-5.
DANIEL C. GILMAN, LL. D., President of the University.
J. J. SYLVESTER, F. R. S., D. C. L., Professor (Emeritus) of Mathematics.
BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH. D. LL. D., Professor of Greek. G. STANLEY HALL, PH. D., Professor of Psychology and Pedagogics.
PAUL HAUPT, PH. D., Professor of the Shemitic Languages.
CHARLES D. MORRIS, A. M., Collegiate Professor of Latin and
SIMON NEWCOMB, LL. D., Professor of Mathematics and As
tor of the Physical Laboratory.
WILLIAM H. WELCH, M.D., Professor of Pathology.
GEORGE S. MORRIS, A. M., PH. D., Lecturer on the History of
LÉONCE RABILLON, BACH. ÈS LETT., Lecturer on French Literature.
WILLIAM THOMSON, LL. D., Lecturer on Molecular Dynamics. HERBERT B. ADAMS, PH. D., Associate Professor of History. MAURICE BLOOMFIELD, PH. D., Associate Professor of Sanskrit. WILLIAM K. BROOKS, PH. D., Associate Professor of Morphology and Director of the Chesapeake Zvölogical Laboratory. THOMAS CRAIG, PH. D., Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics.
A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT, A. M., Associate Professor of Romance Languages.
J. RENDEL HARRIS, A. M., Associate Professor of New Testament Greek and Palaeography.
HARMON N. MORSE, PH. D., Associate Professor of Chemistry and Sub-Director of the Chemical Laboratory.
WILLIAM E. STORY, PH. D., Associate Professor of Mathematics. MINTON WARREN, PH. D., Associate Professor of Latin. WILLIAM HAND BROWNE, M. D., Librarian and Associate in English.
WILLIAM T. COUNCILMAN, M. D., Associate in Pathology.
J. FRANKLIN JAMESON, PH. D., Associate in History.
CHARLES A. PERKINS, PH. D., Assistant in Physics.
PLAN OF THE CIRCULARS.
The Johns Hopkins University Circulars are published at convenient intervals during the academic year for the purpose of communicating intelligence to the various members of the University in respect to work which is here in progress, as well as for the purpose of promulgating official announcements from the governing and teaching bodies. During the current academic year, successive circulars may be expected in the months of November, December, January, March, April, May, and June, to be followed at the close of the year by an index.
Although these circulars are designed for the members of the University, they have frequently been called for by institutions and libraries at a distance, and also by individuals who are interested in the literary and scientific activity of this University. Subscriptions and exchanges are therefore received.
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
For the current year, 1884-5, $1. For the year 1883-4, (140 pp. in cloth covers), $1.50.
For the year 1882-3, (156 pp. in cloth covers),
For the years 1880-2, (250 pp. in cloth covers), $5.
Subscribers to the Circulars will also receive the Annual Register and Report of the University. All subscriptions should be addressed to the "Publication Agency of the Johns Hopkins University."
Communications for the Circulars should be sent in prior to the first day of the month in which they are expected to appear.
Notice in Respect to the Admission of the Public. In answer to inquiries, and in correction of current misapprehensions, the following statements are made in respect to the public lectures given in the Johns Hopkins University.
These courses are academic lectures, designed primarily for the members of the University, and supplementary to the regular class-room work of the students.
As the members of the University rarely require the entire room, the Trustees have taken great pleasure in inviting other persons, not connected with the University, to attend.
As these lectures are not intended for popular entertainment, but for the instruction of students, those persons first receive tickets, in most cases, who are known to be especially interested in a particular course,-ladies as well as gentlemen.
There is no general course ticket issued. Applications should state specifically the course for which tickets are desired. Programmes and other current information pertinent to university work may be found in the University Circulars, sent to subscribers on the payment of one dollar per annum, by the Publication Agency of the University.
The usage of giving personal notification has been discontinued, and those therefore who are interested in such announcements should hereafter consult the Circulars.
It will save much delay if applications for tickets and inquiries on these and other routine matters are addressed not to individuals but to the JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, by postal card, and answers will be promptly returned by mail. Personal applications consume time needlessly.
The lectures begin at 5 o'clock punctually. The doors of the hall are opened at fifteen minutes before 5, and the lectures do not exceed an hour in the delivery.
II. American Chemical Journal. This journal was commenced in 1879, with Professor Remsen as editor. Five volumes of about 450 pages each have been issued, and the sixth is in progress. It appears bi-monthly. Subscription $3 per year. Single numbers 50 cts.
III. American Journal of Philology.
The publication of this journal commenced in 1880, under the editorial direction of Professor Gildersleeve. Four volumes of about 570 pages each have been issued, and the fifth is in progress. It appears four times yearly. Subscription $3 per volume. Single numbers $1.00.
IV. Studies from the Biological Laboratory.
[Including the Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory.] The publication of these papers commenced in 1879, under the direction of Professor Martin, with the assistance of Dr. W. K. Brooks. Two volumes of about 500 pages, octavo, and 40 plates each, have been issued, and the third is in progress. V. Studies in Historical and Political Science.
The publication of these papers was begun in 1882, under the editorial direction of Dr. H. B. Adams. A first series of 470 pages and a second of 630 pages are now completed and a third series is in progress. Subscription $3 per volume.
The following publications are also issued by the University:
The UNIVERSITY CIRCULARS. Subscription $1 per year.
The ANNUAL REPORT presented by the President to the Board of Trustees reviewing the operations of the University during the past academic year.
The ANNUAL REGISTER giving the list of officers and students and stating the regulations of the University. Published at the close of the
The University Circulars, Annual Report, and Annual Register will be sent by mail for one dollar per annum.
All communications in respect to these publications should be addressed to the Publication Agency of the Johns Hopkins University," Baltimore, Maryland.
In addition to the serials above named, a few copies are for sale of the papers named below:
STUDIES IN LOGIC. By members of the Johns Hopkins University. C. S. Peirce, Editor. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.) 1883. 123 pp., 120. $2.
THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROPAGATION OF THE OYSTER IN MARYLAND By W. K. Brooks. 1884. 193 pp., 40. 13 plates and 3 maps. $5.
ON THE MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT. By H. A. Rowland. 1880. 127 pp., 80. $1.50. NEW TESTAMENT AUTOGRAPHS. By J. Rendel Harris. 1882. 54 pp., 80. 4 plates. 50 cents.
SIR WILLIAM THOMSON'S LECTURES ON MoLECULAR DYNAMICS. Delivered at the Johns Hopkins University in October, 1884. Reproduced from stenographic notes by the papyrograph plate process. 370 pp., 4to. $5.00.
THE BENEFITS WHICH SOCIETY DERIVES
THE ANNUAL ADDRESS BEFORE THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, DELIVERED IN BALTIMORE,
Ladies and Gentlemen:
By DANIEL C. GILMAN,
To be concerned in the establishment and development of a university is one of the noblest and most important tasks ever imposed. on a community or on a set of men. It is an undertaking which calls for the exercise of the utmost care, for combination, coöperation, liberality, inquiry, patience, reticence, exertion and never ceasing watchfulness. It involves perplexities, delays, risks. Mistakes cannot possibly be avoided; heavy responsibility is never absent. But history and experience light up the problem; hope and faith give animation to to the builders when they are weary and depressed. Deeply moved by these considerations, I desire to bring before you, my colleagues in this work, without whose labors all would be a failure, you who are Trustees, and you who are teachers, before the citizens of Baltimore, and before this company of students pressing forward to take the places of authority in the work of educacation and administration-before you all, my friends, I wish to suggest some aspects of university life, which, if not new, may perhaps be stated in terms which are fresh, with illustrations drawn from our own experience.
I ask you to reflect at this time on THE RELATION OF UNIVERSITIES TO THE PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION, and I begin by assuming that we are agreed substantially on the meaning of both these terms. The word university, as applied to a learned corporation, is several hundred years old, and in all times and lands has embodied the idea of the highest known agency for the promotion of knowledge and the education of youth. Civilization is a new word, hardly introduced a century ago, though the idea which it embodies is as old as organic society. Guizot, to whose eloquence we owe the popularity of this term, avoids its formal definition, declaring in general terms that civilization is the grand emporium
of a people, in which all its wealth, all the elements of its life, all the powers of its existence are stored up. "Wherever," as he goes on to say, "the exterior condition of man becomes enlarged, quickened or improved, wherever the intellectual nature of man distinguishes itself by its energy, brilliancy and its grandeur; whereever these two signs concur, and they often do so, notwithstanding the gravest imperfections in the social system, there man proclaims and applauds civilization." Assuming, then, that by university the highest school is understood, and by civilization the highest welfare of mankind, let us inquire into the influence which the advancement of knowledge by means of superior educational establishments has exerted or may exert upon the progress of society.
A little reflection will remind us of five great agencies by which modern Christian civilization is helped forward: first THE FAMILY, unit of our social organization, recognized by Aristotle as the basis of society, and styled by modern philosophers "the focus of patriotism" (Lieber) and the very "starting point of social morality" (Maurice); next, TRADE or COMMERCE, the exchange of one man's products for another's, the traffic between communities and nations; third, Law and CUSTOM, written and unwritten, the enforcement of duties, and defense of rights, the equitable adjustment of conflicting claims; fourth, RELIGION, the acknowledgment of personal responsibility to an infinite and all controlling Power. The last to be named is KNOWLEDGE, the recorded observations and experience of our race in ancient and in modern times, or in other words SCIENTIA, Science in its broadest significance.
These five influences working in dwelling houses, market places, state houses, churches, libraries and schools, control our modern life; and that state of society is the best, in which domestic virtue, mercantile honor and the freedom of
exchange, obedience to law, pure and undefiled religion, and the general diffusion of knowledge, are the dominant characteristics. We are only concerned, at present with the last of these five factors.
The means by which our race has acquired knowledge and preserved its experience are manifold. The inhabited world is a great laboratory, in which human society is busily experimenting. Observation, exploration, and reflection have been allied in interpreting the physical characteristics of the globe, ever since the primeval law, Subdue the earth, was heard by primitive man; experiments in social organization have also been made. on a colossal scale, and in little microcosms; war has taught its pitiful lessons; superstition, irreligion, vice and crime as well as literature, art, law, religion and philosophy have all been teachers; customs, traditions, epics, creeds, codes, treaties, inscriptions, parchments, books, pyramids, temples, statues, museums, schools, pulpits, platforms have all been employed to perpetuate and diffuse the knowledge which has been acquired; but ever since Europe emerged from the darkness of the middle ages, UNIVERSITIES have been among the most potent of all agencies for the advancement and promulgation of Learning. Their domain, the republic of letters, has been wider than the boundaries of any state; their citizens have not been restricted to any one vocabulary; their acquisitions have been hid in no crypt. They have gathered from all fields and distributed to all men. Themes the most recondite, facts the most hidden, relations the most complex have been sought out and studied, that if possible the laws which govern the world might be discovered, and man made better.
In one of our halls, there hangs a diagram which I never pass without pausing to think of its significance, listening as I would before the sphinx to discover if it has any message It contains a list of European universities founded since the dawn of modern states, a period of more than seven centuries, a list of over two hundred names. Every state in Europe, every great city, has its high school. Popes, emperors, kings and princes have been their founders; ecclesiastics, reformers, republics,
municipalities, private citizens, munificent women have contributed to their maintenance. Wherever European civilization has gone, the idea of the university has been carried with it, to North and South America, to Australia, even to India, China and Japan; it came with the Virginians to Williamsburg, with the New Englanders to Cambridge and New Haven; it was planted in California before there was an organized state on the Pacific slope.
The idea is often vague, sometimes perverted, commonly half-developed, at times inflated,nevertheless it contains this principle of life, that in every civilized community there must be a high school, capping, crowning, binding all other institutions for the advancement of learning.
Allow me to turn your attention to some historical illustrations.
Notwithstanding the great renown of Charlemagne, greatest of monarchs between Caesar and Napoleon, the fact that his empire was founded upon the principle of superior education is not so familiar; but a recent writer (Mr. Mullinger) has given us an instructive essay on the schools of Charles the Great and a still more recent writer, (Mr. R. L. Poole) has made a study of their influence. "If his reign marks the dividing line between ancient and modern history," says the latter, "it is not only by virtue of its political facts but also because he begins the education of the Northern races,-fitting them in time to rule the world as the Romans had done before them."
A monk of St. Gall has preserved for us what purports to be an authentic account of the mode in which learning was introduced into the Frankish empire, and although the extract is long I am sure it will not weary you, as I read from the translation of Mr. Poole. When," says the monk, "the illustrious Charles had begun to reign alone in the western parts of the world, and the study of letters was everywhere well-nigh forgotten, in such sort that the worship of the true God declined, it chanced that two Scots from Ireland lighted with the British merchants on the coast of Gaul, men learned without compare, as well in secular, as in sacred writings; who, since they shewed nothing for sale, kept crying to the crowd that gathered to buy, If any man is desirous
of wisdom, let him come to us and receive it; for we have it to sell. This therefore they declared they had for sale, since they saw the people to traffic not in gifts but in saleable things, so that they thus might either urge them to purchase wisdom like other goods or, as the events following shew, turn them by such declaration to wonder and astonishment. At length their cry being long continued was brought by certain that wondered at them or deemed them mad, to the ears of Charles, the king, always a lover and most desirous of wisdom: who, when he had called them with all haste into his presence, enquired if, as he understood by report, they had wisdom verily with them. Yea, said they, we have it and are ready to impart to any that rightly seek it in the name of the Lord. When therefore he had enquired what they would have in return for it, they answered, Only proper places and noble souls, and such things as we cannot travel without, food and wherewith to clothe ourselves. Hearing this he was
filled with great joy."
Several instances in modern history may be cited, in each of which the close of a great civil commotion has been marked by the foundation of a university. One of them is quite familiar. A little more than three hundred years ago, Leyden, so lately freed from the horrors of a siege, "so lately the victim of famine and pestilence, had crowned itself with flowers." university was to be inaugurated. In the grand procession rode a female figure, the Holy Gospel, attended by Four Evangelists; then came other allegorical figures, emblematic of Law, Medicine and the Liberal Arts, and then the magistrates and dignitaries. Down the Rhine floated the semblance of Apollo and the Muses, and each Professor, as he advanced, "was kissed by Apollo and all the nine muses in turn," whose salutatations found further expression in "an elegant Latin poem." I have taken these statements, as you doubtless surmise, from the pages of Motley, to show you the enthusiasm of the Low Countries in respect to their university; but a truer impression of the work then inaugurated would be given by recounting the roll of the great men who have taught in that university and of the great scholars whom they have trained. Grotius, Descartes, Scaliger, Boerhave, Wyttenbach, Arminius and Gomar were among
the early scholars who resided in Leyden, and the list might be extended until it reached our own contemporaries and our own countrymen.
A few years earlier, when the Reformation in England was nearly completed, Henry the Eighth re-organized the University of Cambridge and laid the foundations of that splendid college, which might be called a university in itself, if ever a college could claim the more comprehensive name, Trinity College, which before the century had passed, trained for the world that great triumvirate whose statues glorify the approach to the chapel, Isaac Barrow, Lord Bacon, and Sir Isaac Newton, qui genus humanum ingenio superavit.
The foundation of the University of Berlin is a noteworthy modern instance of the erection of a great high-school, in a time of national sorrow. The story has often been given and was recently made the opening passage in an inaugural address by Helmholz. Prussia had been overrun by France, the resources of the state were almost exhausted, but Frederick William the Third, led on by William Von Humboldt, Stein, and other great intellects, determined to infuse new spirit into a despondent people, by conferring on them the greatest benefit which it was in his power to bestow, a university, founded on such a liberal plan, that it rose at once to the very front rank. So within our recollection, that monarch's greater son, the Emperor William, when Strassburg had been reclaimed by Germany, determined that it should be the seat of a university, and already that new foundation stands among the strongest and best of German high-schools.
These examples of universities founded each of them at the close of a sharp social crisis, often occur to my mind when I remember that our foundation was projected at the close of a civil war, and was established in the firm belief that it would bind together in the love of Literature and Science, all classes and all creeds. A physician who has lately died in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, has often said to me, "I tell everybody that there is one thing on which we can all agree, and that is the university," and another, of the same religious creed, has just written me, "I sincerely hope to see your prediction as to all Christian forces come true. Life is too short, and there is too much good to be done,
to have any force or energy wasted in barren controversy.'
I have made these historical allusions, most of which I am well aware are familiar, in order to raise the questions: Why is it that universities are so highly esteemed? What are the advantages which follow their foundation? Remembering that a university is the best organization for the liberal education of individuals, and the best organization for the advancement of science, apply the double test, what is done for personal instruction, and what is done for the promotion of knowledge, and you will be able to judge any institution which assumes this name.
Ask, first, is it a place of sound education? Are the youth who are trained within its walls, honest lovers of the truth,-are they learned, are they ready, are they trustworthy? When they leave the academic classes, do they soon find a demand for their services? Do they rise in professional life? Are they sought for as teachers? Do they show aptitude for mercantile, administrative, or editorial life? Do they acquit themselves with credit in the public service? Do the books they write find publishers? Do they win repute among those who have added to the sum of human knowledge? Have they the power of enjoying literature, music, art? Can they apply the lessons of history to the problems of our day? Are they always eager to enlarge their knowledge? Do they become conservative members of society, seeking for progress by steady improvements rather than by the powers of destruction and death? Are they useful, courteous, coöperative citizens, in all the relations of life? Do the charities, the churches, the schools, the public affairs of the community receive their constant consideration? Are there frequent manifestations among them, of unusual ability in science, in literature, in oratory, in administration? As the roll of the alumni increases and the graduates are counted by hundreds and not by scores, does it appear that a large proportion are men of honorable, faithful, learned and public spirited character? These are the questions by which as the years go on, a university is to be tested, or to sum all questions in one, is it proved to be a place for the development of manliness?
I beg leave to dwell a little longer upon this text, because I think there is danger of its importance being overlooked. The material resources of a university, the aggregate numbers who attend its courses, its numerous buildings, its great collections appeal to everybody,-only those who look at results, are competent to give a conclusive opinion, and their opinion cannot be formed in one decade. A generation is the briefest period for a fair review. When the year of our Lord 1900 comes, this foundation will be a quarter of a century old. To that remote tribunal we appeal for judgment on our work of to-day. But we may anticipate this final verdict, and ascertain by our own inspection and inquiry what is done in any institution for the education of youth, what opportunities are afforded, how those advantages are regarded by the most intelligent young men, and what kind of scholarship is developed at the termination of the academic course.
Here let me protest against the common method of estimating intellectual work by numerical standards alone. I have heard it said that some men are possessed by a statistical devil. They can only think in figures; they will ask, in respect to a new acquaintance, how much is he worth; of a library how many volumes; of an orchestra how many pieces; of a college how many students. I have known the expenses of an institution made a dividend, and the number of scholars the divisor, the quotient representing the cost of each pupil. All this is wrong, absolutely and wholly wrong. If such a standard were allowable, the largest number of scholars taught by the cheapest teacher would be the greatest success. It is not the number but the quality of students which determine the character of a high school. It is important to count; it is better to weigh.
Having spoken of what the university does for individuals, I add that it has a second function. It benefits associated as well as individual man. It renders services to the community which no demon of statistics can ever estimate, no mathematical process ever develop. These functions may be stated as the acquisition, conservation, refinement and distribution of knowledge.
These carefully chosen words I proceed to explain.