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COURSES OF LECTURES NOT HITHERTO ANNOUNCED. There will be a course of seven lectures on "MORPHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS," in the Biological Lecture Room at 4 p. m., on Mondays and Wednesdays during April and May, as follows: Monday, April 20, April 27, May 4. MR. E. A. ANDREWS.-Anatomy, Embryology, and Affinities of Annelids.
Monday, May 11. MR. J. PLAYFAIR MCMURRICH.-The Morphologi-
Dr. Wм. T. COUNCILMAN, Associate in Pathology, will give six lectures on ANIMAL TERATOLOGY, or the theory of monstrosities, on Wednesdays from 4 to 5 p. m., commencing on April 1st.
Mr. E. S. BURGESS will give during April and May a course of practical instruction in PLANT ANALYSIS and other Elements of SYSTEMATIC BOTANY.
The class will meet on Mondays and Wednesdays at 11 a. m., commencing on April 1st. The instruction will be such as to meet the needs of beginners.
JAS. W. BRIGHT, Ph. D., will give instruction in ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR, during March, April, and May. The class will meet on Tuesdays at 5 p. m., and Saturdays at 10 a. m.
NOTE ON LOCAL SANITARY PRECAUTIONS.
To the Board of Trustees of the Johns Hopkins University:
Gentlemen: In reply to your request for information as to the preventive methods which are best adapted to avert or lessen the danger of cholera in this community in the year 1885, we beg leave to offer the following suggestions:
1. The use of contaminated water for drinking purposes should be prevented. All authorities on sanitary matters agree that bad water is one of the most efficient agents in the spreading of many forms of disease, as typhoid fever, cholera, &c. The water of the old pumps in this city is undoubtedly badly contaminated with sewage, and in case of an outbreak of cholera these pumps would be a serious source of danger. They should be closed and put in such condition as to make their use impossible.
2. More than the usual precautions should be taken to secure the cleanliness of the city. A thorough inspection of every house and its surroundings should be made, and energetic measures taken to remove filth of every description.
3. Anything tending to lower the general health of the citizens should be carefully avoided. Extensive digging up of the earth during warm weather, for example, should be avoided as far as possible, as the evidence is very strong that the materials given off when soil saturated with filth is exposed to the air are detrimental to health.
The principles involved in the above statements are so universally recognized that their reiteration is only called for because of prevalent apprehensions.
PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.
March 13.-Public session in Hopkins Hall.
IRA REMSEN, H. N. MARTIN, J. S. BILLINGS.
The Foreign Relations of the United States, by Honorable EUGENE SCHUYLER. March 20.-Dr. H. B. Adams in the chair.
Boundary Disputes between Pennsylvania and Maryland, by W. B. SCAIFE. (Tv be published in the Pennsyvania Magazine of History and Biography.)
Notice of Cassell's Dictionary of English History, by H. B. ADAMS. (Published in The Dial (Chicago). April, 1885.)
Letter concerning History at Oxford, from Professor E. A. FREEMAN.
March 27.-Dr. R. T. Ely in the chair.
Recent American Economists, by WOODROW WILSON.
Letter on the Doctrine of Laissez-Faire, from Professor JAMES BRYCE, M. P.
April 10.-Dr. H. B. Adams in the chair.
Judicial Procedure in the early New Haven Courts, by C. H. LEVERMORE. The Question of the first Printing-Press in Maryland, by T. A. BERRY. April 17. Dr. H. B. Adams in the chair.
Methods of studying History in the College and in the University, by DENMAN W. Ross.
ANNOUNCEMENTS RESPECTING FELLOWSHIPS, SCHOLARSHIPS, AND TUITION FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR, 1885-86.
Scholarships and Fellowships.
The Trustees of the Johns Hopkins University have recently recast the system of scholarships and fellowships upon the following basis. Seventy-eight of these honors are hereafter to be open to young men who are most deserving of choice because of their character and intellectual promise. The new regulations take the place of former arrangements but do not affect appointments already made.
I. Twenty ordinary Hopkins Scholarships (yielding free tui tion), to be bestowed by the Board of Collegiate Advisers upon matriculated undergraduate students coming from Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina; tenable for three years or until the degree of Bachelor of Arts is taken.
II. Eighteen Honorary Hopkins Scholarships (yielding $250 per annum and free tuition); two of them to be annually awarded for uncommon merit, among the matriculated undergraduate students from each of the States above named; tenable for three years or until the degree of Bachelor of Arts is taken, the selection to be made by the Board of Collegiate Advisers.
III. Twenty University Scholarships (yielding $200 without free tuition); ten of them annually open to Bachelors of Arts of the Johns Hopkins University, and ten of them open to general competition among graduate students studying here; limited to one year, except for unusual considerations, the selection to be made by the Board of University Studies.
IV. Twenty Fellowships (yielding $500 and free tuition), to be awarded to graduates of this or other institutions, for conspicuous merit; limited to one year, except for unusual considerations,—the selection to be made by the Academic Council.
V. Fellowships by Courtesy, having no emoluments, open to Fellows of other colleges, teachers, and investigators, wishing to engage in study here, the invitation to be extended by the Academic Council.
I and II.
ORDINARY AND HONORARY HOPKINS SCHOLARSHIPS.
In the will of the founder of the University, his Trustees are requested to "establish, from time to time, such number of free scholarships in the said University as may be judicious, and to distribute the said scholarships among such candidates from the States of Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina, as may be most deserving of choice, because of their character and intellectual promise, and to educate the young men so chosen free of charge." In accordance with this request the Trustees have established thirty-eight scholarships, of which twenty are designated as ordinary Hopkins Scholarships and eighteen as Honorary Hopkins Scholarships, and they will be awarded in accordance with the following regulations:
1. These scholarships are open to fully matriculated undergraduate students from the States above named.
2. The selection is to be made at the beginning of each academic year, by the Board of Collegiate Advisers, from students who have asked the board to consider them as candidates. The names of successful candidates will be published.
3. The ordinary Hopkins Scholarships yield free tuition; the Honorary Hopkins Scholarships in addition to free tuition yield. $250 per annum, payable in five instalments.
4. The scholarships may be held for three years, unless the candidate previously takes the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and is so entitled to become a candidate for the scholarships open to graduates.
5. The scholarships may be forfeited because of prolonged absence, defective scholarship, or unworthy conduct, and the question of continuance shall be annually decided by the appointing board.
6. In case the holder of an honorary scholarship gives it up for any reason, during the course of a session, such part of the stipend will be paid to him as seems equitable to the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees.
7. Two of the Honorary Hopkins Scholarships are open annually to candidates from each of the States above named.
8. The holders of scholarships are not exempt from laboratory fees.
9. As these scholarships are awarded as honors, successful candidates who are disposed, for the benefit of others or for any other reason, to waive the remission of tuition or the other pecuniary emolument, may do so and still have their names retained on the honor list. Any scholarships thus vacated are open to the candidates next in merit.
[In addition to the scholarships for which provision was made by the founder, the Trustees have established the system of university scholarships and fellowships described in the following statements.]
For the encouragement of scholarship among those who have taken the baccalaureate degree and wish to continue their studies here, twenty graduate scholarships will be awarded annually.
1. Applications addressed to the President must be made by those who wish to be candidates, and they will be examined in different branches of study, according to such regulations as may be determined by the Board of University Studies.
2. Ten of these scholarships will be open in June to young men who have received or who are about to receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts in this University. The remainder will be open about the first of January to graduates of this or of other institutions who have been studying here during the previous part of the session.
3. The emolument of these scholarships will be two hundred dollars, without free tuition. No objection will be made if the holders of these scholarships increase their income by giving lessons, or by rendering services in the library, laboratories, gymnasium, or elsewhere. As a rule the scholarships may be held only for a single year. 4. These scholarships are to be awarded as honors, and those who are disposed, for the benefit of others or for any other reason, to waive the pecuniary emolument, may do so and still have their names retained on the honor list.
5. The Board of University Studies will name the successful candidates, and will reserve appointments if worthy candidates do not offer.
Twenty fellowships are annually open to competition in this university, each yielding five hundred dollars and exempting the holder from all charges for tuition.
1. The application must be made prior to May 1,* in writing, addressed to the President of the University, and he will refer the papers to the Academic Council, by whom the nominations will be made to the Board of Trustees, at their meeting in June.
2. The candidate must give evidence of a liberal education, such as the diploma of a college of good repute; of decided proclivity towards a special line of study, such as an example of some scientific or literary work already performed; and of upright character, such as a testimonial from some instructor.
3. The value of each fellowship is five hundred dollars in addition to free tuition. In case of resignation, promotion, or removal from the fellowship, payments will be made for the time during which the office shall have been actually held. Payments are made at the Treasurer's office as follows: one hundred dollars on October 1, and fifty dollars each month through the next eight months. 4. Every holder of a fellowship will be expected to perform such duties as may be allotted to him, in connection with his course of study, to act when called upon as an examiner, or as moderator in the examination room, to give all his influence for the promotion of scholarship and good order, and in general to co-operate in upholding the efficiency of the university, as circumstances may suggest. He must reside in Baltimore during the academic year.
5. He will be expected to devote his time to the prosecution of special studies (not professional), under the direction of the head of the department to which he belongs, and before the close of the year to give evidence of progress by the preparation of a thesis, the completion of a research, the delivery of a lecture, or by some other method.
6. He may give instruction, with the approval of the President, by lectures or otherwise, to persons connected with the university, but he may not engage in teaching elsewhere.
7. He may be re-appointed at the end of the year, but only for exceptional reasons.
8. Usually not more than two fellows will be appointed in any department of study.
9. As these fellowships are awarded as honors, those who are disposed, for the benefit of others or for any other reason, to waive the pecuniary emolument, may do so, and still have their names retained on the honor list.
FELLOWSHIPS BY COURTESY.
The Academic Council may, at their discretion, invite persons of the following classes to be enrolled as Fellows by Courtesy.†
(a) Gentlemen who are or who have been officers of other institutions, and who wish, for brief periods, to avail themselves of the opportunities here afforded for study and for the use of books and laboratories.
(b) Holders of fellowships in other colleges, during their residence here.
(c) Those who have been fellows of this University and desire to continue their residence here.
*In 1885, applications will be received until May 9.
An appointment as Fellow by Courtesy does not necessarily carry with it the remission of tuition fees.
Charges for Tuition, Laboratory Expenses, and Lectures.
Annual Charge for Tuition.
(1). The charge for tuition is one hundred dollars per annum, and those who pay this sum have access to all the privileges of the university (libraries, lectures, laboratories, gymnasium, etc.), without further payment, excepting that charges are made in the laboratories for materials consumed and for instruments and apparatus not returned in good condition.
Tuition is payable in two instalments-fifty dollars on the first of October, and fifty dollars on the first of February.
No deduction is made at the Treasurer's office because of absence for a period of less than a half-year, or because the student gives only a part of his time to study, or because he belongs to but one class.
All fees are payable at the Treasurer's office. The directors of the laboratories will report from time to time the charges to be made.
(2). Every student is required, before he attends any class, to deposit at the Treasurer's office the sum of ten dollars as caution money, which will be repaid to him when he leaves the university, —if there are no charges against him on the books of the Treasurer's office, the library, the laboratories, or elsewhere. This applies to the holders of scholarships and fellowships as well as to other students.
(3). In Chemistry and Biology for materials consumed, including chemicals, gas, etc., twenty dollars for the year or ten dollars for the half-year; and for apparatus taken from the laboratory stock and not returned in good condition, the cost thereof.
(4). In Physics charges are made for breakage, but not for materials consumed.
(5). Biological students engaged in investigation or special individual work are charged twenty dollars for the use of instruments, etc., and required to pay for any material consumed, except the usual histological and chemical reagents.
Young men who have no other relations to the university may be admitted, under varying conditions to be learned in the several departments, to the courses of instruction named below on the payment of the specified fees:
(6). In Chemistry; annual course of lectures extending through the year, without laboratory work, $20.
(7). In Physics; annual course of lectures extending through the year, without laboratory work, $20.
(8). In Biology; annual course of lectures, extending through the year, without laboratory work, $20.
(9). In Animal Physiology; annual course of instruction to medical men and others, $50, which includes the fee for materials consumed in the laboratory.
(10). In Histology; a course of practical instruction, $25, which includes the fee for materials consumed.
(11). In History and Political Science; the two courses on the History of Politics and on Finance and Taxation, $20 (for both), or for one undergraduate course or for membership in the seminary, $20.
Charges (6), (7), and (8) refer to the general atroductory courses and not to higher work.
Adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Johns Hopkins University, April 6, 1885.
INSTRUCTION IN BIOLOGY.
Undergraduates may be received in the biological classes as—
1. Matriculated students who are candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts;
2. As students who do not propose to take the degree of Bachelor of Arts, but who, having passed a special entrance examination, wish to prepare themselves to enter on professional studies in a medical school;
3. As special students, who desire instruction and opportunities for study in some department of Biology.
History. The outlines of the History of England and of the United States.
Thompson's England and Doyle's United States are named to indicate the knowledge required.
Physical Geography. Guyot's Physical Geography and Huxley's Physiography are recommended as text-books.
After the entrance examination has been passed, the studies in the preliminary medical course are the same as those prescribed for matriculated students who select Biology as one of their main subjects of study.
As regards special students desiring admission to the biological classes no general rule can be formulated, except that no one will be admitted to the classes in General Biology or Physiology (see below) who has not a fair knowledge of the elements of Chemistry and Physics. It may be added that, in general, young men of the usual age of college undergraduates will only be received as special students in Biology after passing an examination designed to test whether they possess a good school education. The admission of older students and of those who may have given evidence of special aptitude for biological studies, will be decided after consideration of the circumstances of each case. The desire of the University authorities is to give the best opportunities to all who can show good reason why they should devote their time mainly to biological studies, but also to discourage youths who should be getting a good general education at school or college from neglecting it, in order to enter too early on specialized studies.
The courses marked a, b, c, include, respectively, five class exercises weekly, each of an hour's duration, and some laboratory or other work outside of the class room. The time required for the satisfactory completion of each course may be estimated at fifteen hours a week for a student of average ability.
The courses marked d, in each year, include one or two exercises weekly.
The course e includes regular exercise in the gymnasium for all students who do not satisfy the instructor in physical culture that they do not need it for hygienic reasons.
PRELIMINARY MEDICAL STUDENTS.
Undergraduates who have not matriculated and who desire to pursue a course of study preparatory to entrance at a medical school will be required to pass a special entrance examination. The subjects of the examination
Elementary Mathematics. Arithmetic; Algebra; three books of Euclid, or an equivalent amount of Geometry (four books of Chauvenet); Plane Trigonometry, and the use of Logarithms.
The examination in Algebra will be confined to the following: definitions and explanations of algebraical signs and terms; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of algebraical quantities; ratio, proportion and variations; simple equations involving not more than two unknown quantities.
Latin. Translation of passages from the first four books of Cæsar, De Bello Gallico, and from the sixth book of the Æneid; the elements of Latin Grammar, especially Accidence.
Candidates who obtain permission at least a fortnight previously, will be allowed to offer themselves for examination in equivalent portions of other Latin classics.
English. Proficiency in English Grammar and Analysis, and a knowledge of the outlines of the History of the English Language are required. Each student must give further evidence of ability to use the English Language with correctness and propriety in English Composition. Bad penmanship will be regarded as a serious defect.
Whitney's Essentials of English Grammar and Lounsbury's History of the English Language (Introduction and first eight chapters), are recommended for use in prepa
THE UNDERGRADUATE COURSE IN BIOLOGY.
The regular course of biological instruction extends over two years, but those who take Biology only as a subsidiary subject for the B. A. degree are not required to do more than the first year's work.
The subjects of study during the first year have been planned to meet the needs (1) of those who intend ultimately to take up some branch of Biology (Zoölogy, Physiology, or Botany) for special study; (2) of students, graduate or undergraduate, who expect later to study medicine, but meanwhile desire, as a valuable preparation, to obtain some general knowledge of the phenomena, laws, and conditions of life; (3) of those who wish to acquire as a part of their general college training, some acquaintance with the methods of modern experimental and observational science, and select Biology as a subject of study with that end in view. The following subjects are included in this year's work :
1. General Biology.
Three lectures or recitations weekly from the commencement of the session until the end of March.
Attention is directed to the broad characteristic phenomena of life and living things rather than to the minutiae of descriptive Botany or Zoology, or to the characters of orders, genera, and species. In the laboratory the student learns how to observe, how to verify and describe what he observes, how to dissect, and how to use a microscope; he examines selected vegetable and animal types, from unicellular organisms, such as the yeast plant and amœba, to the fern and the flowering-plant on one side, and to the crayfish and a mammal on the other. In the lecture room attention is mainly given to the fundamental biological facts and laws which the particular plant or animal under consideration is fitted to illustrate, the object being rather to give the student an idea of what is meant by the terms living thing, plant, animal, tissue differentiation, life history, orgaff, function, etc., than to teach him the elements of Botany and Zoology as commonly understood. The organisms studied are Torula, Protococcus, Amaba, Micrococcus, Bacterium, Spirillum, Bacillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Spirogyra, Nitella, a moss, a fern, a flowering-plant, Infusoria, Hydra, starfish, earth-worm, crayfish, clam, frog. terrapin, pigeon, and rat; so that at the close of the course the student has a practical knowledge of the structure and life conditions of a typical example from most of the main divisions of plants and animals, on which to base his more theoretical studies.
2. Osteology, Human and Comparative.
Two lectures or recitations weekly until the end of March, with practical study on selected skeletons.
The student begins with the human skeleton, which, as the most minutely and accurately described of all conveniently accessible animal structures, is well fitted to train him to observe closely and accurately. He then studies a skeleton from each of the chief orders of the Mammalia and two or three from each of the remaining main groups of Vertebrata.
3. The Embryology of the Chick and Mammal.
Three lectures or recitations weekly from the beginning of April until the close of the session, with practical study of the development of a bird.
In this course the student, who has already in his General Biology observed the natural arrangement of animals and plants in diverging series advancing from a simple bit of living matter to highly complicated organisms, studies the individual development of one of the higher animals, from the start as an almost formless bit of protoplasm to its final highly complex structure. The increasing differentiation of tissues and organs which he has noted as higher and higher plants and animals were dissected, he now sees exemplified by the chick embryo in different stages of development. At the same time a good foundation is laid for subsequent advanced study in Vertebrate Morphology.
4. Plant Analysis and the elements of Systematic Botany.
Practical instruction twice weekly from the beginning of April until the close of the session. The student is taught how to collect and preserve plants; and by the analysis of a number of flowering plants under the direction of his teacher, gets a good introduction to the terminology of descriptive botany, and learns how to use a botanical key for the recognition of species.
In this year some choice is permitted to the student. He may select as his chief subject Animal Physiology and Histology or Animal Morphology (Comparative Anatomy). Botany will ultimately be offered as another elective.
The physiological division of the second year's work in Biology is especially recommended to all who intend to study Medicine or Psychology. It includes the following subjects:
1. Animal Physiology and Histology.
Three class exercises weekly, with Laboratory work, throughout the academic year. This course is designed to give the student a good knowledge of the properties and mode of working in health of the various tissues and organs of the higher animals, man included; also to make him acquainted with their microscopic structure. It thus prepares the student for subsequent study of Pathology and Pathological Histology. In the laboratory each student examines for himself the histology of each organ and tissue, and learns the use of reagents and embedding materials, the methods of cutting and mounting sections, etc.; he also studies practically the composition of the more important organs and tissues, the chemistry of digestion, the fundamental properties of living muscles and nerves, the beat of the heart, the phenomena of reflex action, etc. Important physiological facts, which require special skill for their exhibition or the employment of exceptionally delicate instruments, are demonstrated to the class. There will be, as a rule, one such demonstration weekly. No painful experiments are performed in connection with this course.
The physiological apparatus belonging to the University is unusually good and complete; students have, accordingly, not only the opportunity to acquire a knowledge of the methods of modern histological investigation, but also of the mode of using all the chief instruments employed in physiological, pathological, and pharmacological research.
2. Mammalian Anatomy.
Twice weekly, until Christmas.
In connection with this course the student dissects one of the higher mammals with the minuteness with which the human body is dissected in a medical school. He thus not merely learns how to dissect, but acquires a knowledge of the names, general distribution, and structure of the muscles, nerves, vessels, and viscera ; and becomes fitted to take up profitably the professional study of the details of descriptive and regional Human Anatomy, thus saving much time when he afterwards enters a medical school.
3. Elements of Zoology.
Two lectures or recitations weekly from the beginning of January until the end of the academic year.
A systematic course of lectures on the structure, relationships, and classification of animals. In the laboratory the student dissects a number of types selected to supplement the forms studied in the General Biology course of the first year. These types are
Calcareous sponge; tubularian hydroid; hydro-medusa; actinia; starfish and its development; sea urchin and its development; holothurian; polychaetous annelid; leech; distoma; copepod; barnacle; crab, and its metamorphosis; limulus; scorpion; grasshopper; gasteropod; cephalopod; lingula; ascidian; amphioxus; shark; teleost; lizard.
The morphological division of the second year's work includes the following:
1. Mammalian Anatomy.
As prescribed for the physiological division.
2. Elements of Zoology.
As prescribed for the physiological division.
3. Work at the Marine Laboratory.
This must extend over at least two months, and may not be undertaken before the completion of the first year's biological studies. The marine laboratory is only open during June, July, and August in each year.
GRADUATE AND ADVANCED INSTRUCTION.
Opportunities for advanced study and for research are provided for graduates who have already such a knowledge of Biology as might be obtained by following the two years' collegiate course in that subject, and for others who, although not graduates, satisfy the authorities that they are competent. In the university courses but little of the teaching is given by formal lectures; the instructors come into close daily contact with the students, supervise their work, direct their researches, and advise as to their reading. 1. Animal Physiology.
The new biological laboratory has been especially constructed with reference to providing opportunity for advanced work in experimental physiology. The collection of physiological instruments belonging to the University is unusually large and complete and is yearly added to,-the Trustees providing an annual sum for the purchase of instruments wanted for any particular investigation, or which, for other reasons, it is desirable to have in the laboratory. There is also a workshop in the laboratory in which a skilled mechanic is kept employed repairing and constructing instruments. The laboratory contains two large rooms for general advanced work in animal physiology, in addition to others specially designed for work with the spectroscope, with the myograph, for electro-physiological researches, and for chemical physiology.
2. Animal Histology.
The laboratory contains a special room constructed for advanced histological work, and well supplied with apparatus and reagents. There is also a room and apparatus for micro-photography.
3. Animal Morphology.
Rooms for advanced work in this subject are contained in the laboratory and a course of advanced lectures is given by Professor Brooks. Much of the advanced study in animal morphology is however carried on at the Marine Laboratory, open at the seaside from the beginning of June until the end of August, under the direction of Dr. Brooks. The Marine Laboratory possesses a steam launch and a large sloop, and is supplied with dredges, boats, aquaria, microscopes, etc. 4. Physiological Psychology.
During the academic year a course of lectures, combined with laboratory work, is given by Professor G. Stanley Hall, in connection with the psychological courses of instruction in the university.
Short advanced courses of lectures are given from time to time on selected physiological and morphological subjects.
6. Journal Club.
A Journal Club, composed of the instructors and advanced students, meets weekly for the reading and discussion of recent biological publications.
7. Library Facilities.
The laboratory contains a library supplied with standard biological works and complete sets of the more important journals. There is also a special collection of books which have been brought together in connection with researches carried on in the laboratory. An effort is always made to procure for anyone engaged in a particular investigation all publications bearing on his work and not easily accessible, as graduation theses, occasional publications from laboratories in Europe and elsewhere, etc. The library receives regularly about forty biological periodicals, including all the important physiological and morphological journals in English, French, German, and Italian.
The general library of the University receives regularly the chief journals of general science, and the transactions of all the leading learned societies of the world. The Library of the Peabody Institute, within five minutes walk of the University, contains complete sets of many of the chief biological journals, of the proceedings of learned societies; and other works of reference.
In the library of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, a very large number of medical periodicals is accessible to members of the University.
The proximity of Washington is of special value to advanced students of physiology. The Library of the Army Medical Museum in that city contains an almost unrivalled store of physiological works which are available under conditions favorable to study.
In connection with the biological laboratory there is published a journal ("Studies from the Biological Laboratory") which contains the results of most of the researches carried out in the laboratory; a ready means of publication for original work is thus secured. The University Circulars, which appear at brief intervals throughout the year, are available for preliminary statements, securing priority for discoveries while more detailed accounts are in course of publication.
NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB.
This was organized by members of the University, but includes in its list of members other residents of Baltimore interested in Natural History. The club works in three sections-Geology and Mineralogy, Zoology, Botany. Each section elects its own officers and arranges for its own field excursions and its own meetings. There are also monthly meetings of the whole club, when the chairmen of the different sections report progress and an address on some topic of Natural History is given by one of the members.
The mineralogical collections of the club are preserved in the Chemical Laboratory; the botanical and zoölogical in the Museum of the Biological Laboratory.