of pleasing all ranks and classes of men, from the peer to the peasant, and all orders and degrees of mind, from the philosopher to the man-milliner ' of whom nine make a taylor.' On the arrival of Rob Roy,' as formerly on that of Marmion,' the scholar lays aside his Plato, the statesman suspends his calculations, the young lady deserts her hoop, the critic smiles as he trims his lamp, thanking God for his good fortune, and the weary artisan resigns his sleep for the refreshment of the magic page.

"Periodical publications form a very prominent feature in this transitory literature:-To any one who will compare the Reviews and Magazines of the present day with those of thirty years ago, it must be obvious that there is a much greater diffusion of general talent through them all and more instances of greater individual talent in the present time than at the former period; and at the same time, it must be equally obvious that there is much less literary honesty, much more illiberality and exclusiveness, much more subdivision into petty gangs and factions, much less classicality and very much less philosophy. The stream of knowledge seems spread over a wider superficies, but what it has gained in breadth it has lost in depth. There is more dictionary learning, more scientific smattering, more of that kind of knowledge for show in general society-to produce a brilliant impression on the passing hour of literature, and less, far less, of that solid and laborious research which builds up in the silence of the closet and is the destroyer of perishable fashions of mind, the strong and permanent structure of history and philosophy.

"The two principal periodical publications of the time-the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews are the organs and oracles of the two great political factions, the Whigs and Tories. Their extensive circulation is less ascribable to any marked superiority either of knowledge or talent which they possess over their minor competitors than to the curiosity of the public in general to learn or divine from these semi-official oracles what the said two parties are meditating. The Quarterly Review and The Courier newspaper are conducted on the same principle and partly by the same contributors. These are the hardy veterans of corruption. The British Critic and The Gentleman's Magazine are its awkward squad; The Antijacobin Review and The New Times are its condemned regiment.

"The country gentleman appears to be in the habit of considering reviews as the joint productions of a body of men who meet at a sort of green board where all new literary productions, are laid before them for impartial consideration and the merits of each having been fairly canvassed, some aged and enlightened censor records the opinion of the council and promulgates its definite judgment to the world. The mysterious we' of the invisible assassin converts his poisoned dagger into a host of legitimate broadswords. Nothing, however, can be more removed from the facts. Of the ten or twelve articles which comprise The Edinburgh Review, one is manufactured on the spot, another comes from Aberdeen, another from Herefordshire, another from the coast of Devon, another from bonny Dundee, etc., etc., without any one of the contributors ever knowing the names of his brethren or having any communication with any one but the editor. The

only point of union among them is respect for the magic circle drawn by the compasses of faction and nationality, within which dullness and ignorance is sure of favour, and without which genius and knowledge are equally certain of neglect or persecution. The case is much the same with The Quarterly Review, except that the contributors are more in contact, being all, more or less, kind slaves of the Government, and, for the most part, gentlemen pensioners clustering round a common centre in the terrible shape of their paymaster, Mr. Gifford. This publication contains more talent and less principle than it would be easy to believe coexistent."

A. B. YOUNG, M.A., Ph.D. (To be concluded.)



Through the courtesy of Lord Knollys, the question, which was long disputed, as to the right of British subjects to fly on land the Union Jack, now known as the national flag, was finally settled in the pages of 'N. & Q.' It is therefore of interest to make a permanent record of the official notice just issued respecting the days that have been appointed for the hoisting of the Union Jack on Government buildings, the period being from 8 A.M. till sunset :

Feb. 20.-Birthday of the Princess Royal. March 18.-Birthday of Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll.

March 31.-Birthday of Prince Henry.

April 14.-Birthday of Princess Henry of Battenberg.

April 25.-Birthday of Princess Mary.
May 1.-Birthday of the Duke of Connaught.
May 6.-Anniversary of His Majesty's Accession.
May 25.-Birthday of Princess Christian.
May 26.-Her Majesty's Birthday.
June 3.-His Majesty's Birthday.

June 23.-Birthday of the Duke of Cornwall. July 6.-Anniversary of their Majesties' wedding and birthday of Princess Victoria.

July 12.-Birthday of Prince John.

Nov. 26.-Birthday of the Queen of Norway.
Dec. 1.-Birthday of Queen Alexandra.
Dec. 14.-Birthday of Prince Albert.
Dec. 20.-Birthday of Prince George.

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time from Buckingham Palace (where she is in residence) on Wednesday, the 22nd of June; it is based on a combination of the British and Danish standards, a large cross being a prominent feature.

JOHN COLLINS FRANCIS. [With N. & Q.' for 30 June, 1900, was issued a Supplement containing a coloured illustration of the National Flag, and an article by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. This Supplement has been reprinted, and can be obtained from the office. Various questions connected with the National Flag are discussed at 9 S. v. 414, 440, 457, 478; vi. 17, 31, 351, 451, 519; vii. 193; viii. 67, 173; ix. 485; x. 31, 94, 118; xii. 327, 372, 398, 454, 508; 10 S. ix. 128, 154, 174, 255, 292, 396, 502, 514; x. 72, 130, 193, 331. At 10 S. ix. 502 is printed the letter we received from the Under Secretary of State at the Home Office respecting the use of the National Flag.]


SIR THOMAS COOKE, MAYOR OF LONDON. -The 'D.N.B.' article on this civic worthy is not very satisfactory. He is described Lord Mayor," which is certainly therein as an anachronism. It is also stated in the original issue of the 'D.N.B.' that he “ was elected Alderman of Vintry Ward in 1454," and discharged from his office of Alderman of Broad Street Ward in December, 1468, but reinstated in the following year.' 22 Now his election for Vintry took place on 4 October, 1456 (Journal 6, fo. 107); he was removed to Broad Street in 1458, discharged by command of the king (Edward IV.) 21 November, 1468 (Journal 7, fo. 182), and again elected Alderman (but of Bread Street, not Broad Street) in October, 1470 -not 1469, as "the following year " of the text suggests (Journal 7, fo. 225b). Some of these corrections are made, at my instance, in the new issue of the 'D.N.B.' The writer of the article has missed the fact that Cooke was M.P. for London in the Parliament of 1460; and although he refers to him as a member of the Parliament of 1470, he does not note that he represented the City then, as at the earlier date.

"Sir" John Stockton is a misnomer in the case of the Mayor to whom Cooke acted as Deputy in 1470-71, as he was not knighted until after Edward's victory at Tewkesbury.

I do not know upon what authority Cooke is stated to have been one of the leaders of the Yorkist party in the City. All his later associations were with the Lancastrians. He had married the daughter of Philip Malpas, who was a leading Lancastrian; he was ejected from his Aldermanry by Edward IV., and restored to it during the short interval (1470-71) of Henry VI.'s Restoration, being again turned out on

Edward's return. It is true that, as is pointed out in the D.N.B.,' he was made a K.B. by Edward IV. in May, 1465; but so also at the same time was John Plomer, who was removed from his Aldermanry (and charged with treason, on account of his Lancastrian sympathies) in 1468, a few months before Cooke himself. It is, of course, possible that Cooke may have been a leader first on one side and then on the other; but, if so, I should like to have more certain evidence of his early Yorkist sympathies than the article in the 'D.N.B.' supplies. ALFRED B. BEAVEN. Leamington.

“BULLION.”—The 'N.E.D.' tells us that this word is first recorded in the Statutes of the Realm, A.D. 1336, where it is spelt It is further said that this bullion, as now. form appears to point to identity with F. bouillon," which is derived from F. bouillir (A.F. boillir), to boil.

fact that, in another MS. of the above This solution is as good as settled by the Statutes, the word is actually spelt boillon, the connexion of which with the A.F. boillir cannot easily be missed.



PORTABLE RAILWAY.-I am sorry not to find in the N.E.D.' a reference to the patent granted 5 Feb., 1770, to "Richard Lovell Edgeworth, of Hare Hatch (Berks), Esq. For a new invented Portable Railway, or Artificial Road, to move along with any Carriage to which it is applied." No doubt that sort of thing is re-invented every few years. (See 'Sixth Report of Deputy Keeper,' App. II. 160.) Q. V.

"PEPITA," A PATTERN.-A recent cause pepita célèbre reminds me that 22 is the name of the well-known pattern of small black-and-white squares in Eastern Europe (in heraldry: Chequy sable and argent), and that it was called after a famous dancer of the name of Pepita more than forty or I have heard English schoolfifty years ago. articles are very often made of a fabric of boys call it sponge bags,' as these useful the same pattern.


L. L. K.

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J. R. SMITH: DR. W. SAUNDERS.-The only reference in Mrs. Frankau's 'John Raphael Smith' (1902) to a portrait of Dr. Saunders is Smith's exhibit at the Royal Academy of 1802 (No. 351). There is abundant evidence that Smith published an engraving of this portrait by himself, inasmuch as a notice of it appeared in The Monthly Magazine, July, 1803, where it is

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said to be extremely well engraved." .22 picturings of the old illiterate ages, but a single In Evans's Catalogue (No. 9291) the word in great legible roman capitals, and the word portrait is described as three quarters, PATATRAC [sic] sitting. It is entirely omitted from Mrs. Frankau's Catalogue. When the engraving was published the original picture was in the possession of Dr. Curry, physician to Guy's Hospital.




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WE must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that answers may be sent to them direct.

GEORGE I.'s STATUE AT HACKWOOD.In front of this house is an equestrian figure, in lead, of George I., presented by him to one of the Dukes of Bolton who resided here in the eighteenth century. I think that it must either have been identical with or have closely resembled the one which I remember as a boy in Leicester Square, and which came to such an ignominious end.

I have read somewhere that there was another mounted effigy of the same king, also of lead, and gilded, which stood in

front of Canons in Middlesex.

Readers of N. & Q.' have, I believe, made a study of the question of royal and other statues both in and outside of London. I wonder, therefore, if they could refer me to any sources of information about any of these figures, or could tell me if there is any statue of George I. now surviving beyond the one here.


[Royal and other statues in London are discussed at considerable length at 10 S. ix. 1, 102, 282, 363, 481; x. 122, 211, 258, 290, 370, 491.]

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The day after his arrival," says Hamerton, Garibaldi held a little review and sat in a carriage whilst his regiments marched past......There was unfolded his own personal Garibaldian flag, an invention of his own, a very original invention too, and one not by any means calculated to reassure the lovers of tranquillity. It was all red, to begin with, red as the Sanguinary Revolution, and this is a colour which the lovers of order admire only when it is worn by the Princes of the Church. On the flag were none of the devices of heraldry, no lions, nor eagles, nor any such


And when, at a later period, I heard of the smashing and crashing that was effected on so large a scale by the Communards, of the falling of ruined palaces and streets, of the upsetting of the Vendôme Column, I said This is Garabaldi's Patatrac,' and that word on the banner which flapped in the November wind seemed a word of baleful prophecy, a sinister suggestion of all the evil that was to come."-Third ed., pp. 389-90.

Has any one ever seen that flag, with its queer motto ? Is it mentioned elsewhere? R. DE KERALLAIN. 3, Rue de la Mairie, Quimper, Finistère. WILLIAM PENN'S LETTERS.-With the endorsement and co-operation of the Historical society of Pennsylvania, I hope to arrange for the publication of the complete works of William Penn. I shall therefore be glad to receive information concerning any of Penn's letters in public or private collections. Please reply direct.

ALBERT COOK MYERS. Kentmere Lodge, Moylan, Pennsylvania.

DONNE'S POEMS.-I should be very grateful if any of the readers of N. & Q.' could give me information on the following points.

GARIBALDI AND HIS FLAG.-The late Mr. Philip Gilbert Hamerton, who lived long in France, near Autun, and married a Frenchwoman, wrote in his charming book 'Round In ‘N. & Q.' for 28 May, 1892 (8 S. i. 440), my House' a very strange story about T. R. O'FL., commenting on Grosart's Garibaldi and his flag during the Franco-edition of Donne, says that he has in his German War of 1870.

possession two copies of the First and Second
Anniversary,' 1612. T. R. O'FL. was, I
the T. R. O'Flahertie. whose
library would appear to have been broken
up, as I have met with MSS. which have
come from it. Could any one tell me where
I could now see a copy of this edition of
1612, which is the first edition of the Second
Anniversary? I have examined and col-
lated the 1611 edition of the First Anni-
versary, but I cannot find that of 1612.

ANDRONICUS LASCARIS: MUSIC TO ARIŞTOPHANES.-Is it known who of the Lascaris family had the Christian name Andronicus ? of the fifteenth century, containing various I possess a Greek manuscript, apparently classical poetical works, which, as appears from repeated internal evidence, was written Though the manuscript is late, I wish to by one Alexander for Andronicus Lascaris. find out all I can about its provenance, seeing that it apparently purports (a unique feature) to give the actual music of a portion of one of the choruses of Aristophanes. R. JOHNSON WALKER. Little Holland House, Kensington, W.

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Can any of your readers give me information as to this work? It has run through several editions; the one before me is 1841. It is edited by Miss Jane Porter, who was a novelist, and is mentioned in the 'D.N.B.,' and professes to be a copy of the diary of the above Sir Edward, which was written in the years 1733-49.

Sir Edward was shipwrecked on some unknown islands near the Mosquito Coast of Central America, and discovered there a pirates' hoard.

Can any one inform me whether this narrative is true, or whether it is due to the imagination of Miss Porter or the friend who lent her the alleged diary? Kindly reply direct. H. WILSON HOLMAN. 4, Lloyd's Avenue, E.C. [Sir Edward Seaward is an imaginary character.]

THE CIRCLE OF LODA.-Will any reader of 'N. & Q.' acquainted with Northern mythology kindly volunteer information concerning the Circle of Loda? It was, I believe, a circle of stones used as a place of worship among the Scandinavians. A. B. YOUNG.

DOGE'S HAT.-Can any of your readers tell me the correct word for the hat or cap of office worn by a Doge of Venice, as, for instance, in Giovanni Bellini's Portrait of Leonardo Loredano in his State Robes ' in the National Gallery?

M. W. B.


"THE DUENNA AND LITTLE ISAAC.'I have an oval stipple engraving (8 in. by 7 in.) with this title, engraved by W. P. Carey from a painting by T. Row landson. The duenna" is, I think, Mrs. Billington. Who impersonated "Little Isaac ? Who was the author of this play? ISRAEL SOLOMONS. 118, Sutherland Avenue, W.


HUGUENOT CHURCH AT PROVINS.-A paper was issued this spring, by a Mr. Williamson, in which was described the rise of the Huguenot Church at Provins, Seine et Marne. If any readers know in what periodical it appeared, or anything about it, they will much oblige the undersigned by giving the wished-for information. (Mlle.) A. THIRION.

35, Paulton's Square, S.W.

PRINCE EUGENE OF SAVOY.-With regard to the lists of public statues which have appeared in N. & Q.' of late, what has become of the statue of this famous general, who, in conjunction with Marlborough, gained some of the most decisive and splendid victories in our military history? It was by Kent, and there are two drawings of it in the Crace Collection, British Museum. It stood in Carlton House Gardens.

J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. Wroxton Grange, Folkestone.

COMMONWEALTH GRANTS OF ARMS.-The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries for the 1st of April, 1897, contains grants of arms to William Rowe, 1651, John Cooke, 1653, and Thomas Moore, 1654. I have been

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STONES IN EARLY VILLAGE LIFE.-What part did large stones play in early village life? They must have had some significance, to judge by the care that was taken of them and the fact that they entered into the construction of place-names. Here in Eastern Hertfordshire, for example, we have three places which derive part of their titles from still existing stones-Standon (or Stondon, as it was originally called), Walton-at-Stone, and Stonebury, the last now only a farm-house. There are two other stans, Stanstead and Stanborough, but there appear to be no stones visible in connexion with them.

The subject has perhaps been dealt with before; if so, references will be valued. W. B. GERISH.

PRIOR'S SALFORD CHURCH: CLARKE MONUMENTS.-In 1874 the Rev. Thos. Procter Wadley, Rector of Naunton Beauchamp, co. Worcester, prepared a paper, under the name of " Vestigans," upon the above. I possess a copy, privately printed in recent years, but wish to know if the paper ever appeared in the proceedings of any local society. R. S. B.

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Bell, of Worcester, 1540.
Wakeman, of Gloucester, 1541.
Hoper, of Gloucester, 1550.
Brooks, of Gloucester, 1554.
Cheyney, of Gloucester, 1562.
Bullingham, of Gloucester, 1581.
Goldsborough, of Gloucester, 1598.
Ravis, of Gloucester, 1604.

Highbury, Lydney.

CHAPEL LE FRITH. Could any of your correspondents give me trustworthy_information as to the meaning of "le Frith " in the place-name Chapel le Frith? I have been told that the name means Chapel in the Wood," but my informant could not explain how this meaning was arrived at.


Bishop's Stortford.

[Stones are, of course, widely connected with Here in Devon we are familiar with the word pre-Christian religion and astronomy.] vraith, and in Somerset they have vreath, which is usually applied to the brushwood cut for firing. Is it possible that frith may be the harder northern pronunciation of the same word? OSWALD J. REICHEL. Alaronde, Lympstone. ["Le" is probably "near," as explained earlier in N. & Q.']


HEWORTH: ITS ETYMOLOGY.-Can any of your readers kindly say what was the origin of the name Heworth, a suburb of York? It is styled "Heuuarde" in Domesday Book: Orm had land there. SADI.

EDW. HATTON.-Who and what was he? There is a portrait of him engraved by W. Sherwin. XYLOGRAPHER.

SIR ISAAC'S WALK.-In the business part of Colchester there is a thoroughfare known as Sir Isaac's Walk. Who was the local celebrity whose name is thus celebrated? M. L. R. BRESLAR.

EPISCOPAL VISITATIONS: ARTICLES OF INQUIRY.-Can any correspondent refer me to publications containing articles of the following bishops ?

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M. DE CALONNE'S HOUSE IN PICCADILLY.— In that excellent work 'Round About Piccadilly and Pall Mall' Mr. H. B. Wheatley at p. 37 identifies Nos. 146 and 147 as covering the site of the handsome building erected by Charles Alexandre de Calonne when he fled to this country in 1787. It may be of interest to note that the contents of the mansion were sold 13 May, 1793, and eleven following days by Skinner & Dyke, on the premises, "the extremity of Piccadilly." The pictures were not included in this cata

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