« VorigeDoorgaan »
On the relative stability of halogen derivatives of the paraffins in the presence of an alkali.
A method for the estimation of zinc dust.
An apparatus which enables students to determine the equivalents of certain metals.
An apparatus for distilling mercury in a vacuum.
The results of these investigations have either been already published or will soon appear in the American Chemical Journal. Some of them have been read before the Johns Hopkins Scientific Association at its regular meetings.
The Fellows and other advanced students have met the instructors twice a week during the year for the purpose of keeping abreast of the current chemical literature. All the important journals have been carefully read, and full reports of the various articles have been made.
These students have been often called upon to treat important chemical questions in a broad way, going to the original sources and presenting the results in a complete form. In most cases the topics so investigated have been connected with the experimental work going on at the time; but other questions also have been elaborated in this way which bore less directly on the current studies. In several cases carefully written reports of the results obtained have been prepared. The excellent library of chemical books and journals which is accessible to the students in the laboratory, at all reasonable hours, has greatly facilitated the execution of this very desirable literary work.
At the beginning of the year subjects were assigned to the Fellows and others for the preparation of lectures on various chemical topics treated historically; and sixteen such lectures were
the result. These were prepared from a careful study of the original articles in the journals, and were not borrowed from books on the history of chemistry. Full abstracts of these lectures, furnished with complete references to the articles consulted, are to be prepared and preserved in the chemical library. The lectures given were as follows:
Two by Professor Remsen on "The Basicity of Acids";
One by Mr. C. S. Palmer on "The Proust-Berthollet Controversy";
One by Mr. A. G. Palmer on "Isomerism in the Benzene Series";
Two by Dr. E. H. Keiser on "The History of Pyridine and Quinoline"; These lectures were attended by an average of twenty-five persons including the instructors.
In addition, the work of the year has consisted of the courses below mentioned:
Laboratory Work through the entire year, conducted by Professor Remsen, Dr. Morse and Dr. E. H. Keiser.
Lectures by Professor Remsen:
General Chemistry, daily, first half year.
Chemistry of the Compounds of Carbon, daily, second half year.
Courses by Dr. Morse:
Analytical Chemistry, four times weekly, first half-year. General Chemistry, three times weekly, second half-year. Courses by Dr. Williams:
Elementary Mineralogy, twice weekly, second half-year.
Six numbers of the AMERICAN CHEMICAL JOURNAL have appeared within the year. These are Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6 of Vol. VI., and Nos. 1 and 2 of Vol. VII.
MINERALOGY AND PETROGRAPHY.
PROGRAMME FOR 1885-86.
In addition to the elementary instruction in Mineralogy included in the regular chemical courses (above), DR. WILLIAMS will give, during the first half-year, to advanced students a course on the Mineralogy of the Silicates with especial reference to their paragenesis and geological importance.
Particular attention will be devoted to the optical and microscopic characteristics of the rock-forming minerals as introductory to the lectures on petrography (both macroscopic and microscopic) which will form the subject of the latter portion of this course. These lectures are intended to be supplementary to the course on General Mineralogy given during the second half of the present year and only such students will be admitted to it as possess the necessary knowledge of crystallography and physical mineralogy.
During the second half-year lectures will be given to graduate students on General Mineralogy and the description of the nonsilicate species. There will also be a certain number of lectures on Inorganic Geology.
Throughout the year opportunity will be afforded for special laboratory work in crystallography, physical mineralogy, and microscopical petrography. During the autumn and spring, as
long as the weather permits, there will be weekly excursions in the neighboring country for the purpose of studying mineralogy and geology in the field.
WORK OF THE PAST YEAR, 1884-85.
Courses of lectures have been given by Dr. G. H. Williams on: Inorganic Geology, Petrography, and General Mineralogy. Three times weekly.
Daily laboratory instruction has also been given in microscopical petrography and physical mineralogy.
Frequent excursions have been made and considerable material for a geological map of the vicinity of Baltimore has been brought together; much information as to the number and range of the minerals occurring within this district has also been collected.
Special and detailed microscopic studies have been made of the basic massive rocks (hypersthene- and olivine-gabbros and peridotites) occurring near Baltimore, as well as of the molecular and chemical changes which these have undergone.
Considerable microscopic work has also been done on the interesting massive rocks occuring near Peekskill, N. Y., which have been called by Prof. J. D. Dana the "Cortlandt Series."
PROGRAMME FOR 188-86.
I. Collegiate Instruction.
This is designed especially for undergraduate students, but graduate students who have not had a thorough preliminary training will be required to follow the instruction in those subjects of the college course in which they are found to be deficient, before they will be permitted to undertake advanced biological studies or engage in original research.
The regular course of biological instruction extends over two years, but those who take Biology only as a subsidiary subject for the B. A. degree are not required to do more than the first year's work.
First Year (Minor) Course.
This has been planned to meet the needs (1) of those who intend ultimately to take up some one branch of Biology (Zoology, Physiology, or Botany) for special study; (2) of students, graduate or undergraduate, who expect later to study medicine, but meanwhile desire, as a valuable preparation, to obtain some general knowledge of the phenomena, laws, and conditions of life; (3) of those who desire, as a part of their general college training, some acquaintance with the methods of modern experimental and observational science, and select Biology as a subject of study with that end in view.
The course consists of five lectures or recitations weekly throughout the academic year, with laboratory work. The laboratory work takes the place of the greater part of the outside reading required in connection with most other undergraduate courses in the university. The following subjects are included in the year's work.
1. General Biology.
Three lectures or recitations weekly from the commencement of the session until the end of March.
Attention is directed to the broad characteristic phenomena of life and living things rather than to the minutiae of descriptive Botany or Zoology, or to the characters of orders, genera, and species. In the laboratory the student learns how to observe, how to verify and describe what he observes, how to dissect, and how to use a microscope; he examines selected vegetable and animal types from unicellular organisms, such as the yeast-plant and Amoeba, to the fern and the flowering-plant on one side and the crayfish and a mammal on the other. In the lecture room attention is mainly given to the fundamental biological facts and laws which the particular plant or animal under consideration is fitted to illustrate, the object being rather to give the student an idea of what is meant by the terms living thing, plant, animal, tissue differentiation, life history, organ, function, etc., than to teach him the elements of Botany and Comparative Anatomy as commonly understood. The organisms studied are Torula, Protococcus, Amoeba, Micrococcus, Bacterium, Bacillus, Spirillum, Penicillium, Mucor, Spirogyra, Nitella, a moss, a fern, a flowering-plant, Infusoria, Hydra, starfish, earthworm, crayfish, clam, frog, terrapin, pigeon, and rat; so that at the close of the course the student has a practical knowledge of the structure and life conditions of a typical example from each of the main divisions of plants and animals, on which to base his reading and later studies.
2. The Embryology of the Chick and Mammal. Three lectures or recitations weekly from the beginning of April until the close of the session, with practical study of the development of a bird. In this course the student, who has already in his General Biology observed the natural arrangement of animals and plants in diverging series advancing from a simple bit of living matter to highly complicated organisms, studies the individual development of one of the higher animals, from its start as an almost formless bit of protoplasm to its final highly complex structure. The increasing differentiation of tissues and organs which he has noted as higher and higher plants and animals were dissected, he now sees exemplified by the chick embryo in different stages of development. At the same time a good foundation is laid for subsequent advanced study in Vertebrate Morphology.
3. Osteology, Human and Comparative.
Two lectures or recitations weekly until the end of March, with practical study on selected skeletons.
The student begins with the human skeleton, which, as the most minutely and accurately described of all conveniently accessible animal structures, is well fitted to train him to observe closely and accurately. He then studies a skeleton from each of the chief orders of the Mammalia and two or three from each of the remaining main groups of Vertebrata.
4. Plant Analysis and the elements of Systematic Botany. Practical instruction twice weekly from the beginning of April until the close of the session.
The student is taught how to collect and preserve plants; and by the analysis of a number of flowering plants under the direction of his teacher, gets a good introduction to the terminology of descriptive botany, and learns how to use a botanical key for the recognition of species.
Second Year (Major) Course.
This is designed for those who, having completed the above minor course, desire to proceed farther with biological studies. Ultimately the second year's work in biology will be, at the choice of the student, one of three courses; in the first of these Animal Physiology will be the dominant study; in the second, Animal Morphology; in the third, Botany; for the present a choice is offered only between the first and second of the three.
[To complete a major course a student must, after finishing his minor, take either 1, 2, and 3, of the subjects below named, or 2, 3, and 4. The former combination is recommended to those who intend afterwards to study medicine].
1. Mammalian Anatomy.
Twice weekly, until Christmas.
In connection with this course the student dissects one of the higher mammals with all the minuteness with which the human body is dissected in a medical school. He thus not merely learns how to dissect thoroughly, but acquires a knowledge of the names, general distribution and structure of nearly all the muscles, nerves, vessels, and viscera, and becomes fitted to take up profitably the professional study of the details of descriptive and regional Human Anatomy, and so saves much time when he subsequently takes up more strictly professional studies.
2. Animal Physiology and Histology.
Three lectures or recitations weekly during the year.
This course is designed to give the student a good knowledge of the properties and mode of working in health of the various tissues and organs of the higher animals, man included; also to give him a good knowledge of their microscopic structure. It thus prepares the student for subsequent study of Pathology. In the laboratory
each student examines for himself the histology of each organ and tissue, and thus learns the use of reagents and embedding materials, the methods of cutting and mounting sections, etc.; he also studies practically the composition of the more important organs and tissues, the chemistry of digestion, the fundamental properties of living muscles and nerves, the beat of the heart, the phenomena of reflex action, etc. Important physiological facts, which require special skill for their exhibition or the employment of especially delicate instruments, are demonstrated to the class. There will be, as a rule, one such demonstration weekly. No painful experiments are performed in connection with this course. The physiological apparatus belonging to the University is unusually good and complete; students have, accordingly, not only the opportunity to acquire a knowledge of the methods of modern histological investigation, but also of the mode of using all the chief instruments employed in physiological, pathological, and pharmacological research.
The new biological laboratory has been especially constructed with reference to providing opportunity for advanced work in experimental physiology. The collection of physiological instruments belonging to the University is unusually large and complete and is yearly added to,-the Trustees providing an annual sum for the purchase of instruments wanted for any particular investigation, or which for other reasons it is desirable to have in the laboratory. There is also a workshop in the laboratory in which a skilled mechanic is kept employed repairing and constructing instruments. The laboratory contains two large rooms for general advanced work in animal physiology, in addition to others specially designed for work with the spectroscope, with the myograph, for electro-physiological researches, and for chemical physiology.
2. Animal Histology.
The laboratory contains a special room constructed for advanced histological work, and well supplied with apparatus and reagents. There is also a room and apparatus for micro-photography.
3. Animal Morphology.
Rooms for advanced work in this subject are contained in the laboratory and a course of advanced lectures is given by Dr. Brooks. The chief advanced study in animal morphology is however carried on at the Marine Laboratory, open at the sea-side from the beginning of June until the end of August, under the direction of Dr. Brooks. The Marine Laboratory possesses a steam launch and a large sloop, and is supplied with dredges, boats, aquaria, microscopes, etc. 4. Physiological Psychology.
During the academic year a course of lectures, combined with laboratory work, will be given by Dr. G. Stanley Hall, in connection with the psychological courses of instruction in the university.
Dr. W. H. Howell will give about thirty advanced lectures on the Physiology of Respiration. Short courses of lectures will be given from time to time on other selected physiological and morphological subjects.
6. Journal Club.
A Journal Club, composed of the instructors and advanced students, meets weekly for the reading and discussion of recent biological publications.
7. Reading Clubs, in Animal Morphology and Physiology, for the study and discussion of classical biological works, meet weekly, during the greater part of the session.
8. Library Facilities.
The laboratory contains a library supplied with standard biological works and complete sets of the more important journals. There is also a special collection of books which have been brought together in connection with researches carried on in the laboratory. An effort is always made to procure for anyone engaged in a particular investigation all publications bearing on his work but not easily accessible, as graduation theses, occasional publications from laboratories in Europe and elsewhere, etc. The biological library receives regularly about forty biological periodicals, including all the important physiological and morphological journals in English, French, German, and Italian.
The general library of the University receives all the chief journals of general science, and the transactions of all the leading learned societies of the world.
The Library of the Peabody Institute, within five minutes' walk of the University, contains complete sets of many of the chief biological journals, of the proceedings of learned societies, and other works of reference.
In the library of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, a very large number of medical periodicals is accessible to members of the University.
The proximity of Washington is of special value to advanced students of physiology. The Library of the Army Medical Museum in that city contains an almost unrivalled store of physiological works which are available under conditions favorable to study.
In connection with the biological laboratory there is published a journal (Studies from the Biological Laboratory) which contains the results of most of the researches carried out in the laboratory; a ready means of publication for original work is thus secured. The University Circulars, which appear at short intervals throughout the year, are available for preliminary statements, securing priority for discoveries while more detailed accounts are in course of publication.
III. Naturalists' Field Club.
This was organized by members of the University, but includes in its list of members other residents of Baltimore interested in
Natural History. The club works in three sections-Geology and Mineralogy, Zoology, Botany. Each section elects its own officers and arranges for its own field excursions and its own
meetings. There are also monthly meetings of the whole club, when the chairmen of the different sections report progress and an address on some topic of Natural History is given by one of the members.
The mineralogical collections of the club are preserved in the Chemical Laboratory; the botanical and zoölogical in the Museum of the Biological Laboratory.
WORK OF THE PAST YEAR, 1884-85.
I. Laboratory Work.
The Biological Laboratory has been open for eight hours daily during the year, for the prosecution of advanced study and research and for courses of practical instruction in connection with class lectures.
During the year original investigations have been made in regard to the following subjects:
The proteids of blood plasma. The influence of intermittent pressure on arterial tonicity. The influence of various salts on arterial tonicity. The absolute relative value of commercial disinfectants and germicides. Regeneration of tissue in larvæ. The rate of propagation of the wave of muscular contraction. The proximate cause of the coagulation of blood. The functions of the cardiac nerves of the Chelonia. The nature of apnoea. The embryology of Echinoderms. The conditions which determine sex. The embryology of insects. The segmentation of the Vertebrate skull. The homology of the hypoglossus nerve.
Preliminary notices of the results of most of the above researches have already been printed in the University Circulars, in the Zoologischer Anzeiger and elsewhere. Fuller accounts will shortly be published.
In connection with the regular class instruction, first year students studied a number of typical fungi, green plants, and animals; the skeletons of about twenty selected vertebrates; and the development of the chick in the egg. In the spring there were twelve practical lessons in the elements of Systematic and Descriptive Botany.
Second year students worked at the histology of the tissues and organs of the higher vertebrata (especially man); the physiological properties and functions of the tissues and organs; the physiology of digestion; the chemistry of bile, urine, etc. The cat was thoroughly dissected by the second year students, and about twenty-five selected invertebrate and vertebrate types.
II. Advanced Instruction.
Dr. W. K. Brooks lectured twice weekly through the year on Advanced Morphology.
A course of seven lectures on Morphological Problems was given during April and May, as follows:
Three lectures by Mr. E. A. Andrews on the Anatomy, Embryology, and Affinities of Annelids.
One lecture by Mr. J. Playfair McMurrich on the Morphological Significance of the Hypoglossus Nerve.
One lecture by Mr. A. T. Bruce on the Embryology of Insects.
One lecture by Dr. W. K. Brooks on Alternation of Generations.
A course of six lectures on Animal Teratology was given by Dr. W. T. Councilman during May.
Most of the advanced work was carried on individually, and not in class; each worker taking up some special topic for study under the immediate direction of some one of the instructors. In
addition to the original researches already enumerated, certain graduate students have in this manner carried on advanced study in various directions.
Students engaged in this kind of study (which forms a steppingstone between class-work and original research), are usually given some important original article, and shown how to repeat and verify for themselves (and criticise) the experiments and results described in it. By studying and repeating the original work of others they learn the methods of biological investigation, and are thus trained to plan and carry out researches themselves. In connection with this work, students are also taught how to hunt up and utilize the bibliography of a subject.
III. Class Instruction.
Courses of lectures for undergraduates were given as follows: Osteology, twice weekly, until the end of March.
Mammalian Anatomy, twice weekly, until Christmas.
Animal Physiology and Histology, three times weekly, through the year.
Plant Analysis, twice weekly, in April and May.
IV. Marine Laboratory.
During the summer of 1884, the seaside Zoological Laboratory for the study of forms of marine life, was open at Beaufort, N. C., for fifteen weeks.
The advanced work included original investigations on the following subjects:
The embryology and systematic zoology of Echinoderms, Annelids, and Medusa. The susceptibility of marine animals to vegetable poisons. Digestion in the Anthozoa. The structure and affinities of Balanoglossus. The embryology of Gasteropod and the homology of the Gasteropod Gill. The early developmental stages of Teleostei. The origin and significance of alternation of generations in Hydroids. The segmentation of the vertebrate skull. The metamorphosis and systematic Zoology of the Stomatopods.
The results of many of these investigations have been already published; others will be shortly.
Number 2 of the third volume of "Studies from the Biological Laboratory" was published in December. It contains:
I. Notes on the Composition of the Blood and Lymph of the Slider Terrapin (Pseudemys rugosa). By W. H. Howell.
II. The Origin of the Fibrin formed in the Coagulation of Blood. By W. H. Howell.
III. On the Action of Carbolic Acid, Atropia, and Convallaria on the Heart; with some Observations on the Influence of Oxygenated and Non-oxygenated Blood, and of Blood in various Degrees of Dilution. By H. G. Beyer. With Plate VII.
IV. The Action of Intermittent Pressure and of Defibrinated Blood upon the Blood vessels of the Frog and the Terrapin. By L. T. Stevens and F. S. Lee.
Number 3, now in press, contains:
I. Marine Larvæ and their relation to adults. By H. W. Conn.
III. The endings of the motor nerve fibres in the striped muscles of the
Number 4, to be published in a few weeks, will contain:
I. Observations on Zoögloeæ and several related forms.
ANCIENT AND MODERN LANGUAGES.
PROGRAMMES FOR 1885-86.
I. Greek Seminary.
PROFESSOR GILDERSLEEVE will conduct the Greek Seminary, the plan of which is based on the continuous study of some leading author or some special department of literature.
The Seminary consists of the director, fellows, and scholars, and such advanced students as shall satisfy the director of their fitness for an active participation in the work, by an essay, a critical exercise, or some similar test of attainments and capacity. All graduate students, however, may have the privilege of attending the course.
During the next academic year the study of Plato and of the literary form of Greek Philosophy will constitute the chief occupation of the members.
In connection with the Seminary the director will interpret the Symposion of Plato once a week with conferences on topics suggested by the text, of which Jahn's edition will be used.
The philosophy of Plato will also be taken up in the courses of Professor Hall.
It is important that all should be provided in advance with Ritter and Preller's Historia philosophiae ex fontium locis contexta with a complete Platonic text, and annotated editions of some of the principal dialogues, such as Hug's Symposion, Deuschle and Cron's or Sauppe's Protagoras, Deuschle and Cron's Gorgias, Wagner's Phaidon, Thompson's Phaidros, Riddell's Apology, and Campbell's Theaitetos.
II. Advanced and Graduate Courses.
1. PROFESSOR GILDERSLEEVE will also conduct a course of Practical Exercises in Greek, consisting chiefly in translation at dictation from Greek into English and English into Greek, two meetings a week from the beginning of the session to the first of January.
2. He will give a course of lectures on Greek Syntax: (1) On the Hypotactic sentence; (II) On the influence of grammar on style. (This second part will comprise readings in Homer, Hesiod, the Dramatic Poets, Herodotos, and Thukydides). Once a week until the first of January, thenceforward twice a week.
III. Undergraduate Courses.
1. Xenophon, Oeconomicus.
Four hours weekly, first half-year. DR. SPIEKER.
Private Reading: Lysias, Orations 7, 9, 12, 13, 24.
2. Homer, Iliad, 8, 9; Euripides, Alcestis.
Four hours weekly, second half-year. DR. SPIEKER. Private Reading: Herodotus, Keep's Selections. 3. Demosthenes, De Corona.
Four hours weekly, first half-year. PROFESSOR MORRIS. Private Reading: Plato, Protagoras.
4. Sophocles, Antigone; Aristophanes, Nubes.
Four hours weekly, second half-year, PROFESSOR MORRIS. Private Reading: Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus.
5. Prose Composition.
Weekly exercises in connection with each of the above courses.
6. Conferences on Greek Literature.
A series of conferences with illustrations from authors actually studied in the undergraduate department. Once a week, after the spring recess. PROFESSOR GILDERSLEEVE.
I. Latin Seminary.
DR. WARREN will conduct the Latin Seminary. The Latin Historians, more especially Liry and Tacitus, will form the centre of work during the next academic year. There will be two meetings a week during the entire session, devoted to the critical interpretation of the authors above named, to auxiliary studies, and the presentation of papers by members of the Seminary. It is probable that during the first half of the year more particular attention will be paid to Livy, and in the latter half to Tacitus.
Students are advised to read in advance as much as possible of Livy and Tacitus, and to provide themselves with complete texts of Cæsar, Sallust, Livy (either Weissenborn, or Madvig and Ussing), Tacitus (Halm), and Suetonius (Roth).
II. Advanced and Graduate Courses.
1. During the first half of the year DR. WARREN will give a course of lectures on the Roman Historians, beginning with the earliest period.
2. In the latter half of the year, he will give a course of twenty lectures on Historical Latin Grammar, with especial reference to phonetic laws and the genesis of forms.
3. In the first half of the year, he will conduct a course of weekly meetings for the Translation at Sight of various Latin writers.
4. In the latter half of the year, there will be a course of Practical Exercises in Latin, one meeting a week, devoted mainly to translation at dictation from Latin into English, and from English into Latin.
III. Undergraduate Courses.
1. Livy, two books.
Four hours weekly, first half-year. DR. SPIEKER.
Private Reading: Cicero, pro Roscio Amerino, de Senectute, de Amicitia.
2. Horace, Select Odes, Satires and Epistles.
Four hours weekly, second half-year. DR. SPIEKER.
Private Reading: Horace, Epodes and Carmen Saeculare; Vergil, Aeneid, book xii.
3. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, book i; Lucretius, books i and iii. Seven hours in two weeks, first half-year. PROFESSOR MORRIS.
Reading at sight.
One hour every two weeks.
Private Reading: Cicero, de Natura Deorum, book iii; Lucretius, book v.
4. Tacitus, Agricola, Germania, Annales, books i and ii. Four hours weekly, second half-year. PROFESSOR MORRIS.