earliest of 1663. It appears upon inspection manuscript form may be amended to y and t that The Kingdome's Intelligencer was num-respectively. Grammatical form is wanting, bered weekly, and in 1661 the numbers ran however; and even if we inserted the a from 1 to 53, the last being "from Monday, of the genitive plural (as if ynetunga ga), Decemb. 23. to Monday, Decemb. 30. we could not assign a meaning to unga. 1661." No. 1 of 1662 is dated "From There are reasons for supposing Monday, Decemb. 30. to Monday, Ianuary 6. 1661"; but in the British Museum Collection (vol. 58) it is bound in the first volume for 1662, and immediately after the No. 1 for 1663, which is "From Monday, Decem. 29, to Monday, January 5. 1662." It was on p. 9 of the latter (which, of course, is the earliest issue of 1663) that the following advertisement appeared :

"There is stol'n abroad a most false imperfect Coppy of a Poem (called Hudibras) without name either of Printer or Bookseller, as fit for so lame and Spurious an Impression. The true and perfect Edition printed by the Authors Originall is sold by Richard Marriott under St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet-street; that other nameless Impression is a Cheat, and will but abuse the buyer as well as the Author, whose Poems deserves to have faln into better hands."

Posterity decidedly has endorsed the compliment paid in these last words; and that is not the only unusual feature of this very striking advertisement. ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

22 'UNECUNGGA 2 : "YNETUNGA." IN the oldest copy of the Tribal Hidage,' that, namely, which was written in the Harley MS. No. 3271, about the year 1000, there appears the uncouth land-name unecungga. In the Cotton MS. Claudius D II., of the twelfth century, we find the more intelligible ynetunga. Another British Museum MS., Hargreave, No. 313, of the thirteenth century, yields wnetunga, in which the initial y is displaced by the runic letter for w. The MSS. are surprisingly corrupt, but they agree in assessing the district at 1,200 hides.



Dr. Birch, to whom we are indebted for many details (cf. Cartularium Saxonicum,' iii. 672), suggested that "Unecungga was either near the Onny, in Shropshire, or in the Hundred of Ongar, in Essex. Mr. Brownbill, in N. & Q. in 1901 (8 June and 3 Aug.) identified it with Wanating, i.e., Wantage. But none of these is suitable. The ending is clearly gā, “region," as in " Ohtna ga " and Oxna ga "; and the u and c* of the earliest *The letters c and t have collided in MS. since the third century (De Vaines, 'Dictionnaire raisonné de Diplomatique,' 1774, ii. 382).. They have been confounded one with the other since the thirteenth (ibid., i. 216).


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ynetun represents yneta." In some tenth-century A.-S. MSS. the letter a was first formed like u, and then finished by a stroke set transversely across the two limbs. of that letter; vide B. Thorpe's facsmilei of the Corpus MS. of the 'Saxon Chronicle,' where half-a-dozen instances of this a may be found in the last eight lines of annal 922. This peculiarity led to mistakes in copying, the most frequent being ti and it for a. Another possible result of the careless crossing of the limbs of the u would be the expansion of the supposed compendium

as un. This, I believe, is the error that lies before us, and for ynetun ga I would substitute Yneta ga, provisionally. This form, though grammatical, is obscure.

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We will now inquire what region of 1,200 hides appears to have been omitted

from the list. In his Historia Ecclesias

tica,' IV. xiv., Bede allots 1,200 hides to the
Wight. But this does not seem probable.
The Wight contains only 94,068 acres,
whereas Anglesey, which Bede reported to
be assessed at 960 hides (II. ix.), has
176,630 acres. In one case 78 acres go to
the hide, in the other 184. Both islands are
agricultural, and whatever may be said for
the fruitfulness of the Wight, there can be
no question of the fertility of Anglesey. It
was anciently the granary of North Wales,
and its name in Welsh is Môn mam Gymru,
"Mona the mother of Cambria."
over, the list includes the Isle of Wight
under the name of Wihtgara [land], and
assesses it at 600 hides. I conclude, there-
fore, that Bede fell into some error in this.


Speaking of the Jutes (I. xv.), Bede discriminates between ea gens quæ Uectam tenet insulam" and "ea, quæ....Iutarum natio nominatur, posita contra ipsam in22 We have here, I believe, the sulam..." explanation of Bede's mistake: either the hidage is that of the whole Iutna cyn ( Saxon Chron.,' a, scr. ca. 1100), and so includes the island; or it excludes the island, and is the assessment of the Jutes of the mainland only. I assume the latter to be the case, and I would assign the 1,200 hides to the Iutarum

* See Archiv für celtische Lexicographie, ii. 185, where I give the following instances with their documentation: tibir: abir; tingle: angle; giti: gai..


prouincia ('H.E.,' u.s.), the Eota land of the A.-S. version. Florence of Worcester uses Bede's phrase in one place (i. 276). In another (ii. 44) he says the New Forest lingua Anglorum Ytene nuncupatur," and Ytene" here equals the older Ytena (7), which is the weak genitive plural.


Our correction of Bede, then, taken together with Florence's report, gives us Ytena [ga or land], MCC. hidarum. Now this assessment ought to appear in the Tribal Hidage.' The Jutish name, as we have just now seen, maintained itself down to the twelfth century; and Jutish autonomy survived until the end of the ninth, if we may believe John of Wallingford, who reports that Elbert, son of Aistulf, the last king of the Jutes of Wight, died in the reign of King Alfred. For these reasons I regard the corrupt words we are considering as a record of the Jutes of Hampshire, and instead of "yneta ga,' the provisional emendation arrived at above, I read Ytena gå, i.e., the gå of the Jutes. There are many instances of metathesis like ytena: yneta,* and it is noteworthy (1) that Ynetun ga comes next before" Aro sætna [land]," i.e., Dorsetshire, in the list; and (2) that the other land-names in gå therein are Jutish also. ALFRED ANSCOMBE.




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JACOBITE GARTERS.-In the First Series of N. & Q.' (viii. 586) is a query relative to the origin of Jacobite garters, which I have never seen answered.


Only two years after the revolt of Charles Edward in 1745-6 The Gentleman's Magazine (xviii. 461) published an anonymous Essay on the Garter,' at the close of which is suggested the origin of the Jacobite garter :

"After having so lavishly spoken in praise of the garter, I cannot but disapprove of it, when it is made the distinguishing badge of a party. It ought to be like the cæstus of Venus, so beautifully described in my motto, and not to be daubed with plaid, and crammed with treason. I am credibly informed, that garters of this sort were first introduced in the late rebellion by some female aid de camps; and whether or not such ladies are to be imitated, is worth the serious consideration of the virtuous part of the fair sex.'



Ann Arbor, Michigan.


E.g., Argabaste: Arbogaste ('Historia Brittonum,' cap. xxix.) Bedenestedun: Benedestedun (Domesday Book,' ii. 54a, 85b); Goronilla: Gonorilla ("The Red Book of Hergest,' ed. Rhys and Evans, ii. 65); amphilabi: amphibali (Vita Seti. Columbæ, ed. Reeves, p. 113).

THE WARDEN OF WADHAM AND MATRIMONY. A few days ago I received a letter from a friend in which he tells me that there is a Railway Act that contains a provision authorizing the Warden of Wadham to marry. My friend feels certain of the fact, as he remembers turning up the Act itself some years ago and copying the clause. He also tells me that this Railway Act with the matrimonial clause is mentioned in one of the books on railways. Unfortunately, this book has been mislaid in consequence of dusting, and no date of the Railway Act is mentioned by my friend.


In the short history of Wadham written by Mr. J. Wells, p. 156, mention is made of a special Act of Parliament allowing the Warden of Wadham to marry, passed in 1806. Mr. Wells says: "It need hardly be added there is no truth in the college tradition that the change was accomplished by a clause 'tacked on to a Canal Bill." The Act for enabling a Married Person to hold and enjoy the Office of Warden of Wadham College in the University of Oxford 2 is recorded in Private Acts, 1806. It may be found near the end of that year's second volume. I can give no more precise reference as the Private Acts are not numbered, are dated only by the session (46 George III.), and the volumes are unpaged. The Act of 1806 disposes of the matter as far as Wadham is concerned. Does the tradition refer to the head of some other college? A. L. MAYHEW. Wadham College, Oxford.


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bunches so esteemed by the careful house-
wife. Trade therein is, however, not what
it was, as one dusky female almost tearfully
informed the writer in salubrious Hamp-
stead. Her stock was the product of a
cut " from the fields at Mitcham, once noted
for a prolific supply, now unfortunately
stated to be on the wane. It is to be hoped
that fresh enterprise may be available for
the continued cultivation of so pleasant and
useful a plant in the few counties of England
where it is still grown. Anyway, the song of
66 Sweet Lavender " is always welcome.
Let us hope it will be a long while before it
ceases, as many another familiar old London
cry has done.

Junior Athenæum Club.


SORNING."-In an article in the current number of The Cornhill Magazine the following sentence occurs :

"He remembered to have heard that Burma was a country of immense possibilities, if only the Indian Government would stop sorning on it, to use the Scottish term for extortion."

I am not aware of any instance of, or authority for, the use of this well-known Scotch word in the sense of "extortion." The original meaning was to take up free quarters, or, as Jamieson has it, to obtrude one's self on another for board and lodging." See Jamieson's 'Scottish Dictionary, Longmuir's edition, 1882. Nowadays this objectionable custom is, I hope, seldom carried to such a length as to merit the punishment of death, to which sornaris were at one time liable under an old Act of James II., but is confined to sponging upon one's friends, and playing the unwelcome guest. The word, however, would never convoy to a Scotchman the idea of extorT. F. D. THE NEGLECTED OLD FATHER: CHINESE PARALLEL.-A Gaelic story is quoted as follows from J. F. Campbell in Mr. Gomme's 'Folk-lore as an Historical Science,' London, n.d., pp. 67-8 :


"There was a man at some time or other who was well off, and had many children. When the family grew up the man gave a well-stocked farm to each of his children. When the man was old his wife died, and he divided all that he had amongst his children, and lived with them, turn about, in their houses. The sons got tired of him and ungrateful, and tried to get rid of him when he came to stay with them. At last an old friend found him sitting tearful by the wayside, and, learning the cause of his distress, took him home; there he gave him a bowl of gold and a lesson which the old man learned and acted. When all the ungrateful sons and daughters had gone to a preaching, the old man went to a green knoll where

his grandchildren were at play, and, pretending to
hide, he turned up a flat hearthstone in an old
He spread out his gold on a big stone in the sun-
stance [=standing-place], and went out of sight.
light, and he muttered, Ye are mouldy, ye are
hoary, ye will be better for the sun.' The grand-
children came sneaking over the knoll, and when
they had seen and heard all that they were
intended to see and hear, they came running up
with, Grandfather, what have you got there?"
That which concerns you not; touch it not,' said
the grandfather, and he swept his gold into a bag
and took it home to his old friend. The grand-
children told what they had seen, and henceforth

the children strove who should be kindest to the
old grandfather. Still acting on the counsel of his
sagacious old chum, he got a stout little black chest
made, and carried it always with him. When any
one questioned him as to its contents his answer
That will be known when the chest is
opened.' When he died he was buried with great
honour and ceremony, and the chest was opened by
In it were found broken
the expectant heirs.
potsherds and bits of slate, and a long-handled
white wooden mallet with this legend on its
head :-

Here is the fair mall

To give a knock on the skull

To the man who keeps no gear for himself,
But gives all to his bairn."

Whether or not it has one and the same origin with this Scottish tale, a Chinese anecdote of a similar stamp is related, with all his characteristic eagerness, by Sze-ma Tsien, the greatest historian China has ever produced. It occurs in the Life of Lu Kia' in his Shi-ki,' written c. B.C. 97. It tells us how in the year 196 B.C. the Emperor Hautsu sent Lu Kia, the great literate and diplomat, to Tchao To, the self-made monarch of Nang-yue, in order to subdue him without the use of arms (for the latter's life see Garnier, 'Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine,' Paris, 1873, tom. i. p. 469). The eloquent Lu Kia completely brought over Tchao To, so that the latter presented the former on his farewell with a bag containing valuables worth a thousand pieces of gold, to which he added another thousand for


After the Emperor Hiao-hui succeeded his father Hau-tsu (B.c. 194), the Dowager-Empress Lu was hankering to make kings of her own kindred, quite contrary to the will of her deceased husband. Well knowing his incompetence to stop this, Lu Kia pretended to be unwell, and retired to Hao-chi, there to live by keeping excellent farms.

"As he had five sons," the narrative continues, "he took out of the bag the valuables Tchao-To had given him, and sold them for one thousand pieces of gold. These he divided amongst his sons, telling each to thrive with the fund of two hundred pieces. Lu Kia procured for himself a comfortable carriage

drawn by four horses, ten attendants, all skilful in music and dancing, and a sword which cost him one hundred gold pieces. Then he spoke to his sons thus: Now I covenant with you that whenever I come to any one of you, you shall supply me, my attendants, and my horses, with enough of food and drink, and I will go off after enjoying them for ten consecutive days. Should I happen to die in the house of any one of you, my sword, my carriage with horses, and my attendants, will all fall into his possession. But I will not visit any one of you more than twice or thrice a year, because to call on you more frequently would make you entertain me with less will, whilst a prolonged stay in one and the same house would inevitably be followed by your getting tired of me.'......He died after enjoying longevity."


Tanabe, Kii, Japan.




ROBERT SINGLETON.-The account in the 'D.N.B.' is very unsatisfactory. Singleton was not a "Roman Catholic divine." It is true that Antonio Possevino, S.J., treats him as such in his Apparatus Sacer (Cologne, 1608), ii. 345-6, and adds "he is thought to have died a martyr in London," and that Wood and Dodd are doubtful; but I feel sure that Dodd had never seen Bale's Scriptorum Illustrium....Catalogus (Basle, 1557-9), ii. 105, if Wood had (which I doubt), and that neither had seen Fox's 'Actes and Monuments on the subject. See Townsend's edition, iii. 367 and v. 600, 696, and the Appendix to the latter volume, No. XII. Singleton had got into difficulties together with Robert Wisdom and Thomas Becon, and all three made their recantations on 14 May, 1543, which can be read in the Appendix to vol. v.

Bale says he was executed on account of his work On Certain Prophecies.' Fox says he was falsely accused of the murder of Robert Packington, a mercer of London, and also of stirring up sedition, but really suffered for his Protestant opinions. He had been chaplain to Anne Boleyn, and that was not improbably the real cause of his death, if he were guiltless of sedition. There is no doubt that his Christian name was Robert. JOHN B. WAIN EWRIGHT.

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becomes an oria, the dropping of the i easily following this corruption."



This tentative explanation is not satisfactory; even if we pass over the dropped n, about which much might be said, there is the dropped i. I has never dropped in "oriel," orient," or oriole." But if it be remembered that noria was taken into Spanish from the Arabic naūra, it seems possible that the word ora may be the The second syllable of the Arabic form. earliest 'N.E.D.' quotation of noria is 1792, and the three quotations all apply to the Spanish word. Searchers may possibly find traces of the word having come into English in its Arabic form, only to become lost after a time.

Noria is the usual French name for the wheel and bucket pump. In Southern France this pump is extensively used for irrigation; it was, until lately, made with ropes and earthen pots, like the sakia of Egypt or the Persian wheel of India, and it creaked like these. This primitive form has been superseded by the modern form, all of iron, and the French name has been imported, but good Provençaux do not use this name; they keep to the old word pouso-raco, literally the 'spew-well," only using the imported name when speaking French. To the word noria citizenship is refused in Mistral's 'Tresor,' the great dictionary of the Occitanian language. EDWARD NICHOLSON.




BURTON'S ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY': QUOTATION IN REPRINTS.-Under the frontispiece (engraved by E. Warren after Thurston) of vol. i. of the ninth edition of the 'Anatomy,' London, 1800-the first of those reprints than which Charles Lamb knew no more "heartless sight "-is a quotation in verse over the name Penrose. The picture with the same words is repeated in several later editions. The author is the Rev. Thomas Penrose (1742-79, see 'D.N.B.'), and the source is stanza 7 of Madness' in his posthumous Poems,' London, 1781. I complete the quotation by adding the adjoining words :


[No pleasing memory left-] forgotten quite
All former scenes of dear delight,
Connubial love-parental joy-
No sympathies like these his soul employ,
-But all is dark within, [all furious black despair.]
The last line rimes with

In rage he grinds his teeth, and rends his streaming hair,

at the end of the preceding stanza.

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Byron did Penrose the honour of quoting two lines from the second stanza of this same poem in his Second Letter to John Murray, Esq., on the Rev. W. L. Bowles' Strictures on the Life and Works of Pope,' dated 25 March, 1821, first published in 1835. See Lord Byron's 'Letters and Journals, ed. R. E. Prothero, vol. v. p. 578. EDWARD BENSLY.

Bad Wildungen.


WE must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that answers may be sent to them direct.



MISTAKE. Mr. Collins in his letter (chap. xiii.) states that the 18th of November is Monday. When in the next year Mr. Gardiner writes (chap. xlix.) a letter, he dates it "Monday, August 2." If, however, we compute from Monday, 18 November, we find that 2 August of the next year falls on a Saturday. After chap. xlix. the assumption that 2 August is a Monday is continued, and the events are arranged accordingly. How are we to account for this discrepancy, which is surprising, as Jane Austen takes all through the novel particular care of the dates ? T. G. ARAVAMUTHAN.



'VERTIMMUS.'-Will any reader kindly give me more particulars about a play named Vertimmus, of which all I know is that it was acted by the students of St. John's when James I. visited Oxford? I shall also be thankful to be referred to books from which I may gather more information.



SIR JOHN IVORY.—I should be grateful for any biographical details of this gentleman, who was, I believe, knighted in 1682. He married in the April of that year Anne, eldest daughter of Sir. John Talbot of Lacock Abbey, co. Wilts, and it was from their son, John Ivory, who subsequently took the name of Talbot, that the future possessors of that property were descended. I believe, but am not sure, that Sir John Ivory's father was named William, and his mother Anne. The family property was situated

at New Ross, co. Wexford.


BUDDHA IN CHRISTIAN ART.-On a holy. water vat or bowl of bronze, preserved at Holland House, bearing an inscription that shows that it was cast in 1484 by one Michele Caselli, is a small figure of Buddha in his usual attitude surmounted by a righthanded svastica, the symbol of life and light. On another part of the bowl is a figure of the Virgin and Child, and between them the beginning of the verse in the Miserere Asperges me," which shows that the bowl was, from the first, intended for Christian religious use.


Do any of your readers know of a similar representation of Buddha in Christian art? A great authority on Indian archæology has suggested that this particular instance may be accounted for by the close mercantile connexion which existed between Florence,

whence this bowl was brought by Lord Holland, and the East, and the fact that Buddha was introduced into the calendar of saint under the name of St. Joasaphat.

J. TAVENOR-PERRY. 5, Burlington Gardens, Chiswick.



'THE DIABOLIAD,' BY WILLIAM COMBE. (See 10 S. ix. 227; xi. 458; xii. 14.)—Part II. of The Diaboliad was published by J. Bew, 28, Paternoster Row, in April, 1778. Like The Diabolady, it was dedicated to the Worst Woman in His Majesty's dominions.22 It is noticed in Gent. Mag., xlviii. 178. Nine ladies are satirized in its pages. On p. 19 Gertrude, Duchess of Bedford, is indicated; on p. 25 Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston; on p. 38 Caroline, Countess of Harrington. On p. 34 Anne Luttrell, Duchess of Cumberland, may be hinted at. Can any correspondent of N. & Q.' fill in the blanks ?


WENDELL HOLMES AND 'N. & Q.'—I do not know if the following allusion has yet been traced in 'N. & Q.' In 'The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table,' section 12, Holmes, speaking of personal incidents and memorials which strike the imagination, writes:


"You remember the monument in Devizes Market to the woman struck dead, with a lie in her mouth. I never saw that, but it is in the books. Here is and Query' tribe can tell the story, I hope they one I never heard mentioned; if any of the 'Note will. Where is this monument? I was riding on an English stage-coach when we passed a handsome marble column (as I remember it) of considerable size and pretensions.-What is that? I said.— That,-answered the coachman,-is the hangman's pillar. Then he told me how a man went out one night, many years ago, to steal sheep. He caught one, tied its legs together, passed the rope over his

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