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and I still anxiously await information as to whether earlier, or even as early, examples exist elsewhere. The first correspondent to reply claimed familiarity with all the churchyards in the Potteries, yet had never seen any earthenware memorial sufficiently large to be described as a tombstone or headstone. Moreover, no correspondent definitely cites early examples of any type.

On the other hand, Church, in his work on English Earthenware,' states that earthenware headstones exist in several churchyards in the Potteries (Burslem and Wolstanton being mentioned) bearing inscriptions dated from 1718 to 1767-an odd one being as late as 1828. As Church's Handbook was published but a quarter of a century ago (in 1884, to be exact), it is inconceivable that none of them survives to-day. A. STAPLETON. 39, Burford Road, Nottingham.

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A monument to Edward Wortley Montagu, made of Coade's Lithodipyra, is in the west walk of the Cloisters of Westminster Abbey. A. H. S.

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"LITERARY GOSSIP " (11 S. i. 208, 333). MR. WALTER SCOTT's contention that this description of newspaper article existed in substance, if not in name, I well back into the eighteenth century might, I think easily be made to read "to the beginning of the eighteenth century." Speaking of Cave's founding of The Gentleman's Magazine in 1730-1, the 'D.N.B.' says:

"The periodical was to comprise varieties of all kinds......Some of the early numbers were said to be printed by Edward Cave, jun.,' an imaginary nephew, others printed for R. Newton, and, sometimes, he falsely described himself as 'Sylvanus Urban, of Aldermanbury, Gent.' His magazine was a vast improvement upon the gossiping and abusive papers of the time." N. W. HILL.

New York.

The term "Literary Gossip " is surely sufficiently elastic to include 'The State of Learning, a page of announcements and personal paragraphs contained in 'The History of the Works of the Learned or an Impartial Account of Books Lately Printed in all Parts of Europe. With a particular relation of the State of Learning in each country. The volume before me contains the twelve monthly parts of 1700, but it was first published January, 1699. Are not the following extracts "literary gossip " ?"The Abbot Fontanini, Library keeper to the Imperial Cardinal, is upon finishing his History of Aquileia,' which will contain a collection of

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There was also a literary flavour about these accompanying pieces of theatrical gossip :

The

"We hear that the Theatre in the Hay-Market where lately the French Strolers us'd to perform, will be opened in a little time. for the Diversion Actors, as well as the Plays, they say, will be of the City and Liberty of Westminster. entirely new, and the whole to be under the Management and Direction of that noted Proprietor, Aaron Hill, Esq.

"The Company at Drury-Lane have reviv'd four plays this Season, and design to raise up the incomparable Tragedy of Phædra and Hippolytus."

ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

STRETTELL-UTTERSON (11 S. i. 448, 477).— From a list of auction-sale catalogues ranging from 1637 to 1841 it appears that three important book-sales took place in London in 1832. Two of these were conducted by Sotheby & Son, and the third by Evans. The library disposed of by Evans was that of the Rev. Dr. Valpy, a distinguished educationist, and head master for many years of Reading Grammar School. The sale continued, or was advertised to continue, for ten days. Dr. Valpy's library was sold in his lifetime. Having retired from the mastership of Reading School owing to age and infirmity, he went to reside with a son in London, and in consequence of this change got rid of his library. Does this catalogue render any assistance to MR. CLEMENTS? It does not quite tally with the one he mentions, but comes pretty near it. Dr. Valpy, it should be stated, was a great admirer of Shakespeare. On the other hand, it must be remembered that E. V. Utterson possessed a First Folio ShakeW. SCOTT.

speare.

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GEORGE COLMAN'S MAN OF THE PEOPLE,' ABERDEEN, 1782 (11 S. i. 467).—In vol. ii. of Public Characters,' published in 1801, 27 pages are devoted to the early life and writings of George Colman the younger, who was then living. No reference is made to the poem on Fox mentioned in Random Records,' quoted by MR. P. J. ANDERSON; but mention is made of young Colman's writing some doggerel verses in an album, in a post-house at Lawrencekirk. The lines, 20 in number, are given, but some of them would now be hardly considered fit for publication. They commence :— I once was a student at Old Aberdeen ; Little knowledge I got, but a great deal of spleen. These album lines are said to have been Colman's first attempt; and as in 'Random Records he says he wrote the poem on Fox immediately after returning from Lawrencekirk, that must have been his second attempt. JOHN BAVINGTON JONES.

Dover.

"HOWDE MEN": ROBIN HOOD'S MEN (11 S. i. 346, 493).—It may not be entirely uninteresting to add to MR. A. RHODES'S reply that in the churchwardens' accounts of Stratton, Cornwall, there is mention made of persons who went by the name of "Robyn hode and his men." In 1536 the church received of "John Marys and his company that playd Robin Hoode 17. 188. 4d.," and

in 1538 the still larger sum of 31. Os. 10d. These were munificent gifts for ecclesiastical purposes in those days. They probably indicate that the players and those who hearkened to them were adherents of the ancient faith with no ideas of change, but they could not be in any sense a guild attached to the church. Robin Hood, though a highly popular character, not only in England, but, as we have been informed, in the Lowlands of Scotland also, was by no means a saintly person, and neither he nor his followers were calculated to make a religious impression on their neighbours.

The body of young men referred to were probably light-hearted fellows who devoted themselves, when time was not pressing, to the amusement of their fellow-townspeople. Times were, however, rapidly approaching when the entertainment of others became regarded as something in itself unholy, for we find that so early as 1543 Martha Rose and Margaret Martin paid three shillings for the "wode of Robyn Hode is howse." It is impossible to say whether it had been pulled down by some local authority, or whether the owner had demolished it because the sports he had organized in former years had ceased to give pleasure. N. M. & A.

"BROCHE" (11 S. i. 389, 475).-From a case reported in a Year-Book of 6 Edward II.,. upon which I am at present working, one gathers that a broche was a sword of some kind, and not a lance. It is said of a man accused of murder that he struck his victim on the head "dune espeie qest appelle Broch et lui fist une playe del longur de iiij pouz." Objection is taken that the indictment does not specifically state whether 'le laminal [v.l., in another report, le aumail] feust ou de feer ou dasser," &c. W. C. BOLLAND.

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It was in the mouth of this river that the Golden Hind (in which Drake circumnavigated the earth) was laid up by command of Queen Elizabeth, and on board of this ship her Majesty visited Drake and knighted him. WM. NORMAN.

1373. "Humphry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, dying 16 Jan., 1373, an inquisition taken at his death [Inq. p. m. 46 Edw. III., No. 10, taken at Depford, 6 Feb., 47 Edw. III., 1373] showed that he owned also a plot of ground near the water called Rendesbourne.' Streatfeild and Larking's 'Hundred of Blackheath,' p. 6.

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1570. "There was lately re-edefied a fayre Bridge also, over the Brooke called Ravensbourne, whiche ryseth not farre of in the Heath above Bromley."-Lambarde's 'Perambulation,' 1st Ed., 1576, p. 335.

66 A.D. 1208. Through an inundation of the

Thames, the whole of the lands on the banks of the Ravensbourne were flooded."-Dunkin's' History of Deptford,' p. 207.

In the 1826 edition of Lambarde the same reference is slightly varied :

".... Over the Brooke called Ravensbourne, which riseth not farre off at Hollowoods hill, in the parish of Kestane, and setting on worke some corne milles, and one for the glasing of armour,

slippeth by this towne into the Thamyse, carying continuall matter of a great shelfe with it." CHAS. WM. F. Goss.

Bishopsgate Institute.

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In vol. i. of Court Minutes of the Surrey and Kent Sewer Commission,' recently printed by the London County Council, in whose custody are the official documents of the Commission, the first entry, dated 3 January, 1569, begins: Sessio Sewero pro conservacione murorum mariscorum a Ravensborne in Comitatu Kanciaad ecclesiam de Putney in Comitatu Surreia....” There are other mentions of the stream through the volume, for the publication of which gratitude is due to the County Council.

G. L. APPERSON.

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DOOR-KNOCKER ETIQUETTE (11 S. i. 487). The summary of the etiquette of doorknocking in the Spanish periodical of 1836 does not seem very wide of the mark, according to my recollections of thirty years later than that date. Everybody (in London) had a door-knocker, and there was certainly

Plumstead.

The earliest references to the Ravens- a more or less generally understood code of knocks. I remember that an old lady, bourne I have noted are as under ::who was born at the very beginning of the last century, always said, on engaging a new footman: Let me hear how you knock"; and according to his proficiency in the art

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of rat-tat-tatting, so was he appraised. A sonorous and insistent reverberation on the front door was in those days considered a sign of social importance.

In The Footman's Directory and Butler's Remembrancer; or, The Advice of Onesimus to his Young Friends,' London, printed for the Author, and sold by J. Hatchard & Son, 1823, the following instructions are set forth :—

"In knocking at a gentleman's door, you should not ring the bell, unless you see it written on a brass plate to do so, except it should be at a relation's of the family which you live with, then you always should ring, as well as knock; and also at your own door, as this is a mark of respect, and a hint to the family and servants that some of the family are come home. Knock loud enough to be heard, as some of the halls and kitchens are a great way from the front door." FRANK SCHLOESSER.

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Are given by gentlemen who teach to dance :
By fiddlers, and by opera singers:
One loud, and then a little one behind,
As if the knocker fell by chance

Out of their fingers."

HARRY HEMS.

COMETS AND PRINCES: JULIUS CÆSAR

(11 S. i. 448). The comet which appeared

at the time of Cæsar's death has been

identified. It is believed to have been the same as that seen in the time of Justinian in 531 A.D., again in the reign of Henry II. in 1106, and again in 1680. Its periodic time is supposed to be about 574-5 years. It is not expected to return again till the year 2255. See Milner's Gallery of Nature,' 1848, pp. 112-13. W. S. S. CHEVALIER DE LAURENCE ON HERALDRY (11 S. i. 486). This was undoubtedly the author of The Empire of the Nairs and other works. SeeD.N.B.,' s.v. James Henry Lawrence. C. D.

James Henry Lawrence, Knight of Malta, known as the Chevalier de Laurence, was the eldest son of Richard James Lawrence, of Fairfield, Jamaica. He studied at Eton, but completed his education in Germany. On his way home to England, in 1803, he was detained in France, with many other

British travellers, by order of Bonaparte on the outbreak of hostilities. He wrote several works, and contributed to The Pamphleteer, xxiii. 159, an article entitled 'On the Nobility of the British Gentry; or, The Political Ranks and Dignities of the British Empire, compared with those of the Continent; for the Use of Foreigners in Great Britain, and of Britons abroad." This was published separately, London, Nickisson, 1840, 12mo, 58., and is evidently the "work on heraldry" mentioned by MR. FORREST MORGAN.

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"THE FORTUNE OF WAR 22 (11 S. i. 223, 274). In what is now named York Road, opposite the Maiden Lane Railway Station, is a small inn or public-house called "The Fortune of War." I remember when this portion of York Road used to be called Maiden Lane. Beginning at King's Cross, it crossed Battle Bridge, and passed Maiden Lane Station and "The Fortune of War," Barnsbury Square being more north on the right, and the Roman Road crossing Maiden Lane diagonally.

origin, seems peculiarly appropriate to its The name of this little inn, whatever its tradition considers that Boadicea's great situation; for, as Thornbury says, London battle with Suetonius occurred here (Old and New London,' ii. 276). Battle Bridge would commemorate the British queen's last battle, in which she lost her life; Maiden Lane recording that her two maiden daughters (the immediate cause of the war) were with her in her chariot (as in the new sculpture on Westminster Bridge), and there also perished; while the Roman Road, running west, would be the route by which Suetonius hurried up from Wales to save London.

Pinks mentions that an elephant's skeleton, Roman coins, and a Latin inscription mentioning one of the legions in this battle, have been dug up in Maiden Lane; and Suetonius used elephants against the queen of the Iceni (History of Clerkenwell,' 1880, 17, 358, 500, 502, 571).

As Boadicea's object was to attack Roman London, and she needed water for her troops,

the situation near the stream at King's from which he can learn reading and composition. Cross was exactly suitable for her purpose; this applies to the vigorous adventure of Scott as Good story-books which he will enjoy later-and and in George III.'s reign, when this cross-well as the delicate art of Jane Austen-should way was laid out, it was proposed to call surely not be spoilt by their employment as the it Boadicea. lesson-books of an earlier age.

A writer in N. & Q.' has pointed out that Suetonius encamped on the high ground overlooking London, now called Barnsbury Square, and that the ditch of his square camp may still be seen at the back of at least one side of the square- -a fact which I have verified by personal observation.

Wheatley says that old records refer to this road as Maiden Lane ( London Past and Present,' 1891, ii. 455); and Smyth says that the Maiden Way began on the Roman Road (Archeologia, 1846, xxxi. 280).

This cluster of place-names and corresponding topographical features, all agreeing with the idea that this district was the scene of the last great attempt of Britain to throw off the yoke of Rome, makes the local inn name of The Fortune of War " a very appropriate one.

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Out of what was formerly Maiden Lane proceeds a smaller turning called Forum Street. L. M. R.

Notes on Books, &c.

The Cornish Coast (South) and the Isles of Scilly. By Charles G. Harper. (Chapman & Hall.) MR. HARPER has a long row of books about England to his credit, largely illustrated by himself; he is an indefatigable searcher after legend and architecture. and his latest travels have produced a book which will be of real use to the visitor and tourist.

We cannot say that we can always endorse his ideas of taste and humour, and he indulges in some sweeping condemnations, e.g., of golfers which we do not regard as justified. However, these are matters on which individual opinion doubtless differs, and most people can profit by the author's keenness to see and hear notable things. The book is excellently printed in good type, and the illustrations, though somewhat sketchy, are generally effective.

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Mr. Harper's equipment as a traveller is pretty good, but he makes a gross mistake in Latin on p. 86. "Malo quam does not mean "rather than," and a schoolboy would not need to reach Macaulay's standard to correct the two later lines. They should be concerned with "a wicked man in the ablative case, and also "in adversity."

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Mrs. Boas has reduced the book to "about half

its original size," and added a few notes. The cannot view the result with equanimity, and hopes present reviewer, a great lover of Jane Austen, that the Cambridge Press will cease truncating classics. He very much doubts if Jane Austen's works are suitable for the young at all; in fact, many grown-up persons find them unutterably dull. If this is so, they might be left as they are. If it is not so, the negative needs proof in order to excuse a volume like this.

A

Collection of Eastern Stories and Legends for Narration or Later Reading in Schools. Selected and adapted by Marie L. Shedlock, with a Foreword by Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids, and a Frontispiece by Wolfram Onslow Ford. (Routledge & Sons.)

Miss Shed

THIS lengthy title is rather a mouthful, and we should have been just as well pleased if the 'Foreword' had been omitted, and the frontispiece which figures opposite the title-page also left to speak for itself. The chief point about the stories is not whether they are veracious, but whether they are suitable for telling to children. As Miss Shedlock has already tried them in that way with success, their publication is clearly justified. We have read them with pleasure, and are glad to think that, just as Western art is being revivified by Oriental influences-if all that we read is true-so the tales of the East are being added to our store of legend. Mr. Marmaduke Pickthall and other close students of the East have pointed out the delightful humour of Oriental tale-telling, which wins some of the applause here devoted to the novel. lock's selections, which represent the essence of Buddhism and the earnestness of that creed, have also the charm of humour, and of that power of modern children know, make-believe which perhaps, best through Mr. Kipling's JungleBooks.' Miss Shedlock's 'Notes on the Stories' at the end show their value, and are much to the point. All the stories except the last are told of the Buddha (To Be), or the Bodhisatta, and the first, we learn, has often been told in connexion Thus East and with a story of Hans Andersen's. West meet in a realm in which they have, after all, common. The achievement of the much in simplicity which is needed for effective telling is not easy, as we are often reminded by the Christmas flood of new fairy-tales, and we congratulate Miss Shedlock on her success in an art which has become more difficult since it took on itself the dignity of a science.

WE Confess that we are somewhat tired of anthologies which are produced by competing publishers in reckless profusion. We make an exception, however, of The Time of the Singing of Birds, which Mr. Frowde publishes, and which is the result of the joint labours of M. A. P., M. S., and G. M. F. Without any knowledge of the persons these initials represent, we may congratulate the selectors both on excellent taste

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