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But the malady is not yet at its height. The unhappy Christian, now in a declining course, has, perhaps, many checks of conscience, many warnings and manifestations of divine mercy. Perhaps some event in the course of providence rouses him. Some awakening sermon startles him in his lethargy. Some open disgrace occurring in the church to a fellow Christian not more culpable than himself, infuses terror into his soul. He repents. He seeks to return to God. He seems to walk with the Saviour for a time in deep contrition and watchfulness. After a while, however, his old sins, like a wound im perfectly healed, break open afresh. He relapses into some known iniquity. These declensions and revivings recur again and again, like the periodical intermission and return of a fever. But by each relapse his state of mind becomes worse; till at length, in some season of outward calamity perhaps, his soul is overcome by dejection. He knows too much of true religion to be happy without it; yet acts too inconsistently to enjoy its pleasures. Conscience and inclination are at variance. He maintains fair appearances before his friends, and is as active perhaps as others in public concerns; but a worm secretly gnaws, as it were, his vitals, and a fixed inelancholy pervades his mind.' pp. 362–365.

The Preacher does not forget to adduce other causes of religious dejection, which do not necessarily presuppose any aliowed criminality; bodily distemper, superstition, a misapprehension of the doctrine of remission of sins, long continued affliction, the temptation of Satan, and lastly, that awful trial which extorted from the Son of God, the language of agony, Desertion, or the Hiding of God's countenance.

Our last extract shall be taken from the twentieth Sermon, in which Mr. Wilson addresses himself more particularly to the intelligent and confirmed believer. We make no complaint that this is not the case with regard to the general tenor of his volume, because he is himself best aware of his own design, and of the hands into which his volume is most likely to fall. He may think, too, that for persons established in their faith, there are ample tomes of deep divinity," strong meat" which "belongs to them who are of full age.' Yet, perhaps, we may be allowed to express, with unfeigned deference and esteem, the feeling which almost in spite of ourselves, has been excited by the perusal of these sermons, in reference to their general character, that they abound somewhat too much in the discouraging nakedness of precept; that there is in them more of the severe wisdom of truth, than of the alluring invitations of mercy; more of the fearful warning, than of the melting persuasion; more of the holy austerity of James, than of the benignant mildness of him who leaned on Jesus. But if it be so, and we trust that it will not be thought invidious to point out the seeming deficiency, it is the only one of which we have to speak, and we know not if it deserves to be termed a deficiency. To VOL. XI. N. S..

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every man is given his gift, "by the same Spirit." He who alone knows the hearts of men, chooses his instruments, and attempers them for the different work to which they are destined in the promotion of one sovereign purpose. There is one criterion of a minister's success, which, while it sets aside all à priori judgement of the tendency of his labours, forms the only test of their complete efficiency. That test is their usefulness; a usefulness not to be estimated by popularity, but the intimations of which cannot fail to be conveyed in secret to the faithful pastor, as the assurances which he longs to hear, that God hath made manifest the savour of His knowledge" by his ministry. Such intimations have, we are well persuaded, amply awaited on the Author of these Discourses, and therefore in the remarks we have been led to make, we do not consider ourselves as prescribing directions to Mr. Wilson our only purpose is to hint to those who will be disposed, from respect and affection, to look up to him as a model, the necessity of combining, if possible, the utmost fidelity of exhortation and reproof, with the most conciliatory unembarassed exhibition of the free mercy offered in the Gospel.

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The Sermon from which the following paragraph is taken, is founded on Philippians i, 19. "For I know that this shall "turn to my salvation, through your prayer, and the supply of "the spirit of Jesus Christ."

The expression, a SUPPLY of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, may seem to intimate that on every new occasion of difficulty, an additional communication of assistance is needful, in order to render that difficulty subservient to our final benefit. Our resources must correspond, through the mercy of God, with our necessities, or every thing will decline. Former supplies will not avail us on new emergencies. Our faith soon fails, and our knowledge, our prudence, our fortitude, our resignation, our love, all quickly vanish, when fresh and unlooked-for trials arise. We then often find it impossible to apply our former experience and observation to the instant pressure. It is only by the further supply of continual strength from the Spirit of Christ, that we can maintain the conflict; and such a supply when vouchsafed, like the cooling stream to the exhausted traveller, refreshes and cheers and invigorates the soul. It secretly feeds the languid flame which seemed almost extinguished. Like the dew of Hermon that descended on the Mount of Zion, or like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even unto Aaron's beard, and went down to the skirts of his clothing, it infuses life into the fainting spirit, rouses the drooping heart, and sustains it in the severest combat.

The word which, in the text, is rendered supply, is considered by a great critic (Dr. Isaac Barrow,) as signifying much more than an ordinary measure of assistance; as expressing the idea of alarge supply, a provision of whatever is wanting to the Christian soldier, a collation of auxiliary force, a renewed subsidy of grace, an unusual succour

derived from the invincible and infallible Spirit of God, a power from on high, a heavenly might, which comes in at the very crisis of affairs. For when the battle has long raged and appears almost lost, when the contest is at the very height, when faith begins to fail, the arm to sink, and the soul to tremble, then the superadded grace of the Spirit of Christ opportunely bestowed, turns the hitherto doubtful day. The warrior is renewed for the fight; the battle is carried; the victory is won.

It is thus that by the aid of mutual prayer and the efficient operation of the Spirit of Christ, the Christian derives profit from affliction, joy from tribulations, hope from trouble, and life from death. It is thus that the control of our gracious Father over events which are without us, combined with the holy operations of his blessed Spirit within us, carry us forward on our journey through this world to heaven. Providence thus concurs with grace; the external circumstance with the inward disposition: the man is fitted for the burden, and the strength for the exigency. What would ruin the soul, if left to its own weakness, tends to its salvation under the control of almighty power. What would otherwise overthrow our faith, now confirms it; what would separate us from God, unites us to him. Events acquire a new character, and turn to a new end. Mutual prayer is the medium of connexion between afflictions and the supply of the Holy Ghost by which they are sanctified; it binds us to God and each other; it is an instrument of obtaining all our mercies, and a channel for conveying to us every grace.' pp. 511–514.

Art. IV. Notes on a Visit made to some of the Prisons in Scotland and the North of England, in Company with Elizabeth Fry; with some general Observations on the Subject of Prison Discipline. By Joseph John Gurney. 12mo. pp. 170. Price 3s. 6d. London.

1819.

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HE details contained in Mr. Buxton's Inquiry, went to establish this important proposition, that by those jails on 'the one hand which are conducted on bad principles, crime and misery are produced and multiplied: and on the other hand, that prisons in which the prisoners are classified, inspected, instructed, and employed, have a powerful tendency to that by which crime and misery will certainly be lessened, 'viz. the reformation of Criminals. To strengthen and con'firm this proposition by a variety of additional facts, is,' says Mr. Gurney, the chief object of the present work.'

We shall lay before our readers, without comment, a few extracts from the Notes, which will prepare them for feeling the full force of Mr. Gurney's observations. The volume

itself will, we trust, before long, have obtained the perusal of the larger portion of our readers.

The jails of Scotland are devoted to the incarceration of three classes of prisoners-felons, debtors, and lunatics. This last circumstance forms a dreadful peculiarity in the sufferings

of which year after year these miserable abodes are the silent

scene.

The OLD JAIL at Perth, which we inspected on the same day, is built over a gateway in the middle of the town. Although this dark and wretched building had been for some time disused as a prison, it was not at the period of our visit without its unhappy inhabitants. We found in it two lunatics in a most melancholy condition; both of them in solitary confinement:-their apartments were dirty and gloomy; and a small dark closet connected with each of the rooms. was fitted up with a bed of straw. In these closets, which are far more like the dens of wild animals than the habitations of mankind, the poor men were lying with very little clothing upon them. They appeared in a state of fatuity, the almost inevitable consequence of the treatment to which they were exposed. No one resided in the house to superintend these afflicted persons, some man living in the town having been appointed to feed them at certain hours of the day. They were in fact treated exactly as if they had been beasts, A few days after our visit, one of these poor creatures was found dead in his bed. I suppose it to be in consequence of this event, that the other, though not recovered from his malady, again walks the streets of Perth without control. It is much to be regretted that no medium could be found between so cruel an incarceration, and total want of care.' pp. 39, 40.

Haddington county jail was visited by Mr. Garney in August last. He found it, in consequence of a riot which had taken place in the neighbourhood, wretchedly crowded with prisoners.

That part of the prison which is allotted to criminals and vagrants consists of four cells on the ground floor, measuring respectively thirteen feet by eight, and one on the second story, measuring eleven feet by seven. It is difficult to conceive any thing more entirely miserable than these cells. Very dark-excessively dirty-clay floors -no fire-places-straw in one corner for a bed, with perhaps a single rug- a tub in each of them, the receptacle of all filth. In one of the cells we observed three men who had been engaged in the riot; in another, a woman (the wife of one of them) and two boys; in a third, two more men and a woman (the wife of one of them.) We understood that one of these women was a prisoner, the other a visitor; but have since been informed by the jailer that they were both visitors.

None of the prisoners were ironed, except one man who had attempted to break prison. This unfortunate person was fastened to a long iron bar. His legs, being passed through rings attached to the bar, were kept about two feet asunder, which distance might be increased to three jeet and a half at the pleasure of the jailer. This cruel and shameful mode of confinement, which prevented the man from undressing, or from resting with any comfort to himself during the night, and which, by the constant separation of the legs, amounted to positive torture, had been continued for several days. We earnestly entreated for his deliverance, but apparently without effect.

Another scene of still greater barbarity was in reserve for us. In the fourth cell-a cell as miserable as the rest-was a young man in a state of lunacy. No one knew who he was or whence he came; but having had the misfortune to frequent the premises of some gentleman in the neighbourhood, and to injure his garden seats, and being considered mischievous, he was consigned to this abominable dungeon, where he had been at the date of our visit, in unvaried solitary confinement, for eighteen months. W. Horne, Esq. the sheriff of the county, has kindly engaged to ameliorate, as far as lies in his power, the situation of this most afflicted individual. It is most obvious that his present place of confinement is in every respect improper.

No clothing is allowed in this prison; no medical man attends it; no chaplain visits it. Its miserable inmates never leave their cells, for there is no change of rooms and no airing-ground; nor can they be under any one's constant and immediate care, for the jailer lives away from the prison. They can however keep up an almost unchecked communication with the people of the town, as the small grated windows of their cells all of them look upon the streets. We observed a lad on the outside of the prison, seated on a ledge of the wall, in close conversation with the three men who had been committed for rioting. The prisoners were at this time allowed nothing but water and four pennyworth of bread daily. I have since learned from the jailer, that this was a short allowance by way of punishment for refractory conduct, and that they usually have eight pence a day. Those who were in the jail when we visited it, appeared in a remarkably careless and insensible state of mind. This we could not but attribute partly to the hardships and neglect which they here experience.

I have yet to describe the most objectionable point of this terrible prison, namely, its accommodations for those debtors who are not burgesses. There were at this time three men of this description in the prison: shortly before there had been five; and at one time, seven. These unhappy persons, innocent as they are of any punishable offence, be they many or be they few, be they healthy or be they sick, are confined day and night, without any change or intermission whatsoever, in a closet containing one small bed, and measuring not quite nine feet square.

As we passed through Haddingtonshire, we were struck with the richness and fertility of the country, and with the uncommon abun. dance of the crops which it produces. It is considered one of the wealthiest counties in Scotland. Surely, then, we may indulge the pleasing expectation, that the inhabitants of this county, and especially its very liberal magistrates, will no longer suffer it to continue without such a prison as will tend to the reformation of offenders; such a one at any rate, as will not, like their present jail, violate the common principles of justice and humanity.' pp. 18-22.

In consequence of Mr. Gurney's visit, the cells have been cleansed of their filth, and the poor lunatic is now lodged ' in a better apartment up stairs, is well fed and clothed, and

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