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Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor, 1602. Edited by W. W. Greg, Litt.D. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.)
THIS is a recent edition to that "Tudor and Stuart Library" which is one of the most attractive, both in contents and appearance, of the many series with which the Oxford Press tempts the scholar.
Dr. Greg is responsible for a Bibliographical and Critical Introduction, Appendixes, and notes. These are concerned, not with æsthetic considerations (such as the comparison of Falstaff's character here and elsewhere), but with the perplexing texts of the play. We have two main authorities-the Quarto of 1602, and the Folio of 1623. Here Dr. Greg reprints the Quarto, and compares both generally and in detail the readings given by each. He discusses the views of the late H. C. Hart and Mr. P. A. Daniel, and puts forward his own with great ability. He considers that we have to bear in mind (1) garbling by a reporter of the play as performed on the stage; (2) cutting, and possibly rewriting, for acting purposes, by a stage adapter; (3) working over by an authorized reviser of the original text (underlying the Quarto), and the production of a new version (substantially that of the Folio text). As for the reporter, Dr. Greg shows that his task was not so difficult as might be imagined by his own experience of reporting and writing a tolerable text of a play of Mr. Shaw's. This reporter who was responsible for the Quarto text was, Dr. Greg suggests, the actor who played the part of Mine Host, for the speeches of that part are reported with very unusual accuracy. The notes after the text show a laudable reluctance to consent to conjectures, however specious, where the Quarto and Folio readings agree.
When Slender says (1. 110 of the Quarto) of a Fencer that "he hot my shin," he is using a past tense of "hit " which we have often heard in Shakespeare's country.
There are notes on two well-known difficulties, gongarian and garmombles," neither of which, we note, appears in the N.E.D.' As for the former, until Steevens's quotation from one of the old bombast plays which he " forgot to note has been discovered, comment, as Dr. Greg sensibly remarks, is useless. As for the other odd word, Dr. Greg regards the passage in which it occurs as unoriginal, and a substitution for a more elaborate scene which had to be cut out. So if garmombles " is not a wild blunder, it does not belong to the original text, but is " sly allusion to the censored episode introduced by the actor (an Elizabethan Pelissier) for the benefit of an audience familiar with current dramatic scandal." This must certainly be the first appearance of the leader of "The Follies " in serious criticism.
Neither the Folio nor the Quarto gives such an ending to the play in the last act as we might expect from Shakespeare. That is the view of Dr. Greg, and of other critics; or, if the work is Shakespeare's, it "has almost disappeared under a twofold revision by a greatly inferior playwright."
Dr. Greg's recension of the play is so thorough and searching that it cannot be disregarded by any future editor. We congratulate him on a piece of work which must have cost him a large amount of time and labour. The modern and expert "de minimis curat" with the best bibliographer results.
The Little Guides.-Staffordshire. By Charles Masefield. With 32 Illustrations, 2 Plans, and 2 Maps.-The Channel Islands. By E. E. Bicknell. With 32 Illustrations and 5 Maps. (Methuen & Co.)
WISE reviewers always keep their copies of 66 The Little Guides," if they can, for this series is at once thorough, sound in information, and practical. The alphabetical arrangement gives a ready means of access to the detail desired, when the facts will be found set out distinctly, and without the parade of verbiage which disfigures most guide-books.
The present reviewer has used many volumes of the series with advantage, and always asks for them when he does not possess them. Details which concern the historian or archæologist as opposed to the ordinary tourist are not lacking, and there are signs everywhere of that personal knowledge which is essential for real help to the traveller. The maps are thoroughly useful. A few trifles in names need amending.
Both writers very sensibly ask for corrections, and in the case of the Channel Islands it would not be a bad scheme, we think, to put the little book on the boats which ply backwards and forwards from England, and ask for criticism from passengers.
Notices to Correspondents.
We must call special attention to the following notices:
ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.
EDITORIAL Communications should be addressed to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"-Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publishers"-at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.
To secure insertion of communications corre
spondents must observe the following rules. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous such address as he wishes to appear. When answerentries in the paper, contributors are requested to put in parentheses, immediately after the exact heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to which they refer. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."
CAPT. BEAUMONT ("Queen Henrietta Maria's Second Marriage").-The 'D.N.B.,' at the end of the account of Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, says: "The scandal-mongers of his own day affirmed that he was secretly married to Henrietta Maria during the exile, but no proof of the story has yet come to light." References are given to Pepys, Reresby, and Burnet.
LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 6, 1910.
NOTES:- Gulston Addison's Death at Madras, 101-
Notices to Correspondents.
GULSTON ADDISON'S DEATH AT MADRAS.
THE fact that there have been recently in "N. & Q.' several notes upon Addison's maternal ancestry may seem to give some appropriateness to the insertion of the following letter, a copy of which was kindly given me some time ago by Sir Robert White-Thomson, who treasures the original among his family papers. The writer, Brudenell Baker, was a brother of Catharine Baker, who married Thomas Remington in 1714, and had a son, the Rev. Daniel William Remington, who was Sir Robert's greatgrandfather (see 10 S. ix. 302).
The principal interest of the letter lies in the account it gives of the last days of Gulston Addison, and of his death. The elder of the famous essayist's younger brothers, Gulston Addison had his mother's maiden name bestowed upon him in baptism. Born in 1673 ('D.N.B.' under Lancelot Addison), he was for many years in the service of the East India Company at Fort St. George, and in 1709, shortly before
his death, was appointed Governor of the place in succession to Thomas Pitt, celebrated through his descendants.
Brudenell Baker, baptized at Lichfield Cathedral on 2 September, 1675, was the eldest son of the Rev. William Baker (a Prebendary of the Cathedral, and for 51 years Vicar of St. Mary's Church) by his wife Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Brudenell (see Harwood's Lichfield,' p. 97). Nothing is known of his early life, but the letter which follows shows that he had been at least extravagant and had incurred his father's severest displeasure :
India-Fort St George 14 Oct 1709.
Tho you were pleas'd to command me not to write to you in England I hope you will permit me to pay my Duty to you from this other part of ye World. I am very sensible yt you ever had the hardest opinion of me, but could have wished yt at my setting out upon so desperate a Voyage, never to see you more, You would have at least conceal'd your resentmts & sent me your blessing. But no more of this-I could not forbear just mentioning it, because my heart was full of it, & it has been a great trouble to me. But am resolved hereafter (if you will give me leave) to send you all ye Comfort I am able in your old age and never to omit one opportunity of shewing my Obedience to you.
God knows how this Country may agree with my Constitution. If I live my Fortune is certainly made in a few Years. But I ought to begin & state Occurrences in Order. We set sail on Saturday y 9th of April from Plymouth, & after a voyage attended with some Hardships & great danger (especially in a prodigious Storm y beginning of July weh lasted two nights & one day a perfect Hurricane) we came to an Anchour ye 17th of September, just 23 Weeks in Our passage. Our ships arrived y first of ye Fleet, and consequently brought ye news of Mr Addiis swell'd extremely, & Physicians here say 'tis ye son's being made Gov" of this Place. His Knee Gout. I wish it is so, but 'tis what he never had before & I am sure wrong methods have been applyed such as Bathing & Poultices, Plaisters &c. Arst I saw Him, wch is now near a Month. He He continues just in ye same condition as when has not much pain, but wants Spirits, wch makes Him not relish his great Preferment, and is indeed far from being elated wth it. And here it will not be amiss to acquaint you wth my Reception. Your Self viz.: His Relations in England recomBut will first let you know what must be kept to mended me very heartily to the Governour but at ye same time sent Him a particular relation of all my foolish mistakes, such as being a little too exact in dressing, and advised Him to keep too free wth Him &c.; so tender a regard they had me at a decent distance for fear I might grow to y Honour of their Br: yt they left no Stone unturned to secure it. Well, He at first observed yeir directions & has tryed me to ye Utmost. But I have had ye good fortune to gain His good Opinion, & to such a degree y' He has entrusted me with all his private Affairs, & has me with Him continually. He shew'd me those Hints
wch had been sent Him, said 'twas all needless, for He could not see any reason for those unnecessary cautions. In short He plainly tells me He'l provide for me and raise me in ye World. I have a large handsome Apartment assigned to me in y Fort near Himself, have 3 Black slaves to attend me one to carry an Umbrella over me in y Sun, another to do all Servile Offices, and a third, a genteel Servt to wait upon me in my Chamber. Y⚫ Governour lives in mighty State, never stirs abroad but with Guards drawn out, Drums beating, & Colours flying, & He has placed me so near His Person yt I am courted by ye best in ye Place. He tells me I must be civil to All, but familiar wth None but Himself. All this is very great & Sure I can never do enough to deserve y Honour He has done me. I pray God preserve His Life, and then I need not fear getting an Estate in a Short time. I have been here as particular as I can, but have not time to enlarge on this Subject any further. I am constantly employ'd by y Gov and we are in a very great Hurry to send off this Ship wch carries over his Predecessour. He has order'd me to write to his Brother & Sister. The latter wrought [sic] to Him for a Chest of things, but He has not time now to send 'em, & will do it ye next Shipping wch will be in 2 or 3 Months, so that I shall have a good opportunity to put up a small quantity of Tea for you weh I 'le not fail then to send. I will steal a little time to write a short Letter to my two Dear Sisters. My Bros must excuse
me 'till y next Ship goes off. They must not take it ill, for what I say to my Sisters I say to them. I cannot omit writing to good Dr. Smaldridge,* nor to kind cozen Lowndes, but all these will be very short, for I am straitend in time, but was resolved to neglect no occasion wch offered to shew myself
Your most obedient son
O S The Governour is dead, & in Him I've lost all ye World. It has almost distracted me. His Gout ended in a fever of wch He dyed y 17th Instant, & was buried yesterday. He has left me a Legacy yt will clear all my Debts, & be a beginning for me in ye World. 'Tis no less than 5001. If my Debts could be compounded before this is known, I should raise myself by purchasing a good Employm Do for me what You shall not find me undutifull now I can live without You. I cannot tell how long y Trustees will defer paying y Legacy. I must shift as well as I can. There has been nothing but Confusion since His Death. I shall take ye best advice I can, and doubt not but to give you satisfactory reasons for what I shall resolve upon. The Ship is just going off. I have not time to write to any Body. I send this enclosed to Cozen Lowndes, open too, for I think He is to be trusted wth it, and I have not time to write to any Relation I have, and must once again subscribe my self in y greatest haste.
Your dutiful Son
BRU: BAKER. My Kindest Love & Service attends Bros & Sisters.
George Smalridge (1663-1719), afterwards Bishop of Bristol.
The sympathy which we feel for Brudenell Baker when reading the first part of his letter, where he pleads with his father for recognition in sentences simple and apparently heartfelt, is quite alienated by the extraordinary proposal which mars the postscript. The stern old cleric must indeed have been astonished at such a request being made to him, and we may well doubt if the letter effected a reconciliation between father and son. Baker is that he was the victim of a heavy All we can plead for Brudenell and tragic disappointment, and that the postscript was penned just before the departure of the ship, leaving no time for his better feelings to assert themselves. Yet, however we may deplore this lapse in his moral sense, it is clear that he was a young man of some parts, who very quickly won the confidence and affection of an able man, in spite of his qualified recommendations. It would be interesting to know if it was Joseph Addison who sent his brother particular relation of all " 22 the young should not err in attributing to him another prodigal's "foolish mistakes." We probably inimitable essay upon youthful folly.
We learn no more of Brudenell Baker, and the time and the place of his death are alike unknown to us. Even the REV. FRANK PENNY, whose acquaintance with the history of Fort St. George is so intimate, cannot disinter his name from the records; so that it is probable he did not remain there, and certain he attained no distinction. He is not mentioned in the will of his father, who died at Lichfield in August, 1732; but this shows nothing, for the aged prebendary. makes no allusion to any son at all, although it seems clear that one at least, Thomas Baker (baptized 7 December, 1689), survived him. This Thomas graduated from Christ Church, Oxford, in 1708; and there is evidence to identify him with the Rev. Thomas Baker, a Minor Canon of St. Paul's and of Westminster, and priest of the Chapel Royal, who died 10 May, 1745 (see R. F. Scott's Admissions to St. John's College, Cambridge,' Part III. p. 456).
I have obtained an abstract of Gulston Addison's will, which is dated 16 October, 1709, the day before his death. He is described therein as "Gulstone "Addison, Esquire, Governor of Fort St. George in the East Indies. To his wife Mary Addison he bequeaths 14,000 pagodas; to his sister Dorothy Addison 1,000l. sterling; to his
good friend " Mr. Brudenell Baker of Fort St. George, 1,000 pagodas; to his friend Mr.
George Lewis of Fort St. George, 500 pagodas; to his servants, Oliver, Inggapa, and Narran, 100, 50, and 60 pagodas respectively; and to his friend Mrs. Ann Brabourne, 100 pagodas. The residue of his estate he bequeaths to his loving brother Joseph Addison, Esq.; and he appoints his friends Mr. Edmund Mountague, Mr. Robert Raworth, Mr. Edward Fleetwood, and Mr. Bernard Benyon to be trustees, giving them 100 pagodas apiece for mourning, and directing that his burial shall be at their discretion. All his debts and legacies in India are to be paid, and afterwards his estate, as it shall come to the trustees' hands, invested in diamonds, which are to be remitted to his brother Joseph in England, on such ship as they shall think fit. The bequest to his sister Dorothy shall be remitted to Joseph in like manner. Sunca Rama, if living and upon the place, shall have the buying of the diamonds. To his wife's brother Mr. Henry Jolly he leaves 1,000 pagodas; and he appoints his wife and brother Joseph executors. His signature, "Guls. Addison," is witnessed by Edward Bulkley, Henry Davenport, William Warre, and Alexander Orme. By a codicil of the same date, signed "Gulston Addison," and witnessed by Edward Bulkley, Alexander Orme, and Antho. Suply, he bequeaths 500 pagodas to Mr. Randall Fowke of Fort St. George. Three years after the testator's death, on 20 October, 1712, the will was proved by Joseph Addison, Esq., the surviving executor (P.C.C., Barnes, 179).
In Leslie Stephen's account of Joseph Addison in the D.N.B.' it is stated that Gulston Addison died 10 October, 1709a slight error-leaving Joseph an executor and residuary legatee.
"The difficulty, however, of realising an estate left in great confusion and in so distant a country, was very great. The trustees were neglectful, and Addison declares that one of them deserved the pillory, and that he longs to tell him so by word of mouth.' It was not till 1716 that a final liquidation was reached; and the sum due to Addison, afer deducting bad debts and legacies, was less than a tenth part of the whole estate, originally valued at 35,000 pagodas, or 14,000l."
In a letter dated 21 July, 1711, Addison alludes to the loss within the last twelve months of an estate in the Indies of 14,000l. If the value of a "pagoda " was only about seven shillings (11 S. i. 328), Brudenell Baker considerably overstated the amount of his legacy.
The D.N.B. (under Lancelot Addison) says that the Dean's third son, Lancelot
Addison, a Fellow of Magdalen, visited Fort St. George about the time of his brother Gulston's death, and died there in 1711. It seems clear from Brudenell Baker's letter that Lancelot must have gone out after Gulston's death; and MR. PENNY tells me that Lancelot fell a victim to the climate in August, 1710. It is strange that Gulston did not remember him in his will. Perhaps Lancelot was sent out by Joseph Addison to protect his interests. Administration of the estate of Lancelot Addison of Fort St. George, bachelor, was granted to Joseph, the brother, on 9 January, 1711/12, in P.C.C.
Gulston Addison was married to Mary Brook on 6 July, 1701 (Genealogist, N.S., vol. xix. p. 288), at Fort St. George; and MR. PENNY tells me that she died there in February, 1709/10. As Gulston's will alludes to her brother Mr. Henry Jolly, it is possible that she may have been previously married. ALEYN LYELL READE. Park Corner, Blundellsands, nr. Liverpool.
TOTTEL'S MISCELLANY,' PUTTEN-
THERE is something strange about Putten-ham's manner of introducing quotations from Turbervile that requires explanation, and it is well worthy of note.
As I have said, Turbervile is only once named in The Arte of English Poesie," and then he comes in for praise with others
who have written excellently well." But when Puttenham quotes Turbervile the critic seems to wish to convey to his readers the impression that he is dealing with passages not from the work of one man, but from the work of several men. He not only hides names, but also goes out of his way to blind us as to the sources from which he obtained his material.
There are four passages from Turbervile cited in pp. 262-3, and the uninitiated reader is compelled to assume that the critic is lashing at four distinct writers. Two quotations are introduced with the remark "as he that said "; the third one follows with the introduction, "another that praysing his mistresse for her bewtifull haire, said "; and the last passage comes in with " as one that said," but separated from the other three by a quotation from Puttenham's own 'Partheniades,' which the author, with
paternal pride, contrasts with Turbervile to illustrate in a most striking manner the difference between good and bad verse.
Readers of his own day could hardly escape knowing the poet whom Puttenham aimed at, and they would have the help of Turbervile's special admirers and friends to help them if they were at fault. But men of a later generation would not be so fortunate, and therefore it is no wonder that Puttenham's ambiguous style of reference has served the purpose, up to now, of hiding his concentrated onslaught on Turbervile. And it is an ingenious mode of attack, too, because, to any charge of personal malice that might be brought against him, Puttenham could answer that he did not name the poet, that he pretended to be dealing with more persons than one, and he could triumphantly refer objectors to the passage in his book in which he commends Turbervile by name.
I will deal with these four passages now. In two places (pp. 181 and 262) Puttenham treats of Histeron proteron, or the Preposterous, a manner of disordered speech when one misplaces words or clauses, and sets that before which should come behind, that is, setting the cart before the horse. He says:
eye, ought not to have this epithete (darke,) no more then another that praysing his mistresse for her bewtifull haire, said very improperly and with an uncouth terme.
Her haire surmounts Apollos pride,
Whereas this word raigne is ill applied to the bewtie of a womans haire, and might better have bene spoken of her whole person, in which bewtie, favour and good grace, may perhaps in some sort be said to raigne as our selves wrate, in a Partheniade praising her Majesties countenance, thus:—
A cheare where love and Majestie do raigne, Both milde and sterne, &c.
Because this word Majestie is a word expressing a certaine Soveraigne dignitie, as well as quallitie of countenance, and therefore may properly be said to raigne, and requires no meaner word to set him foorth by. So it is not of the bewtie that remaines in a womans haire, or in her hand or in any other member: therefore when ye see all these improper or harde Epithets used, ye may put them in the number of [uncouths] as one that said, the flouds of graces: I have heard of the flouds of teares, and the flouds. of eloquence, or of any thing that may resemble the nature of a water-course, and in that respect we say also, the streames of teares, and the streames of utterance, but not the streames of graces, or of beautie."